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|Ab urbe condita||2271|
|Balinese saka calendar||1439–1440|
|English Regnal year||9 Hen. 8 – 10 Hen. 8|
|Chinese calendar||丁丑年 (Fire Ox)|
4214 or 4154
— to —
戊寅年 (Earth Tiger)
4215 or 4155
|- Vikram Samvat||1574–1575|
|- Shaka Samvat||1439–1440|
|- Kali Yuga||4618–4619|
|Japanese calendar||Eishō 15|
|Minguo calendar||394 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2060–2061|
1644 or 1263 or 491
— to —
1645 or 1264 or 492
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1518.|
In France, year 1518 lasted from 4 April 1518 to 23 April 1519. Since Constantine (around year 325) and until the year 1565, the year was reckoned as beginning at Easter. For instance, the will of Leonardo da Vinci, drafted in Amboise on 23 April 1519, shows the legend "Given on the 23rd of April of 1518, before Easter".
- See Wikisource "1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Easter"
- April 18 – The widowed Sigismund I the Old, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, marries Milanese noblewoman Bona Sforza in Wawel Cathedral and she is crowned as Queen consort of Poland.
- May 26 – A transit of Venus occurs.
- July – dancing plague of 1518: A case of dancing mania breaks out in Strasbourg, in which many people die from constant dancing.
- August – Construction of the Manchester Grammar School is completed in England.
- October 3 – The Treaty of London temporarily ensures peace in Western Europe.
- A swarm of tropical fire ants devastates crops on Hispaniola.
- Erasmus publishes his Colloquies.
- Henricus Grammateus publishes Ayn neu Kunstlich Buech in Vienna, containing the earliest printed use of plus and minus signs for arithmetic.
- The African slave trade begins.
- February 2
- February 7 – Johann Funck, German theologian (d. 1566)
- February 13 – Antonín Brus z Mohelnice, Moravian Catholic archbishop (d. 1580)
- February 20 – Georg, Count Palatine of Simmern-Sponheim, (d. 1569)
- February 21 – John of Denmark, Danish prince (d. 1532)
- February 28 – Francis III, Duke of Brittany, Duke of Brittany (d. 1536)
- March 8 – Sidonie of Saxony, Duchess of Brunswick-Calenberg (d. 1575)
- April 22 – Antoine de Bourbon, father of Henry IV of France (d. 1610)
- July 3 – Li Shizhen, Chinese physician, pharmacologist and mineralogist (d. 1593)
- August 8 – Conrad Lycosthenes, Alsatian humanist and encyclopedist (d. 1561)
- October 26 – John Basset, Devonshire gentleman (d. 1541)
- November 26 – Guido Ascanio Sforza di Santa Fiora, Italian Catholic cardinal (d. 1564)
- December 13 – Clara of Saxe-Lauenburg, Princess of Saxe-Lauenburg and Duchess of Brunswick-Gifhorn by marriage (d. 1576)
- December 17 – Ernest III, Duke of Brunswick-Grubenhagen (d. 1567)
- December 19 – Enrique de Borja y Aragón, Spanish noble of the House of Borgia (d. 1540)
- date unknown
- possible – Catherine Howard, fifth queen consort of Henry VIII of England (b. between 1518 and 1524; d. 1542)
- February 9 – Jean IV de Rieux, Breton noble and Marshal (b. 1447)
- May 31 – Elisabeth of Brandenburg-Ansbach-Kulmbach, German margravine (b. 1494)
- July 10 – Sibylle of Baden, Countess consort of Hanau-Lichtenberg (b. 1485)
- August 16 – Loyset Compère, French composer (b. c. 1445)
- August 27 – Joan of Naples, queen consort of Naples (b. 1478)
- November 20
- November 24 – Vannozza dei Cattanei, mistress of Pope Alexander VI (b. 1442)
- December 5 – Gian Giacomo Trivulzio, Italian military commander (b. c. 1440)
- December 27 – Mahmood Shah Bahmani II, sultan of the Bahmani Sultanate (b. c. 1470)
- date unknown