Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya (city)

Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya (Thai: พระนครศรีอยุธยา, pronounced [pʰráʔ ná(ʔ).kʰɔ̄ːn sǐː ʔā.jút.tʰā.jāː]; also spelled "Ayudhya"), or locally and simply Ayutthaya, is the former capital of Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya province in Thailand. Located on an island at the confluence of the Chao Phraya and Pa Sak rivers, Ayutthaya is the birthplace of the founder of Bangkok, King Rama I.

Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya
พระนครศรีอยุธยา
Principality of Ayutthaya
City of Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya
เทศบาลนครพระนครศรีอยุธยา
Naresuan-Road-Ayutthaya.jpg
Official seal of Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya
Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya is located in Thailand
Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya
Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya
Location in Thailand
Coordinates: 14°20′52″N 100°33′38″E / 14.34778°N 100.56056°E / 14.34778; 100.56056Coordinates: 14°20′52″N 100°33′38″E / 14.34778°N 100.56056°E / 14.34778; 100.56056
Country Thailand
ProvincePhra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya
DistrictPhra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya
Named forAyodhya, Uttar Pradesh, India
Government
 • TypeCity Municipality
 • MayorSomsong Sappakosonlakul
Area
 • Total14.84 km2 (5.73 sq mi)
Population
 (2020)
 • Total50,830
 • Density3,400/km2 (8,900/sq mi)
 Registered residents only
Time zoneUTC+7 (ICT)
Postcode
13xxx
Area code(+66) 35
Websiteayutthayacity.go.th/

EtymologyEdit

 
Ayutthaya is shown in the Fra Mauro map of the world (approximately 1450 CE, with south at the top) under the name "Scierno", derived from the Persian "Shahr-i Naw", meaning "New City"[1]

Ayutthaya is named after the city of Ayodhya in India, the birthplace of Rama in the Ramayana (Thai, Ramakien); phra (from Khmer: preah ព្រះ ) is a prefix for a noun concerning a royal person; nakhon designates an important or capital city (from Sanskrit: nagara); the Thai honorific sri or si is from the Indian term of veneration Shri.

HistoryEdit

 
Ayutthaya skyline, photographed by John Thomson, early 1866

Prior to Ayutthaya's traditional founding date, archaeological and written evidence has revealed that Ayutthaya may have existed as early as the late 13th century as a water-borne port town. Further evidence of this can be seen with Wat Phanan Choeng, which was founded in 1324, 27 years before Ayutthaya's official foundation.[2]

Ayutthaya was officially founded in 1351[a] by King U Thong, who went there to escape a smallpox outbreak in Lopburi and proclaimed it the capital of his kingdom, often referred to as the Ayutthaya Kingdom or Siam. It is named after the ancient Indian city of Ayodhya, synonymous with Rama, the 7th incarnation of the Hindu God Vishnu. Ayutthaya became the second Siamese capital after Sukhothai.[3] It is estimated that Ayutthaya by the year 1600 had a population of about 300,000, with the population perhaps reaching 1,000,000 around 1700, making it one of the world's largest cities at that time,[4] when it was sometimes known as the "Venice of the East".[5][6]

In 1767, the city was destroyed by the Burmese army, resulting in the collapse of the kingdom. The ruins of the old city are preserved in the Ayutthaya historical park,[7] which is recognised internationally as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The ruins, characterised by the prang (reliquary towers) and gigantic monasteries, give an idea of the city's past splendour.[8] Modern Ayutthaya was refounded a few kilometres to the east.

PopulationEdit

Since 2005, the population of Ayutthaya has been declining.[9]

Estimation date 31 Dec 2005 31 Dec 2010 31 Dec 2015 31 Dec 2019
Population 55,097 54,190 52,940 50,830

GeographyEdit

The city is about 40 miles (64 km) north of Bangkok.[10]

ClimateEdit

Ayutthaya, located in the central plains, is affected by three seasons:

