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Manaus (Portuguese pronunciation: [mɐˈnaws] or [mɐˈnawʃ]) or Manaós before 1939 or (formerly) Barra do Rio Negro, is the capital city of the state of Amazonas in the North Region of Brazil. It is situated near the confluence of the Negro and Solimões rivers. With a population of more than 2 million, it is the most populous city of both the Brazilian state of Amazonas[2] and the Amazon rainforest.

Manaus
Municipality
Município de Manaus
Municipality of Manaus
Top left: Meeting of Waters; top right: Teatro Amazonas; center: view of the city; bottom left: Manaus–Iranduba Bridge and Rio Negro; bottom right: Arena da Amazônia at night.
Top left: Meeting of Waters; top right: Teatro Amazonas; center: view of the city; bottom left: Manaus–Iranduba Bridge and Rio Negro; bottom right: Arena da Amazônia at night.
Flag of Manaus
Flag
Official seal of Manaus
Seal

Nickname(s): A Paris dos Trópicos (The Paris of the Tropics)

"The Jungle City"
Metropóle da Amazônia (Amazon's Metropolis)
Location in the state of Amazonas
Location in the state of Amazonas
Manaus is located in Brazil
Manaus
Manaus
Location in Brazil
Coordinates: 03°06′S 60°01′W / 3.100°S 60.017°W / -3.100; -60.017Coordinates: 03°06′S 60°01′W / 3.100°S 60.017°W / -3.100; -60.017
Country  Brazil
Region North
State Bandeira do Amazonas.svg Amazonas
Founded October 24, 1669
Government
 • Mayor Arthur Virgílio Neto (PSDB)
Area
 • Municipality 11,401.06 km2 (4,401.97 sq mi)
 • Urban 377 km2 (146 sq mi)
Elevation 92 m (302 ft)
Population (2016)[1]
 • Municipality 2,094,391 (7th)
 • Density 158.06/km2 (450.29/sq mi)
 • Metro 2,568,817 (11th)
Demonym(s) Manauara, Manauense
Time zone UTC-4 (UTC-4)
Postal Code 69000-000
Area code(s) +55 (92)
Website Manaus, Amazonas

The city was founded in 1693–94 as the Fort of São José do Rio Negro. It was elevated to a town in 1832 with the name of "Manaus", an altered spelling of the indigenous Manaós peoples, and legally transformed into a city on October 24, 1848, with the name of Cidade da Barra do Rio Negro, Portuguese for "The City of the Margins of the Black River". On September 4, 1856 it returned to its original name.[3]

Manaus is located in the middle of the Amazon rainforest, and access to the city is primarily by boat or airplane. This isolation helped preserve both the natural environment as well as the culture of the city. The culture of Manaus, more than in any other urban area of Brazil, preserves the habits of Native Brazilian tribes. The city is the main access point for visiting the fauna and flora of the Brazilian Amazon. Few places in the world afford such a variety of plants, birds, insects, and fishes.[4]

It was known at the beginning of the century, as "Heart of the Amazon" and "City of the Forest".[5] Currently its main economic engine is the Industrial Park of Manaus, the famous Free Economic Zone. The city has a free port and an international airport. Its manufactures include electronics, chemical products, and soap; there are distilling and ship construction industries. Manaus also exports Brazil nuts, rubber, jute and rosewood oil. It has a cathedral, opera house, zoological and botanical gardens, an ecopark and regional and native peoples museums.[6]

With a population of 2 million people in 2014, Manaus is the most populous city in the Brazilian Amazon area and the 7th most populous in the country.[7] It is located on the north bank of the Negro River, 18 km (11 mi) above the meeting of the rivers where the Negro merges with the Solimões, to form the Amazon proper. Manaus is 1,400 km (900 mi) inland from the Atlantic Ocean. It is the hub of tourism for the rivers, the jungle lodges and the river cruises.[8]

The Solimões and Negro rivers meet just east of Manaus and join to form the Amazon River (using the Brazilian definition of the river; elsewhere, Solimões is considered the upper part of the Amazon [9]). Rubber made it the richest city in South America during the late 1800s. Rubber also helped Manaus earn its nickname, the "Paris of the Tropics". Many wealthy European families settled in Manaus and brought their love for sophisticated European art, architecture and culture with them. Manaus is also a duty-free zone, which has encouraged development in the region.[10]

