A chapel (from Latin: cappella) is a Christian place of prayer and worship that is usually relatively small. The term has several meanings. First, smaller spaces inside a church that have their own altar are often called chapels; the Lady chapel is a common type of these. Second, a chapel is a place of worship, sometimes interfaith,[1] that is part of a building, complex, or vessel with some other main purpose, such as a school, college, hospital, palace or large aristocratic house, castle, barracks, prison, funeral home, cemetery, airport, or a military or commercial ship.[2] Third, chapels are small places of worship, built as satellite sites by a church or monastery, for example in remote areas; these are often called a chapel of ease. A feature of all these types is that often no clergy were permanently resident or specifically attached to the chapel.

Chapel of St Michael and St George at St Paul's Cathedral in London
Schematic rendering of typical "side chapels" in the apse of a cathedral, surrounding the ambulatory

For historical reasons, chapel is also often the term used by independent or nonconformist denominations for their places of worship in England and especially in Wales, even where they are large and in practice they operate as a parish church.[3][4]

The earliest Christian places of worship are now often referred to as chapels, as they were not dedicated buildings but rather a dedicated chamber within a building. Most larger churches had one or more secondary altars which, if they occupied a distinct space, would often be called a chapel. In Russian Orthodox tradition, the chapels were built underneath city gates, where most people could visit them; a famous example is the Iberian Chapel.

Although chapels frequently refer to Christian places of worship, they are also found in Jewish synagogues and do not necessarily denote a specific denomination. In England—where the Church of England is established by law, interdenominational or interfaith chapels in such institutions may be consecrated by the local Anglican bishop. Chapels that are not affiliated with a particular denomination are commonly encountered as part of a non-religious institution such as a hospital, airport, university or prison.[5] Many military installations have chapels for the use of military personnel, normally under the leadership of a military chaplain.[6]

History edit

The Tsrviz Chapel in Armenia, one of the oldest chapels in the world

The earliest Christian places of worship were not dedicated buildings but rather a dedicated chamber within a building, such as a room in an individual's home. Here one or two people could pray without being part of a communion/congregation. People who like to use chapels may find it peaceful and relaxing to be away from the stress of life, without other people moving around them.

The Cappella Palatina in Palermo, Italy (pictured), and the Palatine Chapel in Aachen, two of the most famous palace chapels of Europe

The word chapel, like the associated word chaplain, is ultimately derived from Latin.[7] More specifically, the word is derived from a relic of Saint Martin of Tours: traditional stories about Martin relate that while he was still a soldier, he cut his military cloak in half to give part to a beggar in need. The other half he wore over his shoulders as a "small cape" (Latin: cappella). The beggar, the stories claim, was Christ in disguise, and Martin experienced a conversion of heart, becoming first a monk, then abbot, then bishop. This cape came into the possession of the Frankish kings, and they kept the relic with them as they did battle. The tent which kept the cape was called the capella and the priests who said daily Mass in the tent were known as the capellani. From these words, via Old French, we get the names "chapel" and "chaplain".

The word also appears in the Irish language (Gaelic) in the Middle Ages, as Welsh people came with the Norman and Old English invaders to the island of Ireland. While the traditional Irish word for church was eaglais (derived from ecclesia), a new word, séipéal (from cappella), came into usage.

In British history, "chapel" or "meeting house" were formerly the standard designations for church buildings belonging to independent or Nonconformist religious societies and their members. They were particularly associated with the pre-eminence of independent religious practice in rural regions of England and Wales, the northern industrial towns of the late 18th and 19th centuries, and centres of population close to but outside the City of London. As a result, "chapel" is sometimes used as an adjective in England and Wales to describe the members of such churches: for example in the sentence "I'm Chapel."[citation needed]

Types of chapel edit

  • A bridge chapel is a small place of Christian worship, built either on, or immediately adjacent to, a road bridge; they were commonly established during pre-Reformation mediaeval era in Europe.
  • A castle chapel, in European architecture, is a chapel built within a castle.
  • A parecclesion or parakklesion is a type of side chapel found in Byzantine architecture.
  • A capilla posa (Posa chapel) is an architectural feature of the monastery-ensembles of Mexico in the 16th century, consisting of four vaulted quadrangular buildings located at the ends of the atrium outside them.[clarification needed]
  • A capilla abierta (open chapel) is one of the most distinct Mexican church construction forms, mostly built in the 16th century during the early colonial period.
  • A proprietary chapel is one that originally belonged to a private individual. In the 19th century they were common, often being built to cope with urbanisation. Frequently they were established by evangelical philanthropists with a vision of spreading Christianity in cities whose needs could no longer be met by the parishes. Some functioned more privately, with a wealthy person building a chapel so that they could invite their favorite preachers.[8] They are anomalies in the English ecclesiastical law, having no parish area, but being permitted to have an Anglican clergyman licensed there. Historically many Anglican churches were proprietary chapels. Over the years they have often been converted into normal parishes.
  • A court chapel is a chapel as a musical ensemble associated with a royal or noble court. Most of these are royal (court) chapels, but when the ruler of the court is not a king, the more generic "court chapel" is used, for instance for an imperial court.
  • A royal chapel is a chapel associated with a monarch, a royal court, or in a royal palace.

