Pope Alexander VIII (Italian: Alessandro VIII; 22 April 1610 – 1 February 1691), born Pietro Vito Ottoboni, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 6 October 1689 to his death in February 1691. He is to date the last pope to take the pontifical name of "Alexander" upon his election to the papacy.
|Bishop of Rome|
|Papacy began||6 October 1689|
|Papacy ended||1 February 1691|
|Consecration||27 December 1654|
by Marcantonio Bragadin
|Created cardinal||19 February 1652|
by Innocent X
Pietro Vito Ottoboni
22 April 1610
|Died||1 February 1691 (aged 80)|
Rome, Papal States
|Coat of arms|
|Other popes named Alexander|
Alexander VIII is known for having overturned many of the policies of his predecessor, Innocent XI, deciding to indulge in nepotism in order to further enrich his family. Such nepotism exhausted the papal treasury, later forcing his successor, Innocent XII, to implement austere measures to restore the papal coffers. Despite his brief papacy, during which little of importance was undertaken, Alexander VIII is known for having condemned the doctrines of the so-called philosophical sin which was being taught in schools run by the Society of Jesus. Also during his papacy, King Louis XIV of France restored Avignon to the Holy See as a territory of the Papal States.
His early studies were made with marked brilliance at the University of Padua where, in 1627, he earned a doctorate in canon and civil law. Ottoboni went to Rome during the pontificate of Pope Urban VIII and served as the Referendary of the Apostolic Signatura, and later was the governor of the cities Terni, Rieti, Citta di Castello and Spoleto. He also served as the auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota.
Episcopate and cardinalateEdit
Pope Innocent X appointed him to the cardinalate and in 1652 at the request of the Venetian government and he was made the Cardinal-Priest of San Salvatore in Lauro. He was appointed as Bishop of Brescia in 1654 and later received episcopal consecration in the church of San Marco in Rome. He would spend a quiet decade in his diocese. He opted to be Cardinal-Priest of San Marco in 1660 and resigned as Bishop of Brescia in 1664. Ottoboni also opted to become Cardinal-Priest of Santa Maria in Trastevere in 1677 and later as Cardinal-Priest of Santa Prassede in 1680. He later became the Cardinal-Bishop of Sabina in 1681 and then to Frascati in 1683. His last swap was that of Porto e Santa Rufina in 1687.
Ottoboni was also the Vice-Dean of the College of Cardinals from 1687 to his pontifical election.
|Papal styles of|
Pope Alexander VIII
|Reference style||His Holiness|
|Spoken style||Your Holiness|
|Religious style||Holy Father|
The ambassador of King Louis XIV of France (1643–1715) succeeded in procuring his election on 6 October 1689, as the successor to Pope Innocent XI (1676–89); nevertheless, after months of negotiation Alexander VIII finally condemned the declaration made in 1682 by the French clergy concerning the liberties of the Gallican church.
He chose the pontifical name of "Alexander VIII" in gratitude to Cardinal Flavio Chigi, the nephew of Pope Alexander VII, who also had helped support his candidacy. Ottoboni was crowned as pontiff on 16 October 1689 by the protodeacon Cardinal Francesco Maidalchini and took possession of the Basilica of Saint John Lateran on 28 October 1689.
Old but of a strong constitution, Alexander VIII was said to be an able diplomat. During his brief pontificate he managed to destroy most of his predecessor's good work. All the money saved by Innocent XI was spent on enriching the Ottoboni family and to a cardinal he said: "I have no time to lose; for me the day is almost done!"
Alexander VIII was almost an octogenarian when elected to the papacy, which lasted only sixteen months, during which time little of importance was done. Louis XIV, whose political situation was now critical, profited by the peaceful dispositions of the new pope, restored Avignon to him, and renounced the long-abused right of asylum for the French Embassy.
Charities on a large scale and unbounded nepotism exhausted the papal treasury, reversing the policies of his predecessor. Among the various nominations, his 22-year-old grandnephew Pietro was made cardinal and vice-chancellor of the Church, nephew Marco, son of his brother Agostino, was made inspector of naval fortifications and Duke of Fiano, and nephew Antonio, another of Agostino's children, was made general of the church. His nephew Giovanni Rubin was made secretary of state and bishop of Vicenza. Out of compassion for the poor of the impoverished Papal States, he sought to help them by reducing taxes. But this same generous nature led him to bestow on his relations the riches they were eager to accumulate; on their behalf, and to the discredit of his pontificate, he revived sinecure offices which had been suppressed by Innocent XI. He bought the books and manuscripts of Queen Christina of Sweden for the Vatican Library. Alexander VIII assisted his native Venice by generous subsidies in the war against the Turks, as well as sending seven galleys and 2,000 infantry for the campaign in Albania.
Beatifications and canonizationsEdit
Alexander VIII confirmed the cultus of Kinga of Poland on 11 June 1690 which served as the beatification. On 16 October 1690, he canonized several saints: Ss. Pascal Baylon, Lorenzo Giustiniani, John of Sahagun, John of God and John of Capistrano.
The pope created 14 cardinals in three consistories and elevated individuals such as his grandnephew Pietro Ottoboni in a restoration of nepotism that had not been seen in his predecessor's reign. Among those whom he named was Gianfrancesco Albani, the future Pope Clement XI.
Death and burialEdit
Alexander VIII died on 1 February 1691. His grandiose tomb in Saint Peter's was commissioned by his grandnephew, Cardinal Pietro Ottoboni, and designed by Count Arrigo di San Martino. The bas-relief at the base and the flanking figures (1704) were sculpted by Angelo de' Rossi, while the bronze statue of the pope was cast by Giuseppe Bertosi.
On 16 October 1690, the day that he celebrated a canonization Mass, it was noticed that Alexander VIII appeared to look relatively sluggish and hence seemed like he had fallen ill. While it was hypothesized that he may have had a minor stroke, his doctors suggested that the pope rest but were unsure of what exactly had caused the pope to fall ill. On 20 January 1691, Cardinal Forbin Janson informed King Louis XIV that the pope was seriously ill, and on 22 January, that his condition had dramatically deteriorated and that his nephew was pessimistic about his uncle's chances. On 27 January, it was reported that gangrene had set in while Alexander VIII met with twelve cardinals on 30 January. Alexander VIII died at 4:00pm on 1 February 1691 while a plague from Naples had spread to Rome, infecting the pope and hastening his death.
- Giuseppe Zandemaria, Bishop of Piacenza (1655);
- Carlo Cardinal Bonelli, Titular Archbishop of Corinthus (1656);
- Nicolaus Carpenia, Archbishop of Durrës (1657);
- Daniele Giustiniani, Bishop of Bergamo (1664);
- Bartolomeo Gradenigo, Bishop of Concordia (1667);
- Pietro Leoni (bishop), Bishop of Ceneda (1667);
- Sebastiano Pisani (iuniore), Bishop of Verona (1668); and
- Raimondo del Pozzo, Bishop of Vieste (1668).
- public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Alexander (popes)". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 556. One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the
- One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pope Alexander VIII". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
- Peggy Fogelman; Peter Fusco; Marietta Cambareri (26 December 2002). Italian and Spanish Sculpture: Catalogue of the J. Paul Getty Museum Collection. Getty Publications. p. 224. ISBN 978-0-89236-689-7.
- Forrer, L. (1916). Biographical Dictionary of Medallists. Vol. 6. Spink & Son, LTD. p. 129.
- Olszewski E. page 13.
- "Pope Alexander VIII: Proceedings of the Conclave that led to his election". Pickle Publishing. 2005. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
- Olszewski E. page 5.
- Olszewski, Edward J. (2004). Cardinal Pietro Ottoboni (1667-1740) and the Vatican Tomb of Pope Alexander VIII. ISBN 9780871692528.
- John Paul Adams (11 August 2015). "Sede Vacante 1691". CSUN. Retrieved 7 March 2022.
- "Pope Alexander VIII - Pietro Vito Ottoboni" Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. Retrieved June 27, 2017
- Rendina, Claudio (1984). I papi. Storia e segreti. Rome: Newton Compton.