Contents

HistoryEdit

 
Manaus in 1865
 
Public Library of the Amazon

Early settlement of ManausEdit

The history of the European colonization of Manaus began in 1499 with the Spanish discovery of the mouth of the Amazon River. The Spanish then continued to colonize the region north of Brazil. Development continued in 1668-1669 with the building of the Fort of São José da Barra do Rio Negro by the Portuguese in order to ensure its predominance in the region, especially against the Dutch, at that time headquartered in what is today Suriname. The fort was constructed in rock and clay, with four cannon guarding the curtains.[11] It continued to function for more than 100 years. Next to the fort there were many indigenous mestizos, who helped in its construction and began to live in the vicinity.[11]

The population grew so much that in 1695, the missionaries (Carmelite, Jesuit, Franciscan) built a nearby chapel dedicated as Nossa Senhora da Conceição (Our Lady of the Conception), who in time became the patron saint of the city.[12]A Royal Charter of March 3 of 1755, created the captaincy of São José do Rio Negro, with capital in Mariuá (now Barcelos), but with the governor, Lobo D'Almada fearing a Spanish invasion, the seat went back to Lugar de Barra in 1791. Being located at the confluence of the Rio Negro and Amazon Rivers, it was a strategic point. On November 13 of 1832, Lugar da Barra was elevated to town status and named Manaus. On October 24 of 1848, under Law 145 of the Provincial Assembly of Para, it was renamed City of Barra do Rio Negro. On September 4 of 1856 the governor Herculano Ferreira Pena finally gave it the name "Manaus".[13]

CabanagemEdit

The Cabanagem was the revolt in which blacks, Indians and mestizos fought against the white political elite and took power in 1835. The Cabanagem reduced the population of the then state of Grão-Pará from about 100,000 to 60,000.[14] The involvement of rebels from the Upper Amazon (Manaus today) in what was originally a movement based in Belém was crucial for the birth of the current state of the Amazon. During the brief period of revolution, the Cabanos of the Upper Amazon, bands of rebels, roamed throughout the region, occupying Manaus twice, and in most settlements their arrival was greeted by the non-white population spontaneously joining their ranks, leading to a greater number of adherents to the movement. With that there was an integration of people in the region thus forming the state.[15]

Rubber boomEdit

 
The Bridge Benjamin Constant built between 1892 and 1895 with parts imported from England.

Manaus was at the center of the Amazon region's rubber boom during the late 19th century. For a time, it was "one of the gaudiest cities of the world".[16] Historian Robin Furneaux wrote of this period, "No extravagance, however absurd, deterred" the rubber barons. "If one rubber baron bought a vast yacht, another would install a tame lion in his villa, and a third would water his horse on champagne."[17] The city built a grand opera house, with vast domes and gilded balconies, and using marble, glass, and crystal, from around Europe. The opera house cost ten million (public-funded) dollars. In one season, half the members of one visiting opera troupe died of yellow fever.[18] The opera house, called the Teatro Amazonas, was effectively closed for most of the 20th Century. However it was used in scenes of the Werner Herzog film Fitzcarraldo (1982). After a gap of almost 90 years, it reopened to produce live opera in 1997 and is now attracting performers from all over the world.[19]

When the seeds of the rubber tree were smuggled out of the Amazon region to be cultivated on plantations in Southeast Asia,[Note 1] Brazil and Peru lost their monopoly on the product. The rubber boom ended abruptly, many people left its major cities, and Manaus fell into poverty. The rubber boom had made possible electrification of the city before it was installed on many European cities, but the end of the rubber boom made the generators too expensive to run. The city was not able to generate electricity again for years.[19]

Free ZoneEdit

In the 60's during the establishment of the military dictatorship in Brazil, the newly installed government concerned about the "demographic gap in Brazil", began to introduce numerous projects in the interior of the country, especially in the Amazon region, with the introduction of the Manaus free trade zone in 1967,[20] and with the opening of new roads within the region, the city had a wide period of investments in financial and economic capital, both national and international, attracted by the tax incentives granted by the free zone, in this period, Manaus had enormous demographic growth becoming one of the most populous cities in Brazil.[21]

Recent eventsEdit

Manaus was one of the host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup and one of the seats of some Olympic football games.[22] It was the only host city in the Amazon rainforest and the most geographically isolated, being further north and west than any of the other host cities. A massive prison riot occurred in January 2017, having begun in Manaus and has later spread to two additional cities in Brazil,[23] thus unleashing security problems within the country.[24][25]

GeographyEdit

Skyline of Manaus.

The largest city in northern Brazil, Manaus occupies an area of 11,401 square kilometres (4,402 sq mi), with a density of 144.4 inhabitants/km². It is the neighboring city of Presidente Figueiredo, Careiro, Iranduba, Rio Preto da Eva, Itacoatiara and Novo Airão.

