List of Ottoman grand viziers

The grand vizier of the Ottoman Empire (Turkish: Vezir-i Azam or Sadr-ı Azam (Sadrazam); Ottoman Turkish: صدر اعظم or وزیر اعظم) was the de facto prime minister of the sultan in the Ottoman Empire, with the absolute power of attorney and, in principle, removable only by the sultan himself in the classical period, before the Tanzimat reforms, or until the 1908 Revolution. He held the imperial seal and could summon all other viziers to attend to affairs of the state in the Imperial Council; the viziers in conference were called "kubbe viziers" in reference to their meeting place, the Kubbealtı ('under-the-dome') in Topkapı Palace. His offices were located at the Sublime Porte.

Grand vizier of the Ottoman Empire
Seal of the Ottoman Grand Vizier (with flags).png
Seal of the grand vizier
StyleHis Excellency
ResidenceBab-ı Ali
AppointerThe sultan
Formation1328
First holderAlaeddin Pasha
Final holderAhmet Tevfik Pasha
Abolished1 November 1922
SuccessionPrime Minister of Turkey

HistoryEdit

During the emerging phases of the Ottoman state, "vizier" was the only title used. The first of these Ottoman viziers who was titled "grand vizier" was Çandarlı Kara Halil Hayreddin Pasha (also known as Çandarlı Halil Pasha the Elder). The purpose in instituting the title "grand vizier" was to differentiate the holder of the sultan's seal from other viziers. The initially more regularly used title of vezir-i âzam was slowly replaced by sadrazam, both meaning grand vizier in practice. Throughout Ottoman history, the grand viziers have also been called sadr-ı âlî ('high vizier'), vekil-i mutlak ('absolute attorney'), sâhib-i devlet ('holder of the state'), serdar-ı ekrem ('gracious general'), serdar-ı azam ('grand general') and zât-ı âsafî ('vizieral person') and başnazır,[1] literally "prime minister" in Ottoman Turkish.

In the late periods of the Ottoman Empire, especially during and after the 19th century, the grand vizier began to hold a position almost identical to that of a prime minister in other European states.[2] Reforms seen during and after the Tanzimat (1838), the First Constitutional Era (1876–1878), and the Second Constitutional Era (1908–1920) further brought the office of the grand vizier in line with the European standard, making the incumbent the head of a Cabinet of other ministers. During the two constitutional eras, the grand vizier also served as the speaker of the Senate, the upper house of the bicameral Ottoman Parliament. With the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, the Prime Minister of Turkey took on the roles of the former office.

Grand viziers were often replaced or resigned in rapid succession, frequently leading to political instability. In the final 10 years of the Empire alone, the office of the grand vizier changed hands 13 times between 12 men; some, such as Ahmed Izzet Pasha and Salih Hulusi Pasha, held office for less than a month.

Absolute monarchy (1320–1839)Edit

Grand Vizier Term of office Sultan
Portrait Epithet
Name
(Birth-Death)
Took office Left office Time in office
  Alaeddin Pasha

(?)

1320 1331 11 years Osman I

 
(1299–1326)

Orhan

 
(1326–1362)

  Nizamüddin Ahmed Pasha
(1281–1380)
1331 1348 17 years
  Hacı Pasha
(?)
1348 1349 1 year
  Sinanüddin Fakih Yusuf Pasha
(d. 1364)
1349 September
1364 †
(Died in office)
15 years
Murad I

 
(1362–1389)

  Kara

Çandarlı Halil Hayreddin Pasha
(1330–1387)

1364 22 January
1387 †
(Died in office)
23 years, 21 days
Çandarlı Ali Pasha
(d. 1406)
1387 1406 19 years
  Bayezid I
 
(1389–1402)
Süleyman Çelebi
 
(1402–1406)
  Osmancıklı
Imamzade Halil Pasha
(?)
1406 1413 7 years Mehmed I
 
(1413–1421)
  Amasyalı
Bayezid Pasha
(d. 1421)
1413 July
1421 †
(Executed)
8 years
  Çandarlı Ibrahim Pasha the Elder
(d. 1429)
1421 1429 8 years Murad II
 
(1421–1444)
  Koca Amasyalı
Mehmed Nizamüddin Pasha
(d. 1439)
1429 1439 10 years
Çandarlı Halil Pasha the Younger
(d. 1453)
1439 10 July
1453 †
(Imprisoned, executed)
14 years, 151 days
  Mehmed II
 
(1444–1446)
Murad II
 
(1446–1451)
Mehmed II
 
(1451–1481)
  Zaganos Pasha
(d. 1469)
1453 1456 3 years
  Mahmud Pasha Angelović
(1420–1474)
First term
1456 1468 12 years
  Rum Mehmed Pasha
(d. 1470)
1468 1469 1 year
  İshak Pasha
(d. 1487)
First term
1469 1472 3 years
  Mahmud Pasha Angelović
(1420–1474)
Second term
1472 1474 †
(Executed)
2 years
  Gedik Ahmed Pasha
(d. 1482)
1474 1477 3 years
  Karamani Mehmed Pasha
(d. 1481)
1477 4 May
1481 †
(Executed)
4 years
  İshak Pasha
(d. 1487)
Second term
1481 1482 1 year Bayezid II
 
