President of Brazil
The President of Brazil (Portuguese: Presidente do Brasil), officially the President of the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: Presidente da República Federativa do Brasil) or simply the President of the Republic, is both the head of state and the head of government of the Federative Republic of Brazil. The president leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the Brazilian Armed Forces. The presidential system was established in 1889, upon the proclamation of the republic in a military coup d'état against Emperor Pedro II. Since then, Brazil has had six constitutions, three dictatorships, and three democratic periods. During the democratic periods, voting has always been compulsory. The Constitution of Brazil, along with several constitutional amendments, establishes the requirements, powers, and responsibilities of the president and term of office and the method of election.
|President of the Federative Republic of Brazil|
Presidente da República Federativa do Brasil
|Style||Mr. President or even simply President|
Most Excellent Mr. President of the Republic
(alternative formal, diplomatic)
|Residence||Palácio da Alvorada|
|Term length||Four Years|
|Inaugural holder||Deodoro da Fonseca|
|Formation||Proclamation of the Republic|
November 15, 1889
|Deputy||Vice President of Brazil|
|Salary||R$ 5,000,000, annually|
As a republic with a presidential executive, Brazil grants significant powers to the president, who effectively controls the executive branch, represents the country abroad, and appoints the cabinet and, with the approval of the Senate, the judges for the Supreme Federal Court. The president is also the commander-in-chief of the armed forces.
Presidents in Brazil have significant lawmaking powers, exercised either by proposing laws to the National Congress or by using Medidas Provisórias (provisional measures), an instrument with the force of law that the president can enact in cases of urgency and necessity except to make changes to some areas of law (provisional measures cannot be used to change criminal law or electoral law). A provisional measure comes into effect immediately, before Congress votes on it, and remains in force for up to 60 days unless Congress votes to rescind it. The 60-day period can be extended once, up to 120 days. If Congress, on the other hand, votes to approve the provisional measure, it becomes an actual law, with changes decided by the legislative branch. The provisional measure expires at the end of the 60-day period (or the 120-day, in the case of extension), or sooner, if rejected by one of the Houses of Congress.
Article 84 of the current Federal Constitution, determines that the president has the power to
- appoint and dismiss the ministers of state;
- exercise, with the assistance of the ministers of state, the higher management of the federal administration
- start the legislative procedure, in the manner and in the cases set forth in the constitution;
- sanction, promulgate and order the publication of laws, and issue decrees and regulations for the true enforcement thereof;
- veto bills, wholly or in part;
- provide, by means of decree, on organization and structure of federal administration if there is neither increase of expenses nor creation or extinction of public agencies; and extinction of offices or positions, when vacant;
- maintain relations with foreign States and to accredit their diplomatic representatives;
- conclude international treaties, conventions and acts, subject to the ratification of the National Congress of Brazil;
- decree the state of defense and the state of siege, in accordance with the constitutional procedures that precede and authorize those emergency decrees;
- decree and enforce federal intervention, in accordance with the constitutional procedures that precede and authorize such exceptional action;
- upon the opening of the legislative session, send a government message and plan to the National Congress, describing the state of the nation and requesting the actions he deems necessary;
- grant pardons and reduce sentences, after hearing the entities instituted by law, if necessary;
- exercise the supreme command of the armed forces, appoint the commanders of navy, army and air force, promote general officers and to appoint them to the offices held exclusively by them;
- appoint, after approval by the Federal Senate, the Justices of the Supreme Federal Court and those of the superior courts, the Governors of the territories, the Prosecutor General of the Republic, the president and the directors of the Central Bank and other civil servants, when established by law;
- appoint, with due regard for the provisions of Article 73, the Justices of the Court of Accounts of the Union;
- appoint judges in the events established by this constitution and the Attorney General of the Union;
- appoint members of the Council of the Republic, in accordance with article 89, VII;
- summon and preside over the Council of the Republic and the National Defense Council;
- declare war, in the event of foreign aggression, authorized by the National Congress or confirmed by it, whenever it occurs between legislative sessions and, under the same conditions, to decree full or partial national mobilization;
- make peace, authorized or confirmed by the National Congress;
- award decorations and honorary distinctions;
- permit, in the cases set forth by supplementary law, foreign forces to pass through the national territory, or to remain temporarily therein;
- submit to the National Congress the pluriannual plan, the bill of budgetary directives and the budget proposals set forth in this constitution;
- render, each year, accounts to the National Congress concerning the previous fiscal year, within sixty days of the opening of the legislative session;
- fill and abolish federal government positions, as set forth by law;
- issue provisional measures, with force of law, according to Article 62;
- perform other duties set forth in the constitution.