ClimateEdit

Manaus has a tropical monsoon climate (Am) according to the Köppen climate classification system, with more or less consistent temperatures all year round. Because the driest month, August, sees less than 60 mm (2.4 in) of precipitation, the city's climate falls under the tropical monsoon climate category instead of the tropical rainforest climate category. There is rain throughout the year in the city, though there is a drier period from July to September.

Climate data for Manaus (1961–1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 35.4
(95.7)
36.1
(97)
36.2
(97.2)
35.1
(95.2)
33.8
(92.8)
33.7
(92.7)
35.1
(95.2)
37.6
(99.7)
38.0
(100.4)
37.5
(99.5)
38.2
(100.8)
35.4
(95.7)
38.2
(100.8)
Average high °C (°F) 30.5
(86.9)
30.4
(86.7)
30.6
(87.1)
30.7
(87.3)
30.6
(87.1)
31
(88)
31.3
(88.3)
32.6
(90.7)
32.9
(91.2)
32.8
(91)
32.1
(89.8)
31.3
(88.3)
31.4
(88.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.1
(79)
25.9
(78.6)
26
(79)
26.2
(79.2)
26.2
(79.2)
26.4
(79.5)
26.5
(79.7)
27.3
(81.1)
27.7
(81.9)
27.7
(81.9)
27.2
(81)
26.6
(79.9)
26.7
(80.1)
Average low °C (°F) 23.1
(73.6)
23.1
(73.6)
23.2
(73.8)
23.3
(73.9)
23.3
(73.9)
23
(73)
22.7
(72.9)
23
(73)
23.5
(74.3)
23.7
(74.7)
23.7
(74.7)
23.5
(74.3)
23.3
(73.9)
Record low °C (°F) 18.5
(65.3)
19.5
(67.1)
20.0
(68)
18.5
(65.3)
19.5
(67.1)
19.5
(67.1)
12.1
(53.8)
18.1
(64.6)
20.3
(68.5)
20.8
(69.4)
18.3
(64.9)
19.5
(67.1)
12.1
(53.8)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 264.2
(10.402)
289.5
(11.398)
335.4
(13.205)
311.2
(12.252)
279.2
(10.992)
115.4
(4.543)
85.4
(3.362)
47.3
(1.862)
73.7
(2.902)
112.6
(4.433)
173.8
(6.843)
219.6
(8.646)
2,307.4
(90.843)
Average rainy days (≥ 1 mm) 19 18 20 18 17 11 8 6 6 9 12 16 160
Average relative humidity (%) 86 87 88 87 87 83 80 77 77 79 81 85 83.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours 114.3 87.7 98.5 111.9 148.6 184.8 214.2 225 200.5 171.2 140.9 130.9 1,828.5
Source: Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (INMET).[26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34]

VegetationEdit

 
Aerial view of the Amazon Rainforest, near Manaus

The Amazon represents over half of the planet's remaining rainforests and comprises the largest and most species-rich tract of tropical rainforest in the world. Wet tropical forests are the most species-rich biome, and tropical forests in the Americas are consistently more species rich than the wet forests in Africa and Asia.[35] As the largest tract of tropical rainforest in the Americas, the Amazonian rainforests have unparalleled biodiversity. More than one-third of all species in the world live in the Amazon Rainforest.[36]

Green areasEdit

Despite being located in the Amazon, Manaus is densely developed and has few green areas in the city. The largest green areas are:

  • Mindu Park, located in the center-south of the city, the district Park 10. The Park of Mindú, established in 1989, is one of the largest and most visited parks of the city.
  • Bilhares Park, established in 2005, located in the south-central region of Manaus, in the neighborhood of Plateau.
  • Area of the green hill of Aleixo, created in the 1980s, located in the east of the city and one of the largest urban green areas.
  • Sumaúma State Park, a state park located in the north of Manaus, in the New Town district. It is the smallest state park of the Brazilian Amazon Basin.
  • Castanheiras Pied Tamarin Wildlife Refuge, a 95 hectares (230 acres) refuge created in 1982 to protect a population of endangered pied tamarins.
  • Adolfo Ducke Forest Reserve, a biological reserve established in 1963, and covering an area of 100 square kilometres (100 km x 100 km). The Reserve is managed by INPA (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia - National Institute for Amazon Research).
  • Part of the Anavilhanas National Park, a 350,018 hectares (864,910 acres) conservation unit that was originally an ecological station created in 1981.[37]
  • About 75% of the Rio Negro Left Bank Environmental Protection Area, a 611,008 hectares (1,509,830 acres) sustainable use conservation area created in 1995.[38]
  • The 11,930 hectares (29,500 acres) Tupé Sustainable Development Reserve, created in 2005, about 25 kilometres (16 mi) west of the city.[39]
  • The 86,601 hectares (214,000 acres) Rio Negro State Park South Section, created in 1995, about 40 kilometres (25 mi) by boat to the north west of the city.[40]