(1481–1512)
  Koca
Davud Pasha
(1446–1498)
1482 1497 15 years
  Hersekzade Ahmed Pasha
(1459–1517)
First term
1497 1498 1 year
  Çandarlı Ibrahim Pasha the Younger
(1429–1499)
1498 1499 †
(Died in office)
1 year
  Mesih Pasha
(d. 1501)
1499 November1501 †
(Died in office)
2 years
  Hadım
Ali Pasha
(d. 1511)
First term
1501 1503 2 years
  Hersekzade Ahmed Pasha
(1459–1517)
Second term
1503 1506 3 years
  Hadım
Ali Pasha
(d. 1511)
Second term
1506 July
1511 †
(Fell in battle)
5 years
  Hersekzade Ahmed Pasha
(1459–1517)
Third term
1511 1511 59 days
  Koca
Mustafa Pasha
(d. 1512)
1511 1512 †
(Executed)
1 year
  Hersekzade Ahmed Pasha
(1459–1517)
Fourth term
1512 28 November
1514
2 years, 331 days Selim I
 
(1512–1520)
  Dukakinzade Ahmed Pasha
(d. 1515)
18 December
1514
8 September
1515 †
(Executed)
264 days
  Hersekzade Ahmed Pasha
(1459–1517)
Fifth term
8 September
1515
26 April
1516
231 days
  Hadım
Sinan Pasha
(1459–1517)
26 April
1516
22 January
1517 †
(Fell in battle)
271 days
  Yunus Pasha
(d. 1517)
22 January
1517
13 September
1517 †
(Executed)
234 days
  Piri
Mehmed Pasha
(1465–1532)
25 January
1518
27 June
1523
5 years, 153 days
Suleiman I
 
(1520–1566)
  Pargalı İbrahim Pasha
(1495–1536)
27 June
1523
14 March
1536 †
(Assassinated)
12 years, 261 days
  Ayas Mehmed Pasha
(1483–1539)
14 March
1536
13 July
1539 †
(Died in office)
3 years, 121 days
  Çelebi
Lütfi Pasha
(1488–1564)
13 July
1539
April
1541
1 year, 262 days
  Hadım
Süleyman Pasha
(1467–1547)
April
1541
28 November
1544
3 years, 241 days
  Damat
Rüstem Pasha
(1500–1561)
First term
28 November
1544
6 October
1553
8 years, 312 days
  Kara
Ahmed Pasha
(d. 1555)
6 October
1553
29 September
1555 †
(Executed)
1 year, 358 days
  Damat
Rüstem Pasha
(1500–1561)
Second term
29 September
1555
10 July
1561 †
(Died in office)
5 years, 284 days
  Semiz Ali Pasha
(d. 1565)
10 July
1561
28 June
1565 †
(Died in office)
3 years, 353 days
Sokollu Mehmed Pasha
(1506–1579)
28 June
1565
12 October
1579 †
(Assassinated)
14 years, 106 days
  Selim II
 
(1566–1574)
Murad III
 
(1574–1595)
  Şemsi Pasha
(1492–1580)
12 October
1579
28 April
1580 †
(Died in office)
199 days
  Kara Lala
Mustafa Pasha
(1500–1580)
28 April
1580
7 August
1580 †
(Died in office)
101 days
  Koca
Sinan Pasha
(1506–1596)
First term
7 August
1580
6 December
1582
2 years, 121 days
  Kanijeli Siyavuş Pasha
(d. 1602)
First term
24 December
1582
25 July
1584
1 year, 214 days
  Özdemiroğlu Osman Pasha
(1526–1585)
28 July
1584
29 October
1585 †
(Died in office)
1 year, 93 days
  Hadım
Mesih Pasha
(d. 1589)
1 November
1585
14 April
1586
164 days
  Kanijeli Siyavuş Pasha
(d. 1602)
Second term
14 April
1586
2 April
1589
2 years, 353 days
  Koca
Sinan Pasha
(1506–1596)
Second term
14 April
1589
1 August
1591
2 years, 109 days
  Serdar Ferhad Pasha
(d. 1595)
First term
1 August
1591
4 April
1592
247 days
  Kanijeli Siyavuş Pasha
(d. 1602)
4 April
1592
28 January
1593
299 days
  Koca
Sinan Pasha
(1506–1596)
Third term
28 January
1593
16 February
1595
2 years, 19 days
Mehmed III
 
(1595–1603)
  Serdar Ferhad Pasha
(d. 1595)
Second term
16 February
1595
7 July
1595
141 days
  Koca
Sinan Pasha
(1506–1596)
Fourth term
7 July
1595
19 November
1595
135 days
  Lala
Tekeli Mehmed Pasha
(d. 1595)
19 November
1595
28 November
1595 †
(Died in office)
9 days
  Koca
Sinan Pasha
(1506–1596)
Fifth term
1 December
1595
3 April
1596 †
(Died in office)
124 days
  Damat
Ibrahim Pasha
(1517–1601)
First term
4 April
1596
27 October
1596
206 days
  Cağalazâde Yusuf Sinan Pasha
(1545–1605)
27 October
1596
5 December
1596
39 days
  Damat
Ibrahim Pasha
(1517–1601)
Second term
5 December
1596
3 November
1597
332 days
  Hadım
Hasan Pasha
(d. 1598)
3 November
1597
9 April
1598 †
(Imprisoned, executed)
157 days
  Cerrah
Mehmed Pasha
(d. 1604)
9 April
1598
6 January
1599
272 days
  Damat
Ibrahim Pasha
(1517–1601)
Third term
6 January
1599
10 July
1601 †
(Died in office)
2 years, 185 days
  Damat Yemişçi
Hasan Pasha
(1535–1603)
22 July
1601
4 October
1603 †
(Dismissed, executed)
2 years, 74 days
  Yavuz Ali Pasha
(d. 1604)
16 October
1603
26 July
1604 †
(Died in office)
253 days
Ahmed I
 