Modern usage edit

Dahlgren Chapel of the Sacred Heart, a Catholic chapel on the campus of Georgetown University in Washington, D.C.
Capel Salem, a nonconformist chapel in Pwllheli, Wales. Unlike earlier types of chapel, this chapel not attached to a larger place of worship.

While the word chapel is not exclusively limited to Christian terminology, it is most often found in that context. Nonetheless, the word's meaning can vary by denomination, and non-denominational chapels (sometimes called "meditation rooms") can be found in many hospitals, airports, and even the United Nations headquarters. Chapels can also be found for worship in Judaism.

"Chapel" is in particularly common usage in the United Kingdom, and especially in Wales, for Nonconformist places of worship;[9] and in Scotland and Ireland for Roman Catholic churches. In England and Wales, due to the rise in Nonconformist chapels during the late 18th and early 19th centuries, by the time of the 1851 census, more people attended the independent chapels than attended the state religion's Anglican churches.[citation needed] (The Anglican Church does not function as the established church in Scotland.)

In Roman Catholic Church canon law, a chapel, technically called an "oratory", is a building or part thereof dedicated to the celebration of services, particularly the Mass, which is not a parish church. This may be a private chapel, for the use of one person or a select group (a bishop's private chapel, or the chapel of a convent, for instance); a semi-public oratory, which is partially available to the general public (a seminary chapel that welcomes visitors to services, for instance); or a public oratory (for instance, a hospital or university chapel).

Chapels that are built as part of a larger church are holy areas set aside for some specific use or purpose: for instance, many cathedrals and large churches have a "Lady chapel" in the apse, dedicated to the Virgin Mary; parish churches may have such a Lady chapel in a side aisle or a "chapel of Reservation" or "Blessed Sacrament chapel" where the consecrated bread of the Eucharist is kept in reserve between services, for the purpose of taking Holy Communion to the sick and housebound and, in some Christian traditions, for devotional purposes.

Common uses of the word chapel today include:

Christ the King Chapel on the campus of Christendom College is an example of a college chapel.
  • Side-chapel – a chapel within a cathedral or larger church building.
  • Lady chapel – really a form of side chapel, but notable separately as such chapels are common in the Roman Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion. They are dedicated to the veneration of the Blessed Virgin Mary.
  • Ambassador's chapel – originally created to allow ambassadors from Catholic countries to worship whilst on duty in Protestant countries.
  • Bishop's chapel – in Anglican and Roman Catholic canon law, bishops have the right to have a chapel in their own home, even when travelling (such personal chapels may be granted only as a favor to other priests)
  • Chapel of rest – not a place of worship as such, but a comfortably decorated room in a funeral director's premises, where family and friends can view the deceased before a funeral.
  • Chapel of ease – constructed in large parishes to allow parishioners easy access to a church or chapel.
  • College chapel - located on college or university campuses that are or were once affiliated with a religion
  • Multifaith chapel – found within hospitals, airports and universities, etc.; often converted from being exclusively Christian.
  • Summer chapel – a small church in a resort area that functions only during the summer when vacationers are present.
  • Wayside chapel or country chapel – small chapels in the countryside
  • Military chapel – U.S. military bases often have chapels designated for use by varying denominations. As no specific denomination or faith is the "owner", such a site is commonly referred to as a chapel instead of a church, mosque, or synagogue. Service members can often receive services for nondenominational Christian, Roman Catholic, Islamic, and Jewish faiths, as well as information for other services in the local area.
  • Wedding chapel – a venue for weddings.
  • Funeral chapel – a venue for funerals at a funeral home, cemetery or crematorium.

The first airport chapel was created in 1951 in Boston for airport workers but grew to include travelers. It was originally Catholic, but chapels today are often multifaith.[10]