HydrologyEdit

The urban area covers all or part of four river basins, all tributaries of the Rio Negro. The São Raimundo and Educandos streams are completely contained in the city. The Tarumã Açu forms the western boundary of the city in its lower reaches, and is fed by several tributaries that originate in the Ducke Reserve and run through the north and west of the city. The Puraquequara forms the east boundary of the urban area in its lower section.[41]

DemographicsEdit

 
Manaus Skyline
 
The Opera House

According to the IBGE, in 2016 there were 2,094,391 people residing in the city, and 2,568,817 people in the Metropolitan Region of Manaus. The population density was 149.9 inhabitants per square kilometre (388/sq mi). The racial makeup of the city was 63.93% Mixed race, 31.88% White, 2.43% Black, 0.87% Asian or Amerindian.[42]

Manaus is the seventh largest city in Brazil, after São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, Brasilia, Fortaleza and Belo Horizonte.

The city's population growth is above the national average, and 10% above the average for the capital (Brasilia). Most of the population is located in the North and East regions of the city, and the New Town (northern area) the neighborhood is the most populous, with more than 260,000 residents.

According to the results of the last census, the city's population increased from 343,038 inhabitants in 1960 to 622,733 in 1970. By 1990 the population grew to 1,025,979 inhabitants, increasing its density to 90.0 inhabitants / km².

According to a 2013 genetic study, the ancestry of the inhabitants of Manaus is 45.9% European, 37.8% Native American and 16.3% African.[43]

ReligionEdit

Although it has been developed along a predominantly Roman Catholic social matrix, both because of colonization and immigration – even today the majority of Manauenses are Catholic – there are nevertheless dozens of different Protestant denominations in the city. Judaism, Candomblé, Islam and spiritualism, among others, are also practised.[11] The city's Catedral Metropolitana Nossa Senhora da Conceição is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Manaus.

The city has a very diverse presence of Protestant or Reformed faiths, such as the Presbyterian Church, Calvary Chapel, For Christ International Church of Grace of God, Pentecostal Church of God in Brazil, Methodist Church, the Anglican Episcopal Church, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the Baptist Church, an Assembly of God Church, the Seventh-day Adventist Church, the Universal Church of the Kingdom of God, and the Jehovah's Witnesses among others. These churches are experiencing considerable growth, mainly in the outskirts of the city. An LDS temple has been built in the city, the 6th in Brazil.[44]

Districts and regionsEdit

Metropolitan regionEdit

The Metropolitan Region of Manaus (RMM) is a metropolitan area that comprises eight cities of the Amazonas state, but without conurbation.

RegionsEdit

Manaus is divided into seven regions: North, Southern, Central-South, East, West, Mid-West and Rural area. The eastern region of the city is the most populated, with approximately 600,000 inhabitants (2007).[45] The northern region of the city has had the highest rate of population growth in recent years, and has the largest neighborhood of the city, the New Town. The Center-South region has the highest per capita income.[46] The Eastern Zone is known for having a large number of hills.

NeighborhoodsEdit

The first neighborhood (bairro) established in Manaus was Educandos. From there, other areas of the city began to be occupied, with the arrival of migrants from other regions of Brazil.

Manaus has the largest neighborhood of Latin America, the neighborhood of Cidade Nova, which has 264,449 inhabitants, but it is estimated that the population exceeds 300,000 inhabitants. Cidade Nova is larger than all the cities inside the Amazonas state.[47]With the permanence and the strengthening of Free Economic Zone of Manaus, the city began to receive investments and constant migration of people from many parts of the state and northern Brazil.

The wealthiest neighborhood in Manaus is Adrianópolis, located in the Central-South Area of the city. Downtown Manaus is located in the Southern area of the city, next to Rio Negro River. After years of development, the historical center has been neglected by the authorities and it has become an area mostly for commerce and poor housing. There is a plan to restore the city centre to its former glory by removing beggars and irregular sellers from sidewalks and by doing that provide more safety for tourists and locals who are trying to walk in the historical areas of the city. All these plans were prompted by the 2014 World Cup.

EconomyEdit

 
Corporate Trade

Manaus is the sixth largest economy in Brazil. According to IBGE in 2014, its GDP was R$67,5 billion.[48] The per capita income for the city was R$33,446.[49] Although the main industry of Manaus through much of the 20th century was rubber, its importance has declined. Given its location, fish, wild fruits like Açai and Capuaçu, and Brazil-nuts make up important trades, as do petroleum refining, soap manufacturing, and chemical industries. Over the last decades, a system of federal investments and tax incentives has turned the surrounding region into a major industrial center (the Free Economic Zone of Manaus).