(1603–1617)
  Lala
Sokolluzade Mehmed Pasha
(d. 1606)
5 August
1604
21 June
1606 †
(Died in office)
1 year, 320 days
  Boşnak
Derviş Mehmed Pasha
(1569–1606)
21 June
1606
9 December
1606 †
(Executed)
171 days
  Kuyucu
Murad Pasha
(1535–1611)
11 December
1606
5 August
1611 †
(Died in office)
4 years, 237 days
  Damat Gümülcineli
Nasuh Pasha
(d. 1614)
5 August
1611
17 October
1614 †
(Executed)
3 years, 73 days
  Kara Damat Öküz
Mehmed Pasha
(d. 1619)
First term
17 October
1614
17 November
1616
2 years, 31 days
Damat
Halil Pasha
(1570–1629)
First term
17 November
1616
18 January
1619
2 years, 62 days
  Mustafa I
 
(1617–1618)
Osman II
 
(1618–1622)
  Kara Damat Öküz
Mehmed Pasha
(d. 1619)
Second term
18 January
1619
23 December
1619 †
(Assassinated)
339 days
  Güzelce
Ali Pasha
(d. 1621)
23 December
1619
9 March
1621 †
(Died in office)
1 year, 76 days
  Ohridli
Hüseyin Pasha
(d. 1622)
9 March
1621
17 September
1621
(Lynched)
192 days
  Dilaver Pasha
(d. 1622)
17 September
1621
20 May
1622 †
(Lynched)
245 days
  Kara
Davud Pasha
(1570–1623)
20 May
1622
13 June
1622 †
(Dismissed, executed)
24 days Mustafa I

 
(1622–1623)

  Mere
Hüseyin Pasha
(d. 1624)
First term
13 June
1622
8 July
1622
25 days
  Lefkeli Mustafa Pasha
(d. 1648)
8 July
1622
21 September
1622
75 days
Murad IV
 

(1623–1640)

  Hadım
Mehmed Pasha
(d. 1626)
21 September
1622
5 February
1623
137 days
  Mere
Hüseyin Pasha
(d. 1624)
Second term
5 February
1623
30 August
1623
206 days
  Kara Kemankeş
Ali Pasha
(d. 1624)
30 August
1623
3 April
1624 †
(Executed)
217 days
  Çerkez
Mehmed Pasha
(d. 1625)
3 April
1624
28 January
1625 †

(Died in office)

300 days
  Hafız
Ahmed Pasha
(1564–1632)
First term
8 February
1625
1 December
1626
1 year, 296 days
  Damat
Halil Pasha
(1570–1629)
Second term
1 December
1626
6 April
1628
1 year, 127 days
  Gazi
Ekrem Hüsrev Pasha
(d. 1632)
6 April
1628
25 October
1631
3 years, 202 days
  Hafız
Ahmed Pasha
(1564–1632)
Second term
25 October
1631
10 February
1632 †
(Lynched)
108 days
  Topal
Recep Pasha
(d. 1632)
10 February
1632
18 May
1632 †
(Executed)
98 days
  Tabanıyassı
Mehmed Pasha
(1589–1637)
18 May
1632
2 February
1637
4 years, 260 days
  Bayram Pasha
(d. 1638)
2 February
1637
26 August
1638
1 year, 205 days
  Tayyar
Mehmed Pasha
(d. 1638)
27 August
1638
24 December
1638 †
(Fell in battle)
119 days
  Kara Kemankeş
Mustafa Pasha
(1592–1644)
23 December
1638
31 January
1644 †
(Executed)
5 years, 39 days
Ibrahim
 
(1640–1648)
  Civan Kapucubaşı
Sultanzade Mehmet Pasha
(1603–1646)
31 January
1644
17 December
1645
1 year, 320 days
  Nevesinli Salih Pasha
(d. 1647)
17 December
1645
16 September
1647 †
(Executed)
1 year, 273 days
  Kara
Musa Pasha
(d. 1649)
16 September
1647
21 September
1647
5 days
  Hazarpare
Ahmet Pasha
(d. 1648)
21 September
1647
8 August
1648 †
(Lynched)
322 days
  Sofu
Mehmed Pasha
(d. 1649)
8 August
1648
21 May
1649 †
(Exiled, executed)
286 days Mehmed IV
 
(1648–1687)
  Kara Dev
Murat Pasha
(1595–1655)
First term
21 May
1649
5 August
1651
2 years, 76 days
  Damat Melek
Ahmed Pasha
(1604–1662)
5 August
1651
21 August
1651
16 days
  Abaza
Siyavuş Pasha I
(d. 1656)
21 August
1651
27 September
1651
37 days
  Gürcü
Mehmed Pasha
(d. 1665)
27 September
1651
20 June
1652
267 days
  Tarhoncu Ahmed Pasha
(d. 1653)
20 June
1652
21 March
1653 †

(Executed)

274 days
  Koca
Dervish Mehmed Pasha
(d. 1655)
21 March
1653
28 October
1654
1 year, 221 days
  İpşiri Mustafa Pasha
(1607–1655)
28 October
1654
11 May
1655 †
(Executed)
195 days
  Kara Dev
Murat Pasha
(1595–1655)
Second term
11 May
1655
19 August
1655
100 days
  Ermeni
Suleyman Pasha
(1607–1687)
19 August
1655
28 February
1656
193 days
  Deli Gazi
Hüseyin Pasha
(d. 1659)
28 February
1656
5 March
1656
6 days
  Zurnazen Mustafa Pasha
(d. 1666)
5 March
1656
5 March
1656
4 hours[3]
  Abaza
Siyavuş Pasha I
(d. 1656)
5 March
1656
25 April
1656 †
(Died in office)
51 days
  Boynuyaralı Mehmed Pasha
(d. 1665)
26 April
1656
15 September
1656
142 days
  Köprülü Mehmed Pasha
(1575–1661)
15 September
1656
31 October
1661 †
(Died in office)
5 years, 46 days
  Köprülü Fazıl Ahmed Pasha
(1635–1676)
31 October
1661
19 October
1676 †
(Died in office)
14 years, 354 days
  Kara
Mustafa Pasha
(1635–1683)
19 October
1676
25 December
1683 †
(Executed)
7 years, 67 days
  Kara
İbrahim Pasha
(d. 1687)
15 December
1683
18 November
1685
1 year, 338 days
  Sarı
Süleyman Pasha
(d. 1687)
18 November
1685
18 September
1687 †
(Executed)
3 years, 304 days
  Abaza