Notable chapels edit

The old premises of St. Ivan Rilski Chapel in Antarctica
Chapel Year Location
Bethesda Methodist Chapel 1887 Hanley, Staffordshire, England
Boardwalk Chapel 1945 The Wildwoods, New Jersey, United States
Brancacci Chapel 1386 Church of Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence, Italy
Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford 1160–1200 It is also the chapel of Christ Church, a college of the University of Oxford. This dual role as cathedral and college chapel is unique in the Church of England.[11]
Chigi Chapel 1507–1661 Church of Santa Maria del Popolo, Rome, Italy
Contarelli Chapel 1585 Church of San Luigi dei Francesi, Rome, Italy
Duke Chapel 1932 Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States
Eton College Chapel 1440 – c. 1460 Eton College, Eton, Berkshire, England
Chapelle expiatoire 1824 Paris, France
Gallus Chapel 1330–1340 Greifensee ZH, Switzerland
Heinz Memorial Chapel 1938 University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
Henry VII Chapel 1503 Westminster Abbey, London, England
Chapel of the Holy Shroud 1694 Turin, Italy
King's College Chapel 1446 King's College in the University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England
King's College Chapel 1831 King's College, London, England
Lancing College Chapel 1868 Lancing College, Lancing, West Sussex, England
Llandaff Oratory 1925 Van Reenen, South Africa
Magi Chapel 1459–1461 Palazzo Medici Riccardi, Florence, Italy
Medici Chapels 1519–1524; 1602 Church of San Lorenzo, Florence, Italy
Niccoline Chapel 1447–1449 Apostolic Palace, Vatican City
Notre-Dame du Haut 1955 Ronchamp, France
Palatine Chapel 786 Aachen Cathedral, Aachen, Germany
Palatine Chapel 1132 Palazzo dei Normanni, Palermo, Sicily, Italy
Pauline Chapel 1540 Apostolic Palace, Vatican City
Pazzi Chapel c. 1442 – 1443 Church of Santa Croce, Florence, Italy
Pettit Memorial Chapel 1907 Belvidere, Illinois, United States
Queen's Chapel 1623 St James's Palace, London, England
Chapelle Rouge 15th century BC Karnak, Egypt
Chapelle du Rosaire de Vence 1951 Vence, France
Rosary Chapel 1531–1690 Puebla City, Puebla, Mexico
Rosslyn Chapel 1440 Roslin, Midlothian, Scotland
Rothko Chapel 1964 Houston, Texas, United States
Royal Chapel of Granada 1517 Granada, Spain
Royal Chapel designed 1748 Royal Palace of Madrid, Spain
Royal Chapel, Sweden 1754 Stockholm Palace, Sweden
Chapelle royale de Dreux 1816 Dreux, Eure-et-Loir, France
St. Aloysius Chapel 1884 Mangalore, India
St George's Chapel 1348 Windsor Castle, England
Chapel of Saint Helena 12th century Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem
St. Ivan Rilski Chapel 2003 Livingston Island, Antarctica
St. Joan of Arc Chapel 15th century Relocated to Marquette University, Milwaukee, United States
St. Paul's Chapel 1766 New York City, United States
Chapel of St Peter-on-the-Wall 654 Bradwell-on-Sea, Essex, England
St Salvator's Chapel 1450 St Andrews University, St Andrews, Scotland
Sainte-Chapelle 1246 Île de la Cité, Paris, France
Sansevero Chapel 1590 Naples, Italy
Sassetti Chapel 1470 Church of Santa Trinita, Florence, Italy
Scrovegni Chapel c. 1303 – 1305 Padua, Italy
Sigismund's Chapel 1519 Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland
Sistine Chapel 1473 Apostolic Palace, Vatican City
Skull Chapel 1776 Kudowa, Silesia, Poland
Slipper Chapel 1340 Norfolk, England
Chapel of the Snows 1989 McMurdo Station, Ross Island, Antarctica
Tabernacle Chapel 1874–1877 Morriston, Swansea, Wales
Chapelle de la Trinité 1622 Lyon, France
University Chapel 1867 Washington and Lee University, Lexington, Virginia, US
Chapels of Versailles 17th–18th centuries Palace of Versailles, France

Gallery edit

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "Muslim prayers welcome at Pentagon chapel". CNN. Archived from the original on 7 March 2016. Retrieved 3 March 2016.
  2. ^ "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Chapel". www.newadvent.org. Archived from the original on 9 March 2021. Retrieved 10 April 2005.
  3. ^ Wakeling, Christopher (August 2016). "Nonconformist Places of Worship: Introductions to Heritage Assets". Historic England. Archived from the original on 28 March 2017. Retrieved 28 March 2017.
  4. ^ Jones, Anthony (1996). Welsh Chapels. National Museum Wales. ISBN 9780750911627. Retrieved 28 March 2017.
  5. ^ Hewson, Chris (1 January 2010). "Multi-faith Spaces: Symptoms and Agents of Religious and Social Change". University of Manchester. Retrieved 14 September 2012.
  6. ^ "Royal Army Chaplains' Department". www.army.mod.uk. The British Army. Archived from the original on 19 March 2017. Retrieved 28 March 2017.
  7. ^ "Definition of CHAPEL". www.merriam-webster.com. Archived from the original on 1 January 2019. Retrieved 31 December 2018.
  8. ^ "Church Society - About - Our Work - St James' Church". Archived from the original on 9 May 2008. Retrieved 15 October 2008.
  9. ^ Also known, perhaps disparagingly, as Ebenezers"Ebenezer". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
  10. ^ Cadge, Wendy (3 January 2018). "As you travel, pause and take a look at airport chapels". The Conversation. Archived from the original on 13 January 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  11. ^ "Cathedral | Christ Church, Oxford University". Chch.ox.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 4 March 2016.

External links edit