Manaus sprawls, but the center of town, the Centro where most of the hotels and attractions are located, rises above the river on a slight hill. As the largest city and a major port on the river, Manaus is commercial. Local industries include brewing, shipbuilding, soap manufacturing, the production of chemicals, computers, motorcycles and petroleum refining of oil brought in by barge and tourism.[50][51]

The mobile phone companies LG, Nokia, Samsung, Siemens, Sagem, Gradiente and BenQ-Siemens operate mobile phone manufacturing plants in Manaus.[52][53] Plastic lens manufacturer Essilor also has a plant here. The Brazilian sport utility vehicle manufacturer Amazon Veiculos is headquartered in Manaus.[54] Two airlines, MAP Linhas Aéreas and Manaus Aerotáxi, have headquarters on the grounds of Eduardo Gomes International Airport in Manaus.[55][56]

Free Trade ZoneEdit

The initial idea of a Free Trade Port in Manaus, came from Deputy Francisco Pereira da Silva and was subsequently formalized by Law No. 3.173 on June 6, 1957. The project was approved by the National Congress on October 23, 1951 under No. 1.310 and regulated by Decree No. 47.757 on February 2, 1960. It was then amended by rapporteur Maurcio Jopper, engineer, who by agreement with the original author, justified the creation of a Free Trade Zone instead of a Free Trade Port.

For the first ten years the ZFM (Manaus Free Trade Zone) was located in a warehouse rented from Manaus Harbour, in the Port of Manaus, and relied on federal funds. It was perhaps due to this lack of its own resources that there was little credibility in the project. On February 28, 1967, President Castello Branco signed Decree-Law No. 288, which redefined the Manaus Free Trade Zone in more concrete terms. The new Decree-Law stipulated that the Manaus Free Trade Zone would have a radius of 10,000 km (6,200 mi) with an industrial center as well as an agricultural center and that these would be given the economic means to allow for regional development in order to lift the Amazon out of the economic isolation that it had fallen into at that time.

On August 28, 1967, the Manaus Free Trade Zone Authority, SUFRAMA, was created. SUFRAMA is an independent body with its own legal status and assets and having financial and administrative autonomy. Tax incentives and the subsequent complementary legislation created comparative advantages in the region with respect to other parts of the country and as a result the Manaus Free Trade Zone attracted new investment to the area. These incentives constituted tax exemptions administered federally by SUFRAMA and SUDAM.

EducationEdit

 
Educational Institute of the Amazon

As in all Brazilian cities, according to the Brazilian Constitution, education is a basic right given by the government for free to the population. Unfortunately, public education is very weak and wealthier inhabitants normally enrol their children in the numerous private schools of the city. On the other hand, although there are several private universities, Public Institutions are the most prestigious and the hardest ones to be accepted by due to heavy competition.

  • Federal University of Amazonas - Universidade Federal do Amazonas;
  • University of the State of Amazonas - Universidade do Estado do Amazonas;
  • Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology - Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Amazonas;
  • Centro Universitário do Norte - UNINORTE;
  • Lutheran University of Brazil - Universidade Luterana do Brasil;
  • Centro de Educação Integrada Martha Falcão;
  • Universidade Nilton Lins;
  • Centro Universitário de Educação Superior do Amazonas - CIESA;
  • Escola Superior Batista do Amazonas;
  • Faculdade Boas Novas;
  • Faculdade Metropolitana de Manaus;
  • Universidade Paulista.

TransportationEdit

AirportsEdit

Eduardo Gomes International Airport is the airport serving Manaus. The airport has two passenger terminals, one for scheduled flights and the other for regional aviation. It also has three cargo terminals.

Eduardo Gomes International Airport is Brazil's third largest in freight movement,[57] handling the import and export demand from the Manaus Industrial Complex. For this reason, Infraero invested in construction of the third cargo terminal, opened on December 14, 2004. TAM Airlines also inaugurated their own cargo terminal near the airport in 2008, which claims to be their largest cargo terminal in Brazil. The country's major dedicated freight route is between Manaus and Viracopos International Airport, which is operated by wide-body jets. Other freight routes include North America and Europe.

The passenger terminal had been fully refurbished and expanded in time for the 2014 FIFA Football World Cup, which held 4 games in Manaus. The airport currently operates daily international flights to Miami, United States, by American Airlines and LATAM Airlines Brasil, to the city of Panama, by Copa Airlines, to Willemstad, Curaçao, by Insel Air and to Barcelona, Venezuela, by Avior Airlines. The airport has direct flights to all major airports in Brazil, operated by the three major carriers: Gol Transportes Aéreos, TAM Airlines and Azul Brazilian Airlines. The airport's IATA code is MAO.