Siyavuş Pasha II
(d. 1688)

18 September
1687
23 February
1688 †
(Murdered)
158 days
Suleiman II

 
(1687–1691)

  Ayaşlı İsmail Pasha
(1620–1690)
23 February
1688
2 May
1688
69 days
  Bekri
Mustafa Pasha
(d. 1690)
30 May
1688
7 November
1689
1 year, 161 days
  Köprülü Fazıl Mustafa Pasha
(1637–1691)
10 November
1689
19 August
1691 †
(Fell in battle)
1 year, 282 days
Ahmed II
 
(1691–1695)
  Arabacı
Ali Pasha
(1620–1693)
24 August
1691
21 March
1692
210 days
  Hacı
Merfizonlu Ali Pasha
(d. 1698)
23 March
1692
17 March
1693
359 days
  Bozoklu Mustafa Pasha
(1638–1698)
17 March
1693
13 March
1694
360 days
  Sürmeli Ali Pasha
(1645–1695)
13 March
1694
22 April
1695
359 days
Mustafa II

 
(1695–1703)

  Elmas
Mehmed Pasha
(1661–1697)
3 May
1695
11 September
1697 †
(Fell in battle)
2 years, 131 days
  Amcazade Köprülü Hüseyin Pasha
(1644–1702)
17 September
1697
4 September
1702
4 years, 352 days
  Daltaban
Mustafa Pasha
(d. 1703)
4 September
1702
24 January
1703 †
(Dismissed, executed)
142 days
  Rami Mehmed Pasha
(1645–1706)
25 January
1703
22 August
1703
209 days
  Nişancı
Kavanoz Ahmed Pasha
(d. 1705)
22 August
1703
16 November
1703
86 days Ahmed III
 
(1703–1730)
  Damat
Hasan Pasha
(1658–1713)
18 November
1703
28 September
1704
315 days
  Hacı
Kalaylıkoz Ahmed Pasha [tr]
(d. 1715)
October
1704
25 December
1704
85 days
  Baltacı
Mehmed Pasha
(1652–1712)
First term
25 December
1704
3 May
1706
1 year, 129 days
  Damat
Çorlulu Ali Pasha
(1670–1711)
3 May
1706
15 June
1710
4 years, 43 days
  Köprülü Numan Pasha
(1670–1719)
16 June
1710
17 August
1710
62 days
  Baltacı
Mehmed Pasha
(1652–1712)
Second term
18 August
1710
20 November
1711
1 year, 94 days
  Ağa
Yusuf Pasha
(d. 1713)
20 November
1711
11 November
1712
357 days
  Nişancı
Süleyman Pasha
(d. 1715)
12 November
1712
6 April
1713
145 days
  Hoca Ibrahim Pasha [tr]
(d. 1713)
6 April
1713
7 April
1713 †
(Executed)
1 day
  Damat Silahdar
Ali Pasha
(1667–1716)
27 April
1713
5 August
1716 †
(Fell in battle)
3 years, 100 days
  Hacı
Halil Pasha
(d. 1733)
21 August
1716
26 August
1717
1 year, 5 days
  Nişancı
Mehmed Pasha [tr]
(d. 1728)
26 August
1717
9 May
1718
256 days
  Damat Nevşehirli
Ibrahim Pasha
(1662–1730)
9 May
1718
1 October
1730 †
(Lynched)
12 years, 145 days
  Damat Silahdar
Mehmed Pasha [tr]
(d. 1737)
16 October
1730
23 January
1731
99 days Mahmud I
 
(1730–1754)
  Kabakulak Ibrahim Pasha [tr]
(d. 1743)
23 January
1731
11 September
1731
231 days
  Topal
Osman Pasha
(1663–1733)
21 September
1731
12 March
1732
173 days
  Hekimoğlu Ali Pasha
(1689–1758)
First term
12 March
1732
14 July
1735
3 years, 124 days
  Gürcü
İsmail Pasha [tr]
(d. 1738)
14 July
1735
25 December
1735
164 days
  Silahdar Seyyid
Mehmed Pasha [tr]
(d. 1757)
10 January
1736
5 August
1737
1 year, 207 days
  Muhsinzade Abdullah Pasha [tr]
(1661–1757)
22 August
1737
19 December
1737
119 days
  Yeğen Mehmed Pasha [tr]
(d. 1745)
3 December
1737
23 March
1739
1 year, 110 days
  İvaz Mehmed Pasha
(d. 1743)
17 March
1739
23 June
1740
1 year, 98 days
  Nişancı Kör Hacı
Ahmed Pasha
(d. 1753)
22 July
1740
7 April
1742
2 years, 259 days
  Hekimoğlu Ali Pasha
(1689–1758)
Second term
21 April
1742
4 October
1742
166 days
  Seyyid
Hasan Pasha
(d. 1748)
4 October
1742
10 August
1746
3 years, 310 days
  Hacı
Tiryaki Mehmed Pasha [tr]
(1680–1751)
11 August
1746
24 August
1747
1 year, 13 days
  Seyyid
Abdullah Pasha
(d. 1760)
24 August
1747
2 January
1750
2 years, 131 days
  Divitdar
Mehmed Emin Pasha
(d. 1753)
9 January
1750
1 July
1752
2 years, 174 days
  Köse
Bahir Mustafa Pasha
(d. 1765)
1 July
1752
16 February
1755
2 years, 230 days
Osman III
 
