Naresuan (Thai: นเรศวร) or Sanphet II (Thai: สรรเพชญ์ที่ 2) was the King of the Ayutthaya Kingdom from 1590 and overlord of Lan Na from 1602 until his death in 1605. Naresuan is one of Thailand's most revered monarchs as he is known for his campaigns to free Ayutthaya from the vassalage of the Taungoo Empire. During his reign, numerous wars were fought against Taungoo Burma. Naresuan also welcomed the Dutch.:242
|Naresuan the Great
|King of Ayutthaya|
|King of Siam|
|Reign||1 July 1590 – 25 April 1605|
Chan Palace, Phitsanulok, Sukhothai Kingdom
25 April 1605 (aged 49)|
Monday, 8th waxing of Sixth Siamese month (Vaisakha) 967 CS
|Spouse||Chao Khrua Manichan|
Prince Naret was born in Phitsanulok in 1555/56.[note 1] He was the son of King Mahathammarachathirat of Phitsanulok and his queen consort, Wisutkasat. His mother was a daughter of Maha Chakkraphat and queen consort Suriyothai. His father was a Sukhothai noble who had defeated Worawongsathirat in 1548 and put Maha Chakkraphat on the throne. Prince Naret, also known as the "Black Prince" (Thai: พระองค์ดำ), had a younger brother Ekathotsarot, known as the "White Prince", and an elder sister, Suphankanlaya.:67
In the second siege of Ayutthaya (1563–64), King Bayinnaung of the Taungoo Dynasty of Bago, Burma (formerly known in Burmese as Hanthawaddy (Burmese: ဟံသာဝတီ and in Thai as RTGS: Hongsawadi หงสาวดี) led massive armies, invading the country and laying siege to Phitsanulok. Maha Thammarachathirat came to believe that the city would not be able to withstand a long siege due to a scarcity of food and a smallpox outbreak, so he surrendered the city. King Bayinnaung took Phitsanulok and Ayutthaya, and made Siam a Burmese tributary state. He required Maha Thammarachathirat to send his son—the Black Prince—to Bago as a hostage to ensure the king's fidelity.:36,67
In 1569, Bayinnaung put down the Siamese rebellion that had begun a year earlier, and installed Maha Thammarachathirat as a vassal king of Ayutthaya. After six years in Pegu, c. 1570, Prince Naret and his brother the White Prince returned to Ayutthaya.:63,67,75 While in Burma, "he followed the best of Burmese military training," studying alongside the "elite of Burmese youth, sons of princes and nobles." "Besides being gifted in military prowess, Naresuan who was highly intelligent, gained a great deal of general knowledge of the times.":43
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|Modern Siam / Thailand|
Naresuan joined his father and the King of Bago in an expedition to conquer Vientiane, the capital of the restored Lan Xang, but he contracted smallpox and had to return. He built Chankasem Palace in Ayutthaya as a residence when he visited his parents.:77
In 1581, Bayinnaung died, and was succeeded by his son Nanda Bayin. Nanda's uncle Viceroy Thado Minsaw of Ava then rebelled in 1583, forcing Nanda Bayin to call upon the viceroys of Prome, Taungoo, Chiang Mai, Vientiane, and Ayutthaya for assistance in suppressing the rebellion. On 2 February 1584, Naresuan left with his troops to Bago as ordered, and arrived at the border only in April.[note 3] According to Damrong, this raised Nanda's suspicions, who ordered his son, the Maha Uparaja Mingyi Swa, to remain in the capital and kill Naresuan.:79, 83–84 The Burmese chronicles say that Nanda made the decision to have Mingyi Swa guard Pegu prior to his march to Ava on 25 March 1584.[note 4]
According to Damrong, Naresuan reached Kraeng the border town, where he learned that Phraya Ram and Phraya Kiet had been sent by the Maha Uparat to attack Naresuan from the rear while Maha Uparat attacked from the front. Naresuan called a council, which included priests, Phraya Kiat, Phraya Ram, and other Mons. Naresuan then "poured water on the earth from a gold goblet to proclaim to the devatas in the presence of the persons assembled, that from that day forth Siam had severed friendship with Hongsawadi and was no longer in amity as of yore.":85–86
According to Damrong, Naresuan then levied the Mons to join his campaign and marched onto Bago, intending to free the Siamese families held captive there. However, Nanda Bayin had already defeated the viceroy of Inwa and was returning to his capital. Naresuan then retreated after freeing about 10,000 families. Mingyi Swa pursued with Surakamma in the advance element. The Burmese caught up with the Siamese at the Satong River. There Surakamma was killed by "the royal gun used by Somdet Phra Naresuan while crossing the Satong river". This sent the Maha Uparat's troops into a panicked retreat, prompting him to return to the capital.:87–88
Naresuan then held the "ceremony of swearing allegiance" with the people of Sukhothai, drinking water from the sacred pond of Puay Si. His forces then took Sawankhalok. In 1584 Naresuan brought down all of the men from the northern provinces to the Siamese capital of Ayutthaya in preparation for the attack of the Bago army.:92–93
In the same year Nanda Bayin sent two separate armies, one under his uncle the viceroy of Pathein, and another from Chiang Mai under his younger brother Noratra Mangsosri. Both were defeated in separate engagements before they could unite, and were driven back in retreat.:94–98 Then in 1586,[note 5] Naresuan defeated the Viceroy of Chiang Mai near Pa Mok and Bang Kaeo, capturing his encampment at Ban Saket with 10,000 soldiers, 120 elephants, 100 horses, 400 boats plus arms, ammunition, and provisions.:99–107
In October 1586,[note 6] Nanda Bayin himself led the Burmese armies to Ayutthaya and begin the third invasion of Ayutthaya. Nanda Bayin armies laid siege to the city for five months, but failed to take the city due to an aggressive defense by Naresuan. He retreated.:108–115
In 1590, Maha Thammarachathirat died. In July 1590,[note 7] Naresuan was crowned King of Ayutthaya as Sanphet II.
The Burmese army led by Phra Maha Uparat attacked Siam again, but Naresuan defeated it near Ban Khoi. The Burmese army retreated back to Bago, losing many men, elephants, horses, arms, and ammunition.:116–119
Reign as King of AyutthayaEdit
The elephant battleEdit
King Naresuan is known in Thailand for his 1593 elephant duel with Crown Prince Mingyi Swa. However, most other accounts (Siamese and foreign) of the era mention an elephant battle but not a formal duel.
Ayutthaya chronicle narrativeEdit
In November 1592,[note 8] Nanda Bayin ordered his son to attack Ayutthaya again. Mingyi Swa, Natshinnaung the son of the viceroy of Taungoo, and the viceroy of Prome formed three divisions. Mingyi Swa went through Three Pagodas Pass while the other two divisions came via Mae Lamao. The chief of Chiang Mai sent a boat force. Naresuan had been planning to attack Cambodia because of its border incursions, but then adjusted to the Burmese threat. Naresuan marched towards Suphan Buri and encamped his armies at Nong Sarai near the Thakhoi River. Naresuan formed a battle plan which involved a retreat, allowing the Burmese to follow, and then attack the disordered advance with his main army.:12–130
During the battle, in January 1593, the war elephants of Naresuan, Chaophraya Chaiyanuphap, and Ekathotsarot, Chaophraya Prap Traichak, were "in musth" and charged into the midst of the Burmese, with only a handful to Siamese being able to follow them in. According to Damrong's reconstruction, Naresuan, seeing Mingyi Swa on an elephant under a tree, shouted, "My brother, why do you stay on your elephant under the shade of a tree? Why not come out and engage in single combat to be an honour to us? There will be no kings in future who will engage in single combat like us.":130–131
After a prolonged duel and narrowly missing Naresuan but cutting his helmet, Naresuan was able to cut Mingyi Swa with his ngaw (glaive)[disputed ]. Prince Somdet Phra Ekathotsarot was also able to kill the governor of Muang Chacharo. The main Siamese army then arrived and the Burmese were routed and scattered. The King of Bago then ordered the other two divisions to retreat.:131–133
Naresuan's ngaw, Chao Phraya Prap Hongsawadi or "Chao Phraya which defeated Bago", and helmet, Chao Phraya Sen Phonlaphai or "Chao Phraya which defeated a hundred thousand soldiers", still exist today.[disputed ] Naresuan built a pagoda on the site of the elephant battle as a victory monument.:134
Naresuan brought before a council of judges those commanders he thought had disobeyed him or were negligent in their duties; they had been unable to follow him into the middle of the Burmese. The punishment was death. However, Somdet Phra Phanarat, a bhikkhu from Wat Yai Chai Mongkhon, calmed Naresuan enough to have the punishment rescinded. Instead, the guilty commanders were ordered to take Dawei and Tanintharyi for redemption.:136–138
The Burmese chronicles, however, do not mention a duel at all. They say that the two armies engage in a battle on 8 January [O.S. 29 December 1592] 1593, and Swa was felled by a shot from a Siamese firearm. According to Terwiel, there are ten different accounts of the battle by indigenous, European and Persian authors: (four Siamese, one Burmese, four late 16th and early 17th century European accounts and late 17th century one Persian account). Only one Siamese account says there was a formal elephant duel between Naresuan and Swa. Per Terwiel's analysis of the ten accounts, the Burmese crown prince and Naresuan both fought on their war elephant in the battle, although no formal duel probably ever took place. Per Terwiel, it is highly unlikely that Swa would have agreed to a formal duel since agreeing to do so would have "jeopardized the costly invasion that had thus far progressed without a hitch." During the battle, Naresuan's elephant got surrounded by the Burmese forces. During that crucial moment, a Burmese war elephant went musth, and attacked Swa's elephant. Seeing that Swa was in difficulty, Naresuan "closed in, and he (or one of the warriors riding with him, maybe a Portuguese) fired a gun which mortally wounded the crown prince" Swa. Naresuan was "lucky to escape from a very dangerous situation" but also quick to take advantage of it. According to Terwiel, the "Burmese and European accounts stayed closer to what actually may have happened", and "Naresuan's much repeated challenge to hold a duel, even though it looms large in many Thai history books, should be relegated to a legendary tale."
Dawei and TanintharyiEdit
In 1593, Naresuan sent Chao Phraya Chakri and Phraya Phra Khlang to attack Tanintharyi and Dawei, a Mon city, which fell after 15- and 20-day sieges respectfully. Nanda Bayin launched a Burmese fleet to defend those cities, but arrived too late and was defeated by a combined Thai fleet. Additionally, a land force marching from Mottama was ambushed by the combined Chakri and Khlang force, resulting in the capture of 11 Burmese commanders, many elephants, horses, men, arms, and ammunition.:138–143
Capture of LongvekEdit
In 1593, Naresuan then launched a successful campaign to subjugate Cambodia, and executed its king Nakphra Sattha or Chey Chettha. Naresuan then brought Khmer families to populate his northern provinces.:143–144
Capture of MottamaEdit
As Burmese control over the tributaries had weakened, the Mons took this opportunity to free themselves. The Mon governor of Mawlamyine rebelled against Bago and requested Siamese support. Naresuan sent troops to help and the Burmese abandoned their garrison at Martaban. Nanda Bayin then sent the viceroy of Taungoo to suppress the uprising, but his force was defeated. The Mon provinces then became subject to the Siamese Kingdom.:145–147
Invasion of BagoEdit
Naresuan then decided to attack Bago in 1595. He laid siege on the city for three months before retreating when the viceroys of Prome, Taungoo, and Ava sent relief forces. Naresuan did take back many prisoners of war, lessening the fighting strength of the Burmese.:148–150
The Lord of Prome staged a rebellion against Nanda Bayin in 1595, followed by Taungoo, Rakhine, Lan Na, and Lan Xang. King Nokeo Koumane of Lan Xang prepared to march through Lan Na to Bago to rescue the people of Lan Xang held captive. The Viceroy of Lan Na Chiang Mai then submitted his territory to Siamese control and Naresuan sent Siamese forces to prevent Laotian forces from entering Lan Na.:151–155
After these series of upheavals in the Burmese Empire, Naresuan decided to attack Bago again in 1599, using Arakan and Taungoo as allies. However, before Naresuan arrived at the city, the forces of Arakan and Taungoo had already invested the city. The Viceroy of Taungoo ended up taking the populace back to Taungoo, abandoning the city to the forces of Arakan to loot what property was left behind, and then setting flames to the palace and monasteries.:156–162
Invasion of Taungoo and Lan NaEdit
Naresuan occupied Bago while Minye Thihathu II, Viceroy of Taungoo, had already taken Nanda Bayin to Taungoo. Naresuan requested Minye Thihathu send Nanda Bayin back to him but Minye Thihathu refused, stating he was unwell. After that Naresuan laid siege to Taungoo for two months but retreated due to lack of food.:162–166
Natshinnaung killed Nanda Bayin while he was held captive in Toungoo. Nyaungyan Min then crowned himself as the King of Ava to counter the Viceroys of Toungoo and Prome. Siam was then free of a Burmese threat for four years until the King of Ava went on a campaign to subjugate the Shans. When he advanced as far as Theinni, Naresuan raised an army of 200,000 men to counter the threat to his kingdom. He advanced as far as the Fang District of Chiang Mai Province before falling ill and then died after three days on 25 April 1605.[note 9] His brother King Ekathotsarot became his successor as king.:173–180
According to Damrong Rajanubhab, "Naresuan was recorded as a brave and glorious king. Therefore his glory is evident up to the present day. The kingdom of Siam at that period was widest in extent, opulent and redounding in glory.":178
- Thai baht banknotes
- Royal Thai Armed Forces Day, 18 January, commemorates victory.
- HTMS Naresuan, Royal Thai Navy frigate.
- Naresuan University in Phitsanulok is named after the king and features a large statue of the king.
- One of the two largest dams in Phitsanulok Province is named the Naresuan Dam. It controls water flow of the Nan River north of the city of Phitsanulok.
- King Naresuan has been incorrectly attributed to winning his freedom through kickboxing matches with Burmese fighters, a feat actually accredited to Nai Khanom Tom.
- Following the 2014 Thai coup d'état, a free showing of a King Naresun movie was credited with making viewers feel happy.
- King Naresuan — a 2007 film series based on the king's life
- Khan Kluay — a 2006 animated Thai film based on the life of the king's war elephant, followed by the lives of the elephant's offspring in Khan Kluay 2.
- King Naresuan Online — a fantasy massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) released in 2010 by KNO - King Naresuan Online
- Civilization V — PC game released in 2010 in which Siam has a unique unit named "Naresuan's Elephant" in honor of the king's elephant armies
- The Legend of King Naresuan: The Series — a television series in 2017
NaresuanBorn: 1555/56 Died: 25 April 1605
|King of Ayutthaya
1 July 1590 – 25 April 1605
|King of Sukhothai
- Naresuan was likely born sometime between 18 July 1555 and 27 April 1556. (Damrong 2001: 116): He became king on the 13th waning of the eighth Siamese month of 952 CS at age 34 (in 35th year), meaning he was born between 14th waning of Ashadha 917 CS (18 July 1555) and 13th waning of Ashadha 918 CS (5 July 1556). (Damrong 2001: 177) says that he died in his 50th year on Monday, 8th waxing of the sixth Siamese month (Vaisakha) of 967 CS (25 April 1605), meaning he was born sometime between 9th waxing of Vaisakha 917 CS (29 April 1555) and 8th waxing of Vaisakha 918 CS (17 April 1556).
Furthermore, (Damrong 2001: 67) also says that Naresuan was already 8 (in his 9th year) when he was taken to Pegu after Bayinnaung took Phitsanulok—per (Damrong 2001: 36) on Sunday, 5th waning of the second Siamese month in the year of the pig: i.e. Sunday, 5th waning of Pausha 925 CS (Sunday, 2 January 1564). Although (Damrong 2001) does not exactly state when the prince was sent to Pegu, he may have been sent there shortly after 2 January 1564 or shortly after Bayinnaung took Ayutthaya on 18 February 1564 per (Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 355). If so, he may have been born sometime between July 1555 and Jan/February 1556.
- (Damrong 2001: 75): He was 8 (in his 9th year) when he went to Pegu in 1564. Six years later, he became viceroy of Phitsanulok at age 15 (16th year).
- (Damrong 2001: 85): Naresuan began his march on the 6th waning moon of the third Siamese month, year of the horse, BE 2126, and arrived at Muang Khraeng, the border in the sixth month. Editors of (Damrong 2001) translated the dates as March 1583 and June 1583 respectively. But the given dates are lunisolar calendar dates, and should follow then prevailing Chula Sakarat calendar. The Thai calendar (and the month names) did not get realigned to the Gregorian calendar until 1941. According to (Eade 1989: 133), 6th waning of the 3rd Siamese month (Magha, assuming Sukhothia style month naming adopted at Ayutthaya), 945 CS translates to 2 February [O.S. 23 January] 1584, and the sixth month translates to 10 April 1584 to 9 May 1584 (N.S.) According to the Burmese Hmannan Yazawin chronicle (Hmannan Vol. 3 2003: 77–79), Naresuan's troops arrived near the environs of Pegu prior to Nanda having defeated the Ava rebellion on Tuesday, 1st waning of Kason 946 ME (Tuesday, 24 April [O.S. 14 April] 1584).
- (Hmannan Vol. 3 2003: 76): Nanda appointed Swa to guard Pegu, and marched to Ava on full moon of Late Tagu 945 ME (25 March [O.S. 15 March] 1584), and Swa asked Naresuan to continue on to Ava when Naresuan's troops arrived near Pegu.
- (Damrong 2001: 99, 103): The invasion began on the 2nd waning of the fifth Siamese month of the year of the cock, which editors translated as May 1585. The CS date would have been the 2nd waning of Caitra 947 CS (5 April 1586). It is in line with the Burmese chronicle invasion date of late Tagu of 947 ME (19 March to 9 April 1586).
- (Damrong 2001: 108) says the invasion led by Nanda came in the 12th Siamese month of the year of the dog (BE 2129), which the editors translated as December 1586. The Siamese calendar at the time would have been Chula Sakarat (CS); 12th Siamese month (Karttika) of 948 CS per (Eade 1989: 133) would have been 13 October to 10 November 1586. It is in line with the Burmese chronicle (Hmannan Vol. 3 2003: 84) date as to when Nanda began the campaign: Sunday, 9th waxing of Tazaungmon of 948 ME (19 October [O.S. 9 October] 1586). Note that the Burmese and Chula Sakarat calendars were off by two days in Tazaungmon/Karttika 948 ME/CS.
- He became king on 1 July 1590 or less probably on 29 July 1590. (Damrong 2001: 116): Naresuan became king on Sunday, the 13th waning of the eighth Siamese month [Ashadha] of the year of the tiger, 952 CS. But per (Eade 1989: 134), 952 CS was a leap year, and had an extra leap month (2nd Ashadha. Per (Eade 1989: 134), 13th waning of 1st Ashadha 952 CS translates to Saturday, 30 June 1590 whereas 13th waning of 2nd Ashadha 952 CS to Monday, 30 July 1590. Neither date correctly lines up with Sunday. If the coronation did take place on a Sunday, it probably took place on Sunday, 1 July 1590 or 29 July 1590.
(Damrong 2001: 116) continues that Naresuan fought a war with Burma eight months after his accession, and (Damrong 2001: 119) says that Mingyi Swa's depleted invasion army got back to Pegu in the fifth Siamese month in the year of the hare (March/April 1591), which agrees with the Burmese chronicle account (Hmannan Vol. 3 2003: 90) of Tagu 952 ME (March/April 1591). It suggests that the Burmese had been driven back from Siam at least a month earlier. Therefore it is more likely that Naresuan came to power in early July. Note that editors of (Damrong 2001: 116) translate his accession date of 13th waning of eighth Siamese month as August 1590, which could not be true as the prevailing calendar at the time was Chula Sakarat.
- (Damrong 2001: 122) says Swa left Pegu to begin the invasion on Wednesday, the 7th waxing of the first Siamese month of the year of the major dragon, which editors translated as January 1592. It should be Wednesday, 7th waxing of the first Siamese month (Margasirsha) of 954 CS (Thursday, 10 December [O.S. 30 November] 1592) per (Eade 1989: 134). According to the Burmese chronicles (Hmannan Vol. 3 2003: 93), the invasion began on Wednesday, 2nd waxing of Nadaw 954 ME (4 November [O.S. 25 October] 1592) when Swa left Pegu with the invasion army. The Siamese date may have been the first time Siamese sighted the Burmese troops.
- (Damrong 2001: 177) says Naresuan died on Monday, the 8th waxing of the sixth Siamese month in the year of minor dragon, which editors translated as June 1604. It should be Monday, 8th waxing of the sixth Siamese month (Vaisakha) of 967 CS, which per (Eade 1989: 135) translates to Monday, 25 April 1605.
- Wararat (January 18, 2012). "50 Baht series 16". History and Series of Banknotes. Bank of Thailand. Retrieved August 24, 2013.