Manaus Air Force Base, a base of the Brazilian Air Force is at the former Ponta Pelada Airport.

Apart from the Eduardo Gomes International Airport and Ponta Pelada Airport, Manaus still has an operational airstrip used by small propeller aircraft and helicopters about 6 kilometres (4 miles) north of the city centre, simply known as the "Aeroclube" ("airclub"). On Sundays, it is used for parachuting and where flying classes can be hired. Due to the fact that it is surrounded by residential areas, and has a recent history of crashes, it is under constant pressure to be moved.

HighwaysEdit

 
Gilberto Mestrinho road complex.

There are two federal highways that intersect Manaus. There is a paved road heading North (BR-174) connecting Manaus to Boa Vista, capital of the State of Roraima and to Venezuela. Strictly speaking, Manaus is connected by road to the rest of Brazil, as it is possible to drive continuously from Manaus into Venezuela, and then reenter Brazil in the state of Acre by passing through the countries of Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. As such a route is impractical for most motorists, the vast majority of transportation to and from Manaus is by boat or plane, except for journeys to Roraima. The Independent noted that "there are still no roads to Manaus" from the rest of the country.[58]

The BR-319 heads South connecting Manaus to Porto Velho, the state capital of Rondônia. However, the access to this highway requires a ferry crossing to Careiro, across the Rio Negro and River Amazon, which takes about 40 minutes, and then is only paved for about another 100 km (62 mi) to Castanho. After that, the highway is not paved, and can not be used. Various governments have promised to recover this land-link with the rest of the country, but environmental issues, high costs and complicated logistics have impeded any progress so far.

The two major state highways are the AM-010 and the AM-070. The AM-010 heads east, to Itacoatiara, Amazonas at the banks of the River Amazon, which is the third largest city of the state. The AM-070 heads south, starting on the other side of the new bridge spanning the Rio Negro at Manaus, and reaching Manacapuru which lies at the banks of the Solimoes River, also known as the upper River Amazon, and which is the fourth largest city of the state. Both roads are paved and operate all year round.

PortEdit

Ships dock at the main port in Manaus directly downtown on the banks of the Negro River. The terraced city is home to a network of bridged channels that divide it into several compartments. Several mobile phone companies have manufacturing plants in the port area, and other major electronics manufacturers also have plants there. Major exports going through the port include Brazil nuts, chemicals, petroleum, electrical equipment, and forest products.[citation needed]

TaxisEdit

Regular Manaus taxis are white and can be stopped anywhere. They're organised into separate cooperatives, each with their own contact phone numbers. All taxis are metered, which doesn't necessarily mean the meter will be used.

The 'especial' taxi cars are typically black and of a higher quality than the white taxis, and will charge a fixed rate for all journeys or daily hire. Most can only be booked locally, however the reputable Brazil Airport Transfers[59] has recently started providing airport transfer and general transportation services in Manaus.

BusEdit

The bus system in Manaus is quite extensive and there are buses and vans that go to most destinations, including the popular tourist destinations. There is a very simple bus website that permits planning of routes. Pickpocketing and other crime is pervasive.

Events and holidaysEdit

 
Tropical Hotel

The annual calendar of festivals in Manaus starts in late February/early March. The Manaus carnival (carnaval) celebrations are a good start to upcoming events and include traditional processions and samba dancing at the Sambódromo in the Centro de Convenções (Convention Centre). May is a popular time to pay a visit to Manaus, since the city hosts both the Ponta Negra Music and the Amazonas de Opera festivals during this month. Staged at the Teatro Amazonas, the Opera Festival lasts around three weeks and usually runs into early June. The Floclorico do Amazonas (Amazonas Folklore Festival) is in June, and this has grown to become a major event, involving a huge array of folk dancing and music, culminating in the Procissao Fluvial de São Pedro (St. Peter River Procession), when hundreds of riverboats sail along the Rio Negro, honouring the patron saint of fishermen.

October 24 was the day in 1848 that Manaus legally became a city. This anniversary is always cause for a party, culminating in fireworks at the end of the day. In November is the week-long Amazonas Film Festival, with films and documentaries often emphasising ecology, ethnology and human relationships.[60]

  • February – Amazonas Carnival – samba schools parade at the "sambódromo" in the Convention Center
  • May – Ponta Negra’s Music Festival
  • May - Amazonas Opera Festival
  • June – Amazonas Folklore Festival
  • June 29 – São Pedro Fluvial Procession
  • July - Amazonas Jazz Festival
  • September 5 - Elevation of Amazonas to the category of Brazilian Province
  • October 24 – Anniversary of Manaus
  • November - Amazonas Film Festival
  • December 31 – Ponta Negra's New Year's Eve Party

Sights and attractionsEdit

 
Amazonas Theatre

Because of Manaus' location next to the Amazon rain forest, it attracts a substantial number of Brazilian and foreign tourists, who come to see wildlife on land and in the rivers. It is also home to one of the most endangered primates in Brazil, the Pied tamarin.