(1754–1757)
  Hekimoğlu Ali Pasha
(1689–1758)
Third term
16 February
1755
19 May
1755
92 days
  Naili Abdullah Pasha
(d. 1758)
19 May
1755
24 August
1755
97 days
  Nişancı Silahdar
Bıyıklı Ali Paşa [tr]
(d. 1755)
24 August
1755
23 October
1755 †
(Executed)
60 days
  Yirmisekizzade Mehmed Said Pasha
(d. 1761)
25 October
1755
1 April
1756
159 days
  Köse
Bahir Mustafa Pasha
(d. 1765)
First term
30 April
1756
3 December
1756
217 days
  Koca
Ragıp Pasha
(1698–1763)
12 January
1757
8 April
1763 †
(Died in office)
6 years, 86 days
Mustafa III
 
(1757–1774)
  Tevkii Hamza Hamid Pasha [tr]
(1688–1770)
11 April
1763
29 September
1763
171 days
  Köse
Bahir Mustafa Pasha
(d. 1765)
Second term
29 September
1763
30 March
1765 †
(Dismissed, executed)
1 year, 213 days
  Muhsinzade Mehmed Pasha [tr]
(1704–1774)
First term
30 March
1765
7 August
1768
3 years, 130 days
  Silahdar
Hamza Mahir Pasha [tr]
(1727–1771)
7 August
1768
20 October
1768
74 days
  Yağlıkçızade Mehmed Emin Pasha [tr]
(1724–1769)
20 October
1768
12 August
1769 †
(Dismissed, executed)
296 days
  Moldovancı Ali Pasha [tr]
(d. 1773)
12 August
1769
12 December
1769
122 days
  İvazzade Halil Pasha
(1724–1777)
13 December
1769
25 December
1770
1 year, 12 days
  Silahdar
Cihangirli Mehmed Paşa [tr]
(1710–1788)
25 December
1770
11 December
1771
351 days
  Muhsinzade Mehmed Pasha [tr]
(1704–1774)
Second term
11 December
1771
6 August
1774 †
(Died in office)
2 years, 238 days
Abdul Hamid I

 
(1774–1789)

  İzzet Mehmed Pasha
(1723–1784)
11 August
1774
7 July
1775
330 days
  Moralı Derviş Mehmed Pasha [tr]
(1735–1777)
7 July
1775
5 January
1777
1 year, 182 days
  Darendeli Mehmed Pasha [tr]
(1714–1784)
5 January
1777
1 September
1778
1 year, 239 days
  Kalafat Mehmed Pasha [tr]
(d. 1792)
1 September
1778
22 August
1779
355 days
  Silahdar Seyyid
Mehmed Pasha [tr]
(1735–1781)
22 August
1779
20 February
1781 †
(Died in office)
1 year, 182 days
  İzzet Mehmed Pasha
(1723–1784)
20 February
1781
25 August
1782
1 year, 186 days
  Hacı Yeğen
Mehmed Paşa [tr]

(1726–1787)
25 August
1782
31 December
1782
128 days
  Halil Hamid Pasha
(1736–1785)
31 December
1782
30 April
1785 †
(Executed)
2 years, 120 days
  Şahin Ali Paşa [tr]
(d. 1789)
30 April
1785
25 January
1786
270 days
  Koca
Yusuf Pasha
(1730–1800)
First term
25 January
1786
28 May
1789
3 years, 123 days
Selim III

 
(1789–1807)

  Meyyit Kethüda
Hasan Pasha
(d. 1810)
28 May
1789
2 January
1790
219 days
  Gazi Cezayirli
Hasan Pasha
(1713–1790)
2 January
1790
30 March
1790 †
(Died in office)
87 days
  Şerif Hasan Pasha [tr]
(d. 1791)
16 April
1790
12 February
1791 †
(Assassinated)
302 days
  Koca
Yusuf Pasha
(1730–1800)
Second term
12 February
1791
1792 323 days
  Damat
Melek Mehmed Pasha [tr]
(1719–1802)
1792 21 October
1794
2 years, 293 days
  Safranbolulu İzzet Mehmet Pasha
(1743–1812)
21 October
1794
23 October
1798
4 years, 2 days
  Kör
Yusuf Ziyaüddin Pasha
(d. 1819)
First term
23 October
1798
24 June
1805
6 years, 244 days
  Bostancıbaşı
Hafız İsmail Pasha [tr]
(1758–1807)
24 September
1805
13 October
1806
1 year, 19 days
  Keçiboynuzu İbrahim Hilmi Pasha [tr]
(1747–1825)
13 October
1806
3 June
1807
233 days
Mustafa IV

 
(1807–1808)

  Çelebi Mustafa Pasha [tr]
(d. 1811)
3 June
1807
28 July
1808
1 year, 55 days
  Alemdar/Bayrakdar
Mustafa Pasha
(1750–1808)
29 July
1808
15 November
1808 †
(Committed suicide)
109 days Mahmud II

 
(1808–1839)