Back. The images of the statue of King Naresuan: Pouring water on the ground, symbolizing the declaration of independence, King Naresuan with his sword leading his troops to beat the Burmese camp, the statue of King Naresuan at the Don Chedi Memorial compound, Phra Chedi Chai Mongkol located at Wat Yai Chai Mongkol, Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya Province
- Rajanubhab, D., 2001, Our Wars With the Burmese, Bangkok: White Lotus Co. Ltd., ISBN 9747534584
- Harvey 1925: 167–168
- Harvey 1925: 169–170
- Chakrabongse, C., 1960, Lords of Life, London: Alvin Redman Limited
- Treepet Metkarunchit. การประกาศอิสรภาพ [Declaration of Independence] (in Thai). Archived from the original on 18 May 2007. Retrieved August 24, 2013.
- Glenn S., ed. (August 24, 2013). "ยุทธหัตถี" (Dictionary). Royal Institute Dictionary-1982. Thai-language.com. Retrieved 2013-08-24.
a war elephant; combat while mounted on war elephants
- Hmannan Vol. 3 2003: 94
- Maha Yazawin Vol. 3 2006: 94
- Terwiel 2013: 30
- Terwiel 2013: 22–25
- Terwiel 2013: 31–32
- Terwiel 2013: 33
- Terwiel 2013: 34
- The Nation, Warrior king remains a very modern mystery Archived 17 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine., 30 April 2006
- Wararat (April 6, 1978). "Series 12". History and Series of Banknotes. Bank of Thailand. Retrieved August 24, 2013.
100 Baht. Back. The monument of King Naresuan the Great, Don Chedi Memorial, in Suphanburi
- Online Reporters (17 Jun 2014). "Thais cheered up by Naresuan movie". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
Most people who went to the see the free showing of the film 'The Legend of King Naresuan 5' arranged by the NCPO came away feeling happy, according to a survey by Abac Poll.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Naresuan.|
- Prince Damrong Rajanubhab (1928). Aung Thein (Translator), Chris Baker (editor), ed. Our Wars with the Burmese: Thai–Burmese Conflict 1539–1767 (2001 ed.). Bangkok: White Lotus. ISBN 974-7534-58-4.
- Eade, J.C. (1989). Southeast Asian Ephemeris: Solar and Planetary Positions, A.D. 638–2000. Ithaca: Cornell University. ISBN 0-87727-704-4.
- Fernquest, Jon (Spring 2005). Mae Fah Luang University, ed. "The Flight of Lao War Captives from Burma back to Laos in 1596: A Comparison of Historical Sources" (PDF). SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research. University of London: School of Oriental and African Studies. 3 (1). ISSN 1479-8484. Retrieved August 24, 2013.
In 1596, one thousand Lao war captives fled from Bago, the capital of the kingdom of Burma, back to their native kingdom of Lan Sang. This incident is insignificant when compared to more cataclysmic changes like the founding or fall of dynasties, but it has attracted the attention of Western, Thai, and Burmese historians since the 17th century.
- Harvey, G. E. (1925). History of Burma: From the Earliest Times to 10 March 1824. London: Frank Cass & Co. Ltd.
- Sunait Chutintaranond (1992). "The Image of the Burmese Enemy in Thai Perceptions and Historical Writings" (PDF). Journal of the Siam Society. Siam Heritage Trust. JSS Vol. 80.1.1l (digital). Retrieved August 24, 2013.
The image of the Burmese as an archenemy of the Thai gradually emerged in Thai historiography and literary works after the kingdom of Ayudhya fell to the Burmese armies in 1767. Prior to that tragic incident, Thai chroniclers were not anxious to record any historical event concerning the wars between Siam and Burma. The Luang Prasert Chronicle of Ayudhya (1680), for instance, does not specifically glorify the most famous victory of King Naresuan in the fight on elephantback with the Burmese crown prince, the Maha Uparacha, in 1592.
- Peter Borschberg (2014). The Memoirs and Memorials of Jacques de Coutre. Security, Trade and Society in 16th and 17th Century Southeast Asia (book). NUS Press. Retrieved August 30, 2015.
- Royal Historical Commission of Burma (1832). Hmannan Yazawin (in Burmese). 1–3 (2003 ed.). Yangon: Ministry of Information, Myanmar.
- Terwiel, Barend Jan (2013). "What Happened at Nong Sarai? Comparing Indigenous and European Sources for Late 16th Century Siam". Journal of Siam Society. 101.