  • Hot Season: March – May
  • Rainy season: June – October
  • Cool season: November – February
Climate data for Ayutthaya
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 31.0
(87.8)
33.3
(91.9)
35.4
(95.7)
35.9
(96.6)
34.3
(93.7)
32.6
(90.7)
32.0
(89.6)
31.4
(88.5)
31.3
(88.3)
31.3
(88.3)
30.7
(87.3)
30.0
(86.0)
32.4
(90.3)
Average low °C (°F) 17.0
(62.6)
19.4
(66.9)
22.3
(72.1)
24.3
(75.7)
24.5
(76.1)
24.3
(75.7)
24.0
(75.2)
23.8
(74.8)
23.5
(74.3)
22.5
(72.5)
20.0
(68.0)
17.4
(63.3)
21.9
(71.4)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 2.4
(0.09)
18.8
(0.74)
43.5
(1.71)
67.9
(2.67)
208.0
(8.19)
223.0
(8.78)
180.8
(7.12)
260.0
(10.24)
213.9
(8.42)
167.6
(6.60)
37.1
(1.46)
0.8
(0.03)
1,423.8
(56.05)
Average rainy days 0 1 4 6 15 16 17 19 17 12 3 1 111
Source: Thai Meteorological Department[11]

Ayutthaya City SitesEdit

Notable cultural sitesEdit

Name Picture Built Sponsor(s) Notes
Wat Yai Chai Mongkhon   1357[12] King Ramathibodi I[13] One of the most famous temples in Ayutthaya
Wat Mahathat   1374 King Borommaracha I
Wat Chai Watthanaram   1630 King Prasat Thong One of the most famous temples in Ayutthaya
Wat Phanan Choeng   1324
Wat Phra Si Sanphet   1350 King Ramathibodi I
Wihan Phra Mongkhon Bophit   c. 1637 (restored c. 1742/20th century, on multiple occasions)[14] King Chairacha
King Borommakot[15]
Restored once or twice in the 18th century. Reduced to ruins after the Fall of Ayutthaya in 1767. Restored in the 20th century.[16]
Wat Na Phra Men   1503[17] King Ramathibodi II One of the best preserved temples to survive after the Fall of Ayutthaya in 1767. Restored during the reign of Rama III (r. 1824-51).[18]
Wat Ratchaburana   1424 King Borommarachathirat II
Wat Pradu Songtham Under royal patronage from King Songtham (r. 1611-28) until the fall of Ayutthaya in 1767[19] King Uthumphon entered the monkhood at this temple following his forced abdication in 1758[20]
Wat Lokaya Sutharam   1452 King Intharacha
Wat Phra Ram   1369 King Ramesuan
Wat Phutthaisawan   Before 1350 King Ramathibodi I Built before Ayutthaya was founded
Chedi Phukhao Thong   c. 1569, 1587 (rebuilt in 1744)[21] King (then-Prince) Naresuan
King Borommakot[22]
Built to commemorate a battle victory following Ayutthaya's liberation from Burma in 1584[23]
Wat Thammikarat   Before 1350 King of Lavo Built before Ayutthaya was founded
Wat Kudi Dao   1711 or earlier[24] Prince, later King Borommakot[25] A good example of 18th-century Late Ayutthaya wat architecture. Partially restored.[26]

MuseumsEdit

  • Ayutthaya Historical Study Centre
  • Chao Sam Phraya National Museum: The museum was specially display the objects excavated at Wat Racha Burana and Wat Maha That.

Other tourism sitesEdit

 
St. Joseph's Church

The city is located at the junction of the Chao Phraya, Lopburi and Pa Sak rivers, and on the main north–south railway linking Chiang Mai to Bangkok. The old city is on an island formed by a bend of the Chao Phraya on the west and south sides, the Pa Sak on the east side and the Klong Muang canal on the northern side.

The approximate centre of the old city is 14°20′N 100°34′E / 14.333°N 100.567°E / 14.333; 100.567.

TransportEdit

Ayutthaya is accessible by air and rail.

AirEdit

The closest airport is Bangkok's Don Mueang International Airport, a hub for regional budget carriers. An elevated walkway connects Terminal 1 to the Don Muang Train Station, where Ayutthaya-bound trains regularly roll through.[27]

RailEdit

Trains to Ayutthaya leave Bangkok's Hua Lamphong Station approximately every hour between 04:20 am. and 10:00 pm. The 3rd class fare is 20 baht for the 1.5 hour trip. Train schedules are available from the information booth at Hua Lamphong Station, Bangkok.[28]