  Çavuşbaşı
Memiş Pasha [tr]
(d. 1809)
16 November
1808
December
1808
15 days
  Çarhacı Ali Pasha [tr]
(d. 1823)
December
1808
March
1809
90 days
  Kör
Yusuf Ziyaüddin Pasha
(d. 1819)
Second term
March
1809
February
1811
1 year, 337 days
  Laz
Aziz Ahmed Pasha
(d. 1819)
February
1811
July
1812
1 year, 151 days
  Hurşit Ahmed Pasha
(d. 1822)
July
1812
30 March
1815
2 years, 272 days
  Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha
(1780–1860)
First term
30 March
1815
6 January
1818
2 years, 282 days
  Burdurlu Derviş Mehmed Pasha [tr]
(1765–1837)
6 January
1818
5 January
1820
1 year, 364 days
  Seyyid
Ispartalı Ali Pasha [tr]
(1756–1826)
5 January
1820
21 April
1821
1 year, 106 days
  Benderli Ali Pasha
(d. 1821)
21 April
1821
30 April
1821 †
(Executed)
9 days
  Hacı
Izmirli Salih Pasha [tr]
(d. 1828)
30 April
1821
11 November
1822
1 year, 195 days
  Bostancıbaşı Deli
Abdullah Pasha [tr]
(d. 1823)
11 November
1822
4 March
1823
113 days
  Silahdar
Turnacızade Ali Pasha [tr]
(d. 1829)
4 March
1823
13 December
1823
284 days
  Mehmed Said Galip Pasha
(1763–1829)
13 December
1823
15 September
1824
277 days
  Mehmed Selim Pasha
(1771–1831)
15 September
1824
26 October
1828
4 years, 41 days
  Topal
İzzet Mehmed Pasha
(1792–1855)
26 October
1828
28 January
1829
94 days
  Reşid Mehmed Pasha
(1780–1836)
28 January
1829
17 February
1833
4 years, 20 days
  Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha
(1780–1860)
Second term
17 February
1833
8 July
1839
6 years, 141 days
Abdul Mecid
 
(1839–1861)
  Koca
Hüsrev Mehmed Pasha
(1769–1855)
8 July
1839
3 November
1839
118 days
Proclamation of the Gülhane Edict

Tanzimat (1839–1876)Edit

The Gülhane edict was announced soon after Abdul Mecid's sword girthing, ushering in the Tanzimat period, a time of major bureaucratic and administrative reform.

Grand Vizier Term of office Government Sultan
Portrait Epithet
Name
(Birth-Death)
Took office Left office Time in office
  Koca
Hüsrev Mehmed Pasha
(1769–1855)
3 November
1839
29 May
1841
1 year, 207 days Abdul Mecid
 
(1839–1861)
  Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha
(1780–1860)
Third term
29 May
1841
7 October
1841
131 days
  Topal
İzzet Mehmed Pasha
(1792–1855)
7 October
1841
3 September
1842
331 days
  Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha
(1780–1860)
Fourth term
3 September
1842
31 July
1846
3 years, 331 days
  Koca
Mustafa Reşid Pasha
(1800–1858)
First term
31 July
1846
28 April
1848
1 year, 272 days
  İbrahim Sarim Pasha
(1801–1853)
28 April
1848
13 August
1848
107 days
  Koca
Mustafa Reşid Pasha
(1800–1858)
Second term
13 August
1848
26 January
1852
3 years, 166 days
  Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha
(1780–1860)
Fifth term
27 January
1852
7 March
1852
40 days
  Koca
Mustafa Reşit Pasha
(1800–1858)
Third term
7 March
1852
7 August
1852
153 days
  Mehmed Emin Âli Pasha
(1815–1871)
First term
7 August
1852
4 October
1852
58 days
  Damat
Mehmed Ali Pasha
(1813–1868)
4 October
1852
14 May
1853
222 days
  Mustafa Naili Pasha
(1798–1871)
First term
14 May
1853
30 May
1854
1 year, 16 days
  Kıbrıslı
Mehmed Emin Pasha
(1813–1871)
First term
30 May
1854
24 November
1854
178 days
  Koca
Mustafa Reşid Pasha
(1800–1858)
Fourth term
24 November
1854
4 May
1855
161 days
  Mehmed Emin Âli Pasha
(1815–1871)
Second term
4 May
1855
1 December
1856
1 year, 211 days
  Koca
Mustafa Reşid Pasha
(1800–1858)
Fifth term
1 December
1856
2 August
1857
244 days
  Mustafa Naili Pasha
(1798–1871)
Second term
2 August
1857
23 October
1857
82 days
  Koca
Mustafa Reşid Pasha
(1800–1858)
Sixth term
23 October
1857
7 January
1858 †
(Died in office)
76 days
  Mehmed Emin Âli Pasha
(1815–1871)
Third term
11 January
1858
8 October
1859
1 year, 270 days
  Kıbrıslı
Mehmed Emin Pasha
(1813–1871)
Second term
8 October
1859
24 December
1859
77 days
  Mütercim
Mehmed Rüşdi Pasha
(1811–1882)
First term
24 December
1859
27 May
1860
155 days
  Kıbrıslı
Mehmed Emin Pasha
(1813–1871)
Third term
27 May
1860
6 August
1861
1 year, 71 days
Abdul Aziz
 
(1861–1876)
  Mehmed Emin Âli Pasha
(1815–1871)
Fourth term
6 August
1861
22 November
1861
108 days
  Keçecizade
Mehmed Fuad Pasha
(1814–1869)
First term
22 November
1861
6 January
1863
1 year, 45 days
  Yusuf Kamil Pasha
(1808–1876)
6 January
1863
3 June
1863
148 days
  Keçecizade
Mehmed Fuad Pasha
(1814–1869)
Second term
3 June
1863
5 June
1866
3 years, 2 days
  Mütercim
Mehmed Rüşdi Pasha
(1811–1882)
Second term
5 June
1866
11 February
1867
251 days
  Mehmed Emin Âli Pasha
(1815–1871)
Fifth term
11 February
1867
7 September
1871 †
(Died in office)
4 years, 208 days
  Mahmud Nedim Pasha
(1818–1883)
First term
7 September
1871
31 July
1872
328 days
  Ahmed Şefik Midhat Pasha
(1822–1883)
First term
31 July
1872
19 October
1872
80 days
  Mütercim
Mehmed Rüşdi Pasha
(1811–1882)
Third term
19 October
1872
15 February
1873
119 days
  Ahmed Esat Pasha
(1828–1875)
First term
15 February
1873
15 April
1873
59 days
  Şirvanlı Mehmed Rüşdi Pasha
(1828–1874)
15 April
1873
14 February
1874
305 days
  Hüseyin Avni Pasha
(1820–1876)
14 February
1874
25 April
1875
1 year, 70 days
  Ahmed Esat Pasha
(1828–1875)
Second term
25 April
1875
21 August
1875 †
(Died in office)
118 days
  Mahmud Nedim Pasha
(1818–1883)
Second term
21 August
1875
11 May
1876
264 days
  Mütercim
Mehmed Rüşdi Pasha