Tour boats leave Manaus to see the Meeting of the Waters, where the black waters of the Negro River meet the brown waters of the Solimoes River, flowing side by side without mixing for about 9 km (6 mi). Visitors can also explore river banks and "igarapes", swim and canoe in placid lakes, simply walk in the lush forest or stay at hotels in the jungle.

About 18 km (11 mi) from downtown is Ponta Negra beach, a neighbourhood that has a beachfront and popular nightlife area.[61] A luxurious hotel is located at the west end of Ponta Negra; its zoo and orchid greenhouse as well as preserved woods and beach are open for public visits.

The Mercado Adolpho Lisboa, founded in 1882, is the city's oldest marketplace, trading in fruit, vegetables, and especially fish. It is a copy of the Les Halles market of Paris.[62] Other interesting historical sites include the customs building, of mixed styles and medieval inspiration; the Rio Negro Palace cultural center; and the Justice Palace, right next to the Amazonas Opera House.

Manaus has also many large parks with native forest preservation areas, such as the Bosque da Ciência and Parque do Mindú. The largest urban forest in the world is located within Federal University of Amazonas, which was founded on January 17, 1909 and is the oldest federal university of Brazil.

Manaus also has several Malls such as Manauara Shopping, Amazonas Shopping Center, Millennium Shopping, Shopping Ponta Negra, Studio 5 Festival Mall, Shopping Cidade Nova, Manaus Plaza Shopping, Shopping Sao José and other small Shopping Areas. Most of these malls include large food courts and movie theaters.

The city's cultural calendar throughout the year includes the Opera, Theater, Jazz and Cinema festivals, as well as Boi Manaus (usually held around Manaus' anniversary on the 24th of October), which is a great celebration of Northern Brazilian culture through Boi-Bumbá music.


Amazonas Opera HouseEdit

The Amazonas Opera House, inaugurated in 1896, has 700 seats and was constructed with bricks brought from Europe, French glass and Italian marble. Several important opera and theater companies, as well as international orchestras, have already performed there. The Theater is home to the Amazonas Philharmonic Orchestra which regularly rehearses and performs there along with choirs, jazz bands, dance performances and more.[63]

ParksEdit

Ponta Negra Cultural, Sport and Leisure Park

Ponta Negra beach, located 13 km (8.1 mi) from downtown Manaus, is one of the city's most important tourist attractions. It also has an amphitheater with capacity for 15.000 people.

Adolpho Ducke Botanical Garden

The Adolpho Ducke Botanical Garden, inside a 100 square kilometres (39 sq mi) ecological reserve, holds a huge number of plant and animal species.[64]

Municipal Park of Mindú

It is located in an urban area, in the November 10 Park district. It was created in 1992 to be an area of ecological interest. It covers an area of 330,000 m2 (3,552,090 sq ft) of forest remaining from the Township, and is used for scientific, educational, cultural and tourist activities. It is one of the last habitats for the sauim-de-coleira, a species of monkey that only exists in the Manaus region and is threatened with extinction. It is possible to walk through four distinct ecosystems in the park: land covered by secondary growth, firm ground brush, sandbanks and degraded areas that were illegally cleared in 1989. It also has an amphitheater for 600 people, gardens planted with medicinal and aromatic herbs, orchid nursery, aerial trails and signs aiming to develop environmental education programs.[65]

Public swimming areasEdit

The Tarumã, Tarumãzinho and Cachoeira das Almas bayous (branches of rivers), located near the city, are leisure spots for the population on weekends. Manaus has several public swimming areas that are being remodeled and urbanized lately. There are also many private clubs that can be visited.