In fictionEdit

GalleryEdit

NotesEdit

a The city was founded on Friday, the 6th day of the waxing moon of the 5th month, 1893 Buddhist Era, corresponding to Friday, 4 March 1351 Common Era, according to the calculation of the Fine Arts Department of Thailand.[31]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Scierno: the Land of Smiles". www.nationmultimedia.com. Archived from the original on 2006-10-19.
  2. ^ Baker, Chris; Phongpaichit, Pasuk (2017). A History of Ayutthaya: Siam in the Early Modern World (Kindle ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-316-64113-2.
  3. ^ "Historic City of Ayutthaya - UNESCO World Heritage Centre". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 24 August 2012.
  4. ^ George Modelski, World Cities: –3000 to 2000, Washington DC: FAROS 2000, 2003. ISBN 978-0-9676230-1-6. See also Evolutionary World Politics Homepage.
  5. ^ "Ayutthaya, Thailand's historic city". The Times Of India. 2008-07-31.
  6. ^ Derick Garnier (2004). Ayutthaya: Venice of the East. River books. ISBN 974-8225-60-7.
  7. ^ "Ayutthaya Historical Park". Asia's World Publishing Limited. Retrieved 2011-09-22.
  8. ^ "Historic City of Ayutthaya". UNESCO. Retrieved 2011-09-22.
  9. ^ "Thailand: Major Cities, Towns & Communes - Population Statistics, Maps, Charts, Weather and Web Information".{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  10. ^ Bellamy, Patrick. "The Hunt." Hambali: Mastermind of Terror. Crime Library. Retrieved on March 17, 2014.
  11. ^ "30 year Average (1961-1990) - AYUTTHAYA". Thai Meteorological Department. Archived from the original on 2012-05-21. Retrieved 2011-11-12.
  12. ^ Vandenburg, Tricky. "Wat Yai Chaimongkhon". History of Ayutthaya - Temples and Ruins. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
  13. ^ Vandenburg, Tricky. "Wat Yai Chaimongkhon". History of Ayutthaya - Temples and Ruins. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
  14. ^ Vandenberg, Tricky (July 2009). "Wihan Phra Mongkhon Bophit". History of Ayutthaya - Temples and Ruins. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
  15. ^ Vandenberg, Tricky. "Wihan Phra Mongkhon Bophit". History of Ayutthaya - Temples and Ruins. Retrieved 22 July 2021.
  16. ^ Vandenberg, Tricky. "Wihan Phra Mongkhon Bophit". History of Ayutthaya - Temples and Ruins. Retrieved 22 July 2021.
  17. ^ Vandenberg, Tricky (September 2009). "Temples and Ruins - Wat Na Phra Men". History of Ayutthaya. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
  18. ^ Vandenberg, Tricky (September 2009). "Temples and Ruins - Wat Na Phra Men". History of Ayutthaya. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
  19. ^ May, Ken (September 2009). "Temples and Ruins - Wat Pradu Songtham". History of Ayutthaya. Retrieved 22 July 2021.
  20. ^ May, Ken (September 2009). "Temples and Ruins - Wat Pradu Songtham". History of Ayutthaya. Retrieved 22 July 2021.
  21. ^ Vandenberg, Tricky (July 2009). "Wat Phukhao Thong". History of Ayutthaya - Temples and Ruins. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
  22. ^ Vandenberg, Tricky (July 2009). "Wat Phukhao Thong". History of Ayutthaya - Temples and Ruins. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
  23. ^ Vandenberg, Tricky (July 2009). "Wat Phukhao Thong". History of Ayutthaya - Temples and Ruins. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
  24. ^ May, Ken (September 2009). "History of Ayutthaya - Temples And Ruins". Wat Kudi Dao. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
  25. ^ May, Ken (September 2009). "History of Ayutthaya - Temples And Ruins". Wat Kudi Dao. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
  26. ^ May, Ken (September 2009). "History of Ayutthaya - Temples And Ruins". Wat Kudi Dao. Retrieved 23 July 2021.
  27. ^ "How to get to Ayutthaya".
  28. ^ "History of Ayutthaya - Temples & Ruins - Introduction".
  29. ^ Mortal Kombat (Laser disc) Audio Commentary, UPC: 014381302165.
  30. ^ "The Buddha Statue". Fightingstreet.com. Retrieved 2011-12-18.
  31. ^ Rotchanaratha, Wina, ed. (1999). Prachum Phongsawadan Chabap Kanchanaphisek Lem Nueng ประชุมพงศาวดาร ฉบับกาญจนาภิเษก เล่ม ๑ [Golden Jubilee Collection of Historical Archives, Volume 1] (in Thai). Bangkok: Fine Arts Department of Thailand. p. 211. ISBN 9744192151.

Further readingEdit

  • Stefan Halikowski Smith, Creolization and Diaspora in the Portuguese Indies: The Social World of Ayutthaya, 1640-1720 (Leiden, Brill, 2011) (European Expansion and Indigenous Response, 8).

External linksEdit