(1811–1882)

Fourth term

12 May
1876
13 December
1876
Mütercim Rüşdi IV
215 days Murad V
 
(1876)
Abdul Hamid II
 
(1876–1909)
Promulgation of Constitution

First Constitutional Monarchy (1876–1878)Edit

Under pressure from the Young Ottomans which overthrew his relatives Abdul Aziz and Murad V, Abdul Hamid II promulgated a constitution and parliament upon his ascension to the throne.

Grand Vizier Term of office Legislature Government Sultan
Portrait Epithet
Name
(Birth-Death)
Took office Left office Time in office
  Mütercim
Mehmed Rüşdi Pasha
(1811–1882)
Fourth term
13 December
1876
19 December
1876
6 days Mütercim Rüşdi IV Abdul Hamid II
 
(1876–1909)
  Ahmed Şefik Midhat Pasha
(1822–1883)
Second term
19 December
1876
5 February
1877
48 days Midhat II
  İbrahim Edhem Pasha
(1819–1893)
5 February
1877
11 January
1878
340 days Edhem
I
(1876)
II
(1877)
  Ahmed Hamdi Pasha
(1826–1885)
11 January
1878
4 February
1878
24 days Hamdi
  Ahmed Vefik Pasha
(1823–1891)
First term
4 February
1878
14 February
1878
10 days Vefik I
Constitution suspended

İstibdat (1878–1908)Edit

Abdul Hamid II suspended the constitution and parliament in the aftermath of the 1877–1878 Russo Turkish war, and ruled the Ottoman Empire for the next three decades in a personal dictatorship. Historians have dubbed this era of Ottoman history as İstibdat (despotism).

Grand Vizier Term of office Government Sultan
Portrait Epithet
Name
(Birth-Death)
Took office Left office Time in office
  Ahmed Vefik Pasha
(1823–1891)
First term
14 February
1878
18 April
1878
63 days Vefik I Abdul Hamid II
 
(1876–1909)
  Mehmed Sadık Pasha
(1826–1901)
18 April
1878
28 May
1878
40 days Sadık
  Mütercim
Mehmed Rüşdi Pasha
(1811–1882)
Fifth term
28 May
1878
4 June
1878
7 days Mütercim Rüşdi V
  Mehmed Esat Saffet Pasha
(1814–1883)
4 June
1878
October
1878
119 days Saffet
  Tunuslu
Hayreddin Pasha
(1820–1890)
October
1878
28 July
1879
300 days Hayreddin
  Ahmed Arifi Pasha
(1830–1896)
28 July
1879
September
1879
35 days Arifi
  Küçük
Mehmed Said Pasha
(1838–1914)
First term
18 October
1879
9 June
1880
235 days Said I
  Mehmed Kadri Pasha

(1832–1884)

9 June
1880
12 September
1880
95 days Kadri
  Küçük
Mehmed Said Pasha
(1838–1914)
Second term
12 September
1880
2 May
1882
1 year, 232 days Said II
  Abdurrahman Nureddin Pasha
(1833–1912)
2 May
1882
12 July
1882
71 days Nureddin
  Küçük
Mehmed Said Pasha
(1838–1914)
Third term
12 July
1882
30 November
1882
141 days Said III
  Ahmed Vefik Pasha
(1823–1891)
Second term
1 December
1882
3 December
1882
2 days Vefik II
  Küçük
Mehmed Said Pasha
(1838–1914)
Fourth term
3 December
1882
24 September
1885
2 years, 295 days Said IV
  Mehmed Kâmil Pasha
(1833–1913)
First term
25 September
1885
4 September
1891
5 years, 344 days Kâmil I
  Ahmed Cevat Şakir Pasha
(1851–1900)
4 September
1891
8 June
1895
3 years, 277 days Şakir
  Küçük
Mehmed Said Pasha
(1838–1914)
Fifth term
9 June
1895
3 October
1895
116 days Said V
  Mehmed Kâmil Pasha
(1833–1913)
Second term
3 October
1895
7 November
1895
35 days Kâmil II
  Halil Rifat Pasha
(1820–1901)
7 November
1895
9 November
1901 †
(Died in office)
6 years, 2 days Rifat
  Küçük
Mehmed Said Pasha
(1838–1914)
Sixth term
13 November
1901
15 January
1903
1 year, 63 days Said VI
  Mehmed Ferid Pasha
(1851–1914)
15 January
1903
22 July
1908
5 years, 189 days Avyonyalı Ferid
Young Turk Revolution, constitution repromulgated

Second Constitutional Monarchy (1908–1920)Edit

The Young Turks force Abdul Hamid II to reinstate the constitution and parliament on 24 July, 1908. Political parties were introduced in the Second Constitutional Era.

  Union and Progress Party

  Liberty Party, Freedom and Accord Party

Grand Vizier Term of office Political Party Government Legislature Sultan
Portrait Epithet
Name
(Birth-Death)
Took office Left office Time in office
  Küçük
Mehmed Said Pasha
(1838–1914)
Seventh term
22 July
1908
6 August
1908
15 days Independent Said VII Abdul Hamid II
 
(1876–1909)
  Mehmed Kâmil Pasha
(1833–1913)
Third term
5 August
1908
14 February
1909
(censored)
193 days Kâmil III
Liberty Party
III
(1908)
  Hüseyin Hilmi Pasha
(1855–1922)
First term
14 February
1909
14 April
1909
59 days Union and Progress Hilmi I
  Ahmet Tevfik Pasha (Okday)
(1845–1936)
First term
14 April
1909
5 May
1909
21 days Independent Tevfik I
Mehmed V
 
(1909–1918)
  Hüseyin Hilmi Pasha
(1855–1922)
Second term
5 May
1909
15 August
1909
252 days Union and Progress Party Hilmi II
15 August
1909
12 January
1910
Hilmi III
  İbrahim Hakkı Pasha
(1862–1918)
12 January
1910
30 September
1911
1 year, 261 days Hakkı
  Küçük
Mehmed Said Pasha
(1838–1914)
Eighth and ninth term
30 September
1911
31 December
1911
296 days Said VIII
IV
(1912)
31 December
1911
22 July
1912
Said IX
  Gazi
Ahmed Muhtar Pasha

(1839–1919)

22 July
1912
29 October
1912
99 days Independent Muhtar
  Mehmed Kâmil Pasha
(1833–1913)
Fourth term
29 October
1912
23 January
1913
86 days Freedom and Accord Party Kâmil IV
  Mahmud Şevket Pasha
(1856–1913)
23 January
1913
11 June
1913 †
(Assassinated)
139 days Independent Şevket
  Said Halim Pasha
(1865–1921)
12 June
1913
3 February
1917
3 years, 236 days Union and Progress Party Said Halim
V
(1914)
  Mehmed Talât Pasha
(1874–1921)
First and second term
4 February
1917
4 July
1918
1 year, 246 days Talaat I
4 July
1918
8 October
1918
Talaat II Mehmed VI
 
(1918–1922)
  Ahmed İzzet Pasha (Furgaç)
(1864–1937)
14 October
1918
11 November
1918
28 days İzzet
Independent
  Ahmet Tevfik Pasha (Okday)
(1845–1936)
Second term
11 November
1918
12 January
1919
113 days Tevfik II
12 January
1919
24 February
1919
Tevfik III
24 February
1919
3 March
1919
Tevfik IV
  Damat
Mehmed Adil Ferid Pasha
(1853–1923)
First, second, and third term
4 March
1919
15 May
1919
210 days Freedom and Accord Party Ferid I
19 May
1919
20 July
1919
Ferid II
Independent
21 July
1919
30 September
1919
Ferid III
  Ali Rıza Pasha
(1860–1932)
2 October
1919
9 February
1920
153 days Ali Rıza I
VI
(1919)
9 February
1920
3 March
1920
Ali Rıza II
  Salih Hulusi Pasha (Kezrak)
(1864–1939)
8 March
1920
2 April
1920
25 days Hulusi
Constitution suspended

Last Grand Viziers (1920–1922)Edit

Following the end of the Second Constitutional Era in 1920, the Ottoman Empire was in a state of diarchy, with the government based in Constantinople and the government based in Ankara both asserting themselves as the legitimate Turkish government. Mehmed VI abolished the constitution and suspends parliament when the Chamber of Deputies voted in support of the National Pact in the Turkish War of Independence.

Grand Vizier Term of office Political party Cabinet Sultan
Portrait Epithet
Name
(Birth-Death)
Took office Left office Time in office
  Damat
Mehmed Adil Ferid Pasha
(1853–1923)
Fourth and Fifth terms
5 April
1920
199 days Independent Ferid IV Mehmed VI
 
(1918–1922)
21 October
1920
Ferid V
  Ahmet Tevfik Pasha (Okday)
(1845–1936)
Third term
21 October
1920
4 November
1922
2 years, 14 days Tevfik V
End of the Ottoman Empire

During the Conference of London, Ahmet Tevfik Pasha recognized the ambassador of the Grand National Assembly as the legitimate government of Turkey. On 1 November 1922, the Grand National Assembly voted to abolish the Sultanate. Ahmet Tevfik Pasha was the last grand vizier of the Ottoman Empire, and resigned from the premiership on November 4 1922, without a replacement.

Prime Minister of the Government of the Grand National Assembly (1920–1923)Edit

  Association for Defence of National Rights of Anatolia and Rumelia

Prime Minister Term of office Political party Cabinet Legislature Speaker
Took office Left office Time in office
1   Gazi

Mustafa Kemal Pasha (Atatürk)

(1881–1938)

3 May

1920

24 January

1921

266 days Association for the Defence of National Rights of Anatolia and Rumelia Atatürk I

(1920)

Mustafa Kemal Pasha (Atatürk)

 

(1920–1923)

2   Mustafa Fevzi Pasha (Çakmak)

(1876–1950)

24 January

1921

19 May

1921

1 year, 166 days Çakmak I
19 May

1921

9 July

1922

Çakmak II
3   Hüseyin Rauf Pasha (Orbay)

(1881–1964)

12 July

1922

4 August

1923

1 year, 23 days Orbay
4   Ali Fethi (Okyar)

(1880–1943)

14 August

1923

27 October

1923

74 days Okyar
Declaration of the Republic of Turkey

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Archivum Ottomanicum, p. 240, at Google Books
  2. ^ Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire, p. 235, at Google Books
  3. ^ İzahlı Osmanlı Tarihi Kronolojisi, Cilt:5, İsmail Hami Danişmend

SourcesEdit