Meeting of WatersEdit

 
The natural phenomenon of the confluence of the Rio Negro's water and the Solimões River's water

This natural phenomenon is caused by the confluence of the Negro River's dark water and the Solimões River's muddy brown water that come together to form the Amazonas River. For 6 km (3.7 mi) or more, both rivers waters run side by side without mixing. The reason for this is not clear, although it is likely that the main factors are differences in the speed of the current, the volumes of water and the different densities of the two rivers. It is not thought that other differences between the two rivers (temperature and acidity) affect the mixing process significantly.[66] The Negro River flows approximately 2 km/h (1.2 mph) at 28 °C (82 °F), while the Solimões River flows 4 to 6 km/h (2.5 to 3.7 mph) at 22 °C (72 °F).[67]

CIGS ZooEdit

The zoo is open to the public. It is managed by the Brazilian Army and has approximately 300 species of animals from the Amazon fauna.[68]

Beaches and waterfallsEdit

For outings to beaches and parks situated near the city, it is often necessary to use boats. The beaches are formed right after the river water level starts dropping, which lasts from August to November. Starting in December, as the river rises, the waters invade the sand and the woods on the banks. The Paricatuba Waterfall, located on the right bank of the Negro River, along a small tributary, is formed by sedimentary rocks, surrounded by abundant vegetation. Access is by boat. The best time to visit is from August to February. Love Cascade located in the Guedes bayou, with cold and crystal clear water, is accessible only by boat and, then, hiking through the forest.

Tupé Beach is approximately 34 km (21 mi) from Manaus. This beach is well frequented by bathers on holidays and weekends. It is accessible only by boat. Moon Beach is located on the left bank of the Negro River, 23 km (14 mi) from Manaus. It is accessed only by boat. The beach is shaped like a crescent moon and is surrounded by rare vegetation. Lion waterfall is located on km 34 of the AM-010 highway (Manaus-Itacoatiara).

Ponta Negra Beach

SportsEdit

 
Internal view of arena

SoccerEdit

The leader club in Manaus is the Nacional Futebol Clube, founded on January 13, 1913, and called "Leão da Vila". Participant of the serie A (first division) for several times between 1970 and 1990. Nacional is 40-times state champion, the great state champion in Amazon state, and one of the greatest state champion in Brazil, and is the best amazonian football club ranked in the CBF ranking, the official Brazilian football entity.

Other club is the Atlético Rio Negro Clube, called "Galo da Praça da Saudade" (Remembrance Square Rooster) or "Barriga Preta" club (Black Belly), also founded in 1913, but in November, which is the second largest holder of state titles, and the National Fast Club, the Tricolor of the Boulevard" or "roll", founded in the early 40 years from a dissident's National Football Club, which has won six state championships, in addition to being Northern Region champion and North-Northeast Championship runner-up in 1970.

There is also San Raimundo Sports Club – the Typhoon Hill (Tufão da Colina), founded on November 18, 1918, participant of the Series B (2nd division) of the Brazilian Championship until 2006, when it was demoted. It is a 7-times states champion, 3-times North Cup champion.

2014 FIFA World CupEdit

Manaus was chosen in 2009 to be a host city for the 2014 FIFA World Cup, after a competition to represent the North Region of Brazil with neighboring Pará state capital, Belém.

Manaus was restructured in order to host such a big event. A new airport was built, streets throughout the city were repaved and new and improved sidewalks were built. The communications infrastructure of the city was improved with 4G networks installed by the biggest mobile phone carriers in Brazil.

The Vivaldão, previously the largest stadium in Manaus, was inaugurated in 1970 by the Brazilian national team in their last game in the country before they headed to the World Cup in Mexico. It was demolished to be replaced by the 44,000 seater Arena Amazônia for the 2014 World Cup.[69]

The first 2014 World Cup match held in Manaus was England vs Italy on June 14. The second match was Cameroon vs Croatia on June 18, to be followed by USA vs Portugal on June 22. The last was Honduras vs Switzerland on June 25. Manaus, known for its intense heat and humidity, was the site of the World Cup's first ever official water break on June 22 in the match between Portugal and the United States.

Brazilian jiu-jitsuEdit

Manaus is the origin of several world-champion Brazilian jiu-jitsu black belts, mixed martial artists and submission grapplers. Champions such as Fredson Paixão, Wallid Ismail, Saulo Ribeiro, Cristiane De Souza, Alexandre Ribeiro, Ronaldo Souza, and Bibiano Fernandes hail from Manaus. Brazilian jiu-jitsu is a major component of MMA (mixed martial arts). Jose Aldo (born September 9, 1986) is a black-belt in Brazilian jiu-jitsu and notable UFC fighter. Aldo defeated Mike Brown at WEC 44 to win the title and has since successfully defended his WEC title against Urijah Faber & Manvel Gamburyan. He later became the UFC Featherweight champion, with title defenses against such notable fighters as Mark Hominick and Kenny Florian.

International relationsEdit

Twin towns – sister citiesEdit

Manaus is twinned with:

Notable peopleEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ For an account, see The Thief at the End of the World: Rubber, Power, and the Seeds of Empire, by Joe Jackson.

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BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit