This article relies largely or entirely on a single source. (March 2019)
|Ab urbe condita||2290|
|Balinese saka calendar||1458–1459|
|English Regnal year||28 Hen. 8 – 29 Hen. 8|
|Chinese calendar||丙申年 (Fire Monkey)|
4233 or 4173
— to —
丁酉年 (Fire Rooster)
4234 or 4174
|- Vikram Samvat||1593–1594|
|- Shaka Samvat||1458–1459|
|- Kali Yuga||4637–4638|
|Japanese calendar||Tenbun 6|
|Minguo calendar||375 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2079–2080|
1663 or 1282 or 510
— to —
1664 or 1283 or 511
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1537.|
- January – Bigod's Rebellion, an uprising by Roman Catholics against Henry VIII of England, is crushed.
- January 6 – Alessandro de' Medici, Duke of Florence, is assassinated.
- March – Diego de Almagro successfully charges Manco Inca's siege of Cuzco, thereby saving his antagonists, the Pizarro brothers.
- March 12 – Recife is founded by the Portuguese, in Brazil.
- April 1 – The Archbishop of Norway Olav Engelbrektsson flees from Trondheim to Lier, Belgium.
- April 20 – Spanish conquest of the Muisca: Bacatá, the main settlement of the Muisca Confederation, is conquered by Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada, effectively ending the Confederation in the Colombian Eastern Andes.
- June 2 – Pope Paul III publishes the encyclical Sublimis Deus, which declares the natives of the New World to be rational beings with souls, who must not be enslaved or robbed.
- June 23 – Siege of Hamar ends with the arrest of Bishop Mogens Lauritssøn, and the Catholic rebellion is definitively ended in Norway.
- August 15 – Asunción is founded by Juan de Salazar de Espinosa.
- August 25 – The Honourable Artillery Company, the oldest surviving regiment in the British Army, and the second most senior, is formed.
- August-September – The Ottomans fail to capture Corfu.
- Manco Cápac establishes the independent Neo-Inca State, at Vilcabamba, Peru.
- The Spaniards bring the potato to Europe.
- Kiritimati (Acea or "Christmas Island") is discovered by the Spanish expedition of Hernando de Grijalva.
- The islands of Paros and Ios are conquered by the Ottoman Empire.
- Bangalore is first mentioned.
- Dissolution of the Monasteries: Religious buildings are dissolved by Henry VIII of England, including
- Publication of complete Bible translations into English, both based on Tyndale's:
- January 1 – Jan Krzysztof Tarnowski, Polish noble (d. 1567)
- January 16 – Albrecht VII, Count of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt (d. 1605)
- January 21 – Antonio Maria Salviati, Italian Catholic cardinal (d. 1602)
- February 26 – Christopher II, Margrave of Baden-Rodemachern (d. 1575)
- March 4 – Longqing Emperor, Emperor of China (d. 1572)
- May 18 – Guido Luca Ferrero, Italian Catholic cardinal (d. 1585)
- May 20 – Hieronymus Fabricius, Italian anatomist (d. 1619)
- May 27 – Louis IV, Landgrave of Hesse-Marburg, son of Landgrave Philip I (d. 1604)
- May 28 or May 31 – Shah Ismail II of Persia (d. 1577)
- June 3 – João Manuel, Prince of Portugal, Portuguese prince (d. 1554)
- July 20 – Arnaud d'Ossat, French diplomat and writer (d. 1604)
- July 29 – Pedro Téllez-Girón, 1st Duke of Osuna, Spanish duke (d. 1590)
- July 30 – Christopher, Duke of Mecklenburg and administrator of Ratzeburg (d. 1592)
- August 9 – Francesco Barozzi, Italian mathematician (d. 1604)
- August 15 – Shimazu Toshihisa, Japanese samurai (d. 1592)
- October 12 – King Edward VI of England (d. 1553)
- December 5 – Ashikaga Yoshiaki, Japanese shōgun (d. 1597)
- December 20 – King John III of Sweden (d. 1592)
- December 24 – Willem IV van den Bergh, Stadtholder of Guelders and Zutphen (d. 1586)
- December 26 – Albert, Count of Nassau-Weilburg (d. 1593)
- date unknown
- January 6
- January 12 – Lorenzo di Credi, Florentine painter and sculptor (b. 1459)
- February 2 – Johann Carion, German astrologer and chronicler (b. 1499)
- February 3 – Thomas FitzGerald, 10th Earl of Kildare (executed) (b. 1513)
- February 8
- January 11 – John, Hereditary Prince of Saxony, German prince (b. 1498)
- March 25 – Charles, Duke of Vendôme, French noble (b. 1489)
- March 28 – Francesco of Saluzzo, Marquess of Saluzzo (b. 1498)
- May 10 – Andrzej Krzycki, Polish archbishop (b. 1482)
- May 24 – Sophie of Brandenburg-Ansbach-Kulmbach, German princess (b. 1485)
- June 2 – Francis Bigod, British noble (b. 1507)
- June 23 – Pedro de Mendoza, Spanish conquistador (b. 1487)
- June 29 – Henry Percy, 6th Earl of Northumberland (b. 1502)
- July 7 – Madeleine of Valois, queen of James V of Scotland (b. 1520)
- July 12 – Robert Aske (executed) (b. 1500)
- September 4 – Johann Dietenberger, German theologian (b. c. 1475)
- September 7 – Nikolaus von Schönberg, German Catholic cardinal (b. 1472)
- September 20 – Pavle Bakić, last Serb Despot and medieval Serb monarch
- October 24 – Jane Seymour, Third Queen of Henry VIII of England (complications of childbirth) (b. c. 1508)
- December 11 – Andrey of Staritsa, son of Ivan III of Russia the Great (b. 1490)
- date unknown – John Kite, Archbishop of Armagh and Bishop of Carlisle
- probable – Thomas Murner, German satirist (b. 1475)