The Constitution of Brazil requires that a President be a native-born citizen of Brazil, at least 35 years of age, a resident of Brazil, in full exercise of their electoral rights, a registered voter, and a member of a political party (write-in or independent candidates are forbidden).
The president of Brazil serves for a term of four years, and may be reelected for a single consecutive term. This two-term limit, however, is not for life—a former President who has served for two consecutive terms may, at a later time, run again for office, as long as at least one term has elapsed.
A vice president or other officer who succeeds to the presidency or who serves, albeit briefly, as acting president during a certain presidential term may subsequently be elected or reelected to the presidency only once, as the consecutive term limit already applies. In practice, Brazilian vice-presidents almost always serve as acting president at some point during a presidential term, given that, according to the Constitution, the vice-president becomes acting president during the president's travels abroad.
Running for other officesEdit
A sitting president (or governor or mayor) who wishes to run for a different office, regardless of the intended jurisdiction or branch of government, must resign from office at least six months before election day.
The current term of four years was established by the 5th Amendment to the Constitution, in 1994, and the possibility of reelection by the 16th Amendment, in 1997. Before that, Presidents had been barred from immediate reelection for all of Brazil's republican history, with the single exception of the latter half of the Vargas Era, from 1937 to 1945. The office was limited to men until the 1937 Constitution.
Compensation and privileges of officeEdit
|Presidential styles of|
|Reference style||Excelentíssimo Senhor Presidente da República|
"The Most Excellent Mr. President of the Republic"
|Spoken style||Vossa Excelência |
|Alternative style||Senhor Presidente or Presidente |
"Mr. President" or "President"
As of 2015, the president receives a monthly salary of R$30,934.70, along with an undisclosed expense account to cover travel, goods and services while in office. Given that in Brazil all private and public sector employees and civil servants receive an additional compensation equivalent to one monthly salary after a year of work (this compensation is known as the thirteenth salary), the President receives 13 payments per year, resulting in an annual salary of R$402,151.10.
The Palácio do Planalto in Brasília is the official workplace of the President and the Palácio da Alvorada their official residence; he or she is entitled to use its staff and facilities. The Residência Oficial do Torto, popularly known as Granja do Torto, is a ranch located on the outskirts of the capital and is used as a country retreat by the president. The Palácio Rio Negro in Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro, is a summer retreat of the president, although used rarely.
In addition, the presidency of the republic also maintains the Jaburu Palace in Brasília for use by the Vice President of the Republic as his or her official residence.
In the 2000s, the federal government decided to establish Regional Offices of the Presidency of the Republic in certain key Brazilian cities. Those regional offices are not presidential residences, but they are fully staffed offices ready to receive the president and his ministers at any time, and they function as a presidential workplace when the President is in those cities. The first regional office of the presidency was established in the city of São Paulo, and is located at the Banco do Brasil building at the Paulista Avenue; the building also houses Banco do Brasil's regional headquarters in São Paulo. The presidency of the republic also maintains regional offices in Porto Alegre and in Belo Horizonte.
For ground travel, the president uses the presidential state car, which is an armored version of the 2011 Ford Fusion Hybrid built on a Ford CD3 platform. A 1952 Rolls Royce Silver Wraith is used by the president on ceremonial occasions, such as Independence Day commemorations, state visits and the inauguration of the president-elect. A modified version of the Airbus A319, air force designation VC-1A, is used to transport the president on all medium and long-range international flights. Two modified Embraer 190 jets, air force designation VC-2, are used for short and medium range presidential travel. When the president is on board, the aircraft receive the call sign "Brazilian Air Force One". Two modified military versions of the Eurocopter Super Puma, air force designation VH-34, are currently used as the main presidential helicopters.
The President may be removed from office using one of two procedures. In either case, two-thirds of the Chamber of Deputies must accept charges against the officeholder (impeachment); and if the Senate accepts the investigation, the president is suspended from exercising the functions of office for up to 180 days. In the case of "common criminal offenses", a trial then takes place at the Supreme Federal Court. In the case of "crimes of malversation", which must fall into one of seven broad areas and which is defined in more detail in law, a trial takes place at the Federal Senate. During the trial, the vice president exercises executive power. If the trial does not result in a conviction within 180 days, the president resumes office; a conviction results in removal from office and succession by the vice president. The seven areas are:
- The existence of the Union
- The free exercise of the Legislative Power, the Judicial Power, the Public Prosecution and the constitutional Powers of the units of the Federation
- The exercise of political, individual and social rights
- The internal security of the country
- Probity in the administration
- The budgetary law
- Compliance with the laws and with court decisions
The following privileges are guaranteed to former presidents by law:
- Permanent security protection (by the presidential guard – Batalhão da Guarda Presidencial)
- The use of two official vehicles (for life)
- Repository funding for a presidential library
- Lifelong monthly pension for their widows and unmarried daughters
- Pension for sons of deceased ex-presidents until they come of age
All presidents of Brazil bore the title President of the Republic. That title has been used by all the constitutions of Brazil since the proclamation of the Republic to refer to the head of the Executive Branch.
However, from the proclamation of the Republic in 1889 until 1937 the country was officially styled Republic of the United States of Brazil, and from 1937 to 1967 the country was styled simply The United States of Brazil, and thus the full title of the Presidents of the Republic from 1891 until 1967—that is, from Deodoro da Fonseca's inauguration as President (between 1889 and 1891 he served as Head of the Provisional Government) until the end of Humberto Castello Branco's term in 1967—was President of the Republic of the United States of Brazil. On 15 March 1967, the country's official name was changed to Federative Republic of Brazil. On that same date, Arthur da Costa e Silva was sworn in as President succeeding Castello Branco. Since Costa e Silva, therefore, all presidents of Brazil have borne the full title of President of the Federative Republic of Brazil.
1st Deodoro da Fonseca 1889–1891 2nd Floriano Peixoto 1891–1894 3rd Prudente de Morais 1894–1898 4th Campos Sales 1898–1902 5th Rodrigues Alves 1902–1906 6th Afonso Pena 1906–1909 7th Nilo Peçanha 1909–1910 8th Hermes da Fonseca 1910–1914 9th Venceslau Brás 1914–1918 10th Delfim Moreira 1918–1919 11th Epitácio Pessoa 1919–1922 12th Arthur Bernardes 1922–1926 13th Washington Luís 1926–1930 14th Getúlio Vargas 1930–1945 15th José Linhares 1945–1946 16th Eurico Gaspar Dutra 1946–1951 17th Getúlio Vargas 1951–1954 18th Café Filho 1954–1955 19th Carlos Luz 1955 20th Nereu Ramos 1955–1956 21st Juscelino Kubitschek 1956–1961 22nd Jânio Quadros 1961 23rd Ranieri Mazzilli 1961 24th João Goulart 1961–1964 25th Ranieri Mazzilli 1964 26th Castelo Branco 1964–1967 27th Artur da Costa e Silva 1967–1969 28th Emílio Garrastazu Médici 1969–1974 29th Ernesto Geisel 1974–1979 30th João Figueiredo 1979–1985 31st José Sarney 1985–1990 32nd Fernando Collor de Mello 1990–1992 33rd Itamar Franco 1992–1994 34th Fernando Henrique Cardoso 1995–2002 35th Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva 2003–2010 36th Dilma Rousseff 2011–2016 37th Michel Temer 2016–present 38th Jair Bolsonaro Elect (term starts 2019)
Presidents by home stateEdit
|Candidate||Party||Running mate||Party||First round||Second round|
|Jair Bolsonaro||PSL||Hamilton Mourão||PRTB||49,277,010||46.03||57,796,972||55.13|
|Fernando Haddad||PT||Manuela d'Ávila||PCdoB||31,342,051||29.28||47,038,792||44.87|
|Ciro Gomes||PDT||Kátia Abreu||PDT||13,344,371||12.47|
|Geraldo Alckmin||PSDB||Ana Amélia||PP||5,096,350||4.76|
|João Amoêdo||NOVO||Christian Lohbauer||NOVO||2,679,745||2.50|
|Cabo Daciolo||PATRI||Suelene Balduino||PATRI||1,348,323||1.26|
|Henrique Meirelles||MDB||Germano Rigotto||MDB||1,288,950||1.20|
|Marina Silva||REDE||Eduardo Jorge||REDE||1,069,578||1.00|
|Álvaro Dias||PODE||Paulo Rabello de Castro||PSC||859,601||0.80|
|Guilherme Boulos||PSOL||Sônia Guajajara||PSOL||617,122||0.58|
|Vera Lúcia||PSTU||Hertz Dias||PSTU||55,762||0.05|
|José Maria Eymael||DC||Hélvio Costa||DC||41,710||0.04|
|João Vicente Goulart||PPL||Léo Dias||PPL||30,176||0.03|
|Source: TSE (runoff election at 99.99% of "sections" counted)|
- Portal da Transparência[permanent dead link], Ministry of Transparency, Supervision and Control. Retrieved on 29 May 2018. (in Portuguese)
- Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil, art. 15 and Chapter II
- Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil, art. 62 as amended by constitutional amendment n. 32
- Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil, article 14, paragraph 3.
- Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil, article 82.
- Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil, article 14, paragraph 5.
- Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil, article 14, paragraph 6.
- Official Writing Manual of the Presidency of the Republic. 2nd edition 2002. ISBN 8585142162
- Diário da União publica reajuste de salários de parlamentares, presidente e ministros ("Brazilian 'Federal Register' publishes a pay raise for senators, representatives, president and ministries"), Estado de Minas, Belo Horizonte, 19 December 2014. Retrieved on 29 May 2018. (in Portuguese)
- Ajuste ainda não chegou aos gastos sigilosos ("Cuts have yet to be made to undisclosed expenses") Archived 14 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Ministério do Planejamento. Retrieved on 2011-05-27. (in Portuguese)
- Palácio do Planalto Archived 21 September 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Presidência da República. Retrieved on 2011-05-27. (in Portuguese).
- Palácio da Alvorada Archived 13 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Presidência da República. Retrieved on 2011-05-27. (in Portuguese).
- Granja do Torto Archived 13 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Presidência da República. Retrieved on 2011-05-27. (in Portuguese).
- Rio Negro Palace Prefeitura de Petrópolis. Retrieved on 2011-05-27.
- Brazilian president receives Ford Fusion Hybrid at São Paulo Auto Show Ford. Retrieved on 2010-11-28.
- Recibe Da Silva Ford Fusion Híbrido en Brasil Terra. Retrieved on 2010-11-28. (in Spanish).
- Rolls-Royce presidencial é um dos destaques do desfile de 7 de setembro ("Presidential Rolls Royce is one of the highlights of the Independence Day parade") Presidência da República. Retrieved on 2011-05-27. (in Portuguese).
- Infográfico especial sobre o avião presidencial ("Special infographic of the presidential airplane") Presidência da República. Retrieved on 2011-05-27. (in Portuguese).
- FAB 001 – O Avião Presidencial Archived 26 June 2015 at the Wayback Machine. DefesaBR. Retrieved on 2011-05-27. (in Portuguese).
- Presidência da República nas asas da Embraer ("The Presidency on the wings of Embraer") Presidência da República. Retrieved on 2011-05-27. (in Portuguese).
- Helicóptero Presidencial Brasileiro (VH-34 Super Puma VIP) ("Brazilian Presidential Helicopter (VH-34 Super Puma VIP))"[permanent dead link] Hangar20. Retrieved on 2011-05-27. (in Portuguese).
- Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil 1988 - SECTION III - LIABILITY OF THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC (English translation)
- Born in a ship at the sea, was registered in Salvador.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Presidents of Brazil.|
- Official website of the Presidency of the Republic (in Portuguese)