Federal Senate (Brazil)
The Federal Senate (Portuguese: Senado Federal) is the upper house of the National Congress of Brazil. When created under the Imperial Constitution in 1824, it was based on the House of Lords of the British Parliament, but since the Proclamation of the Republic in 1889 and under the first republican Constitution the Federal Senate has resembled the United States Senate.
|57th Legislature of the National Congress|
|Founded||6 May 1826|
New session started
|1 February 2023|
Rodrigo Pacheco, PSD
since 1 February 2021
Jaques Wagner, PT
since 3 January 2023
Renan Calheiros, MDB
since 4 February 2021
Rogério Marinho, PL
since 1 February 2023
Ciro Nogueira, PP
since 7 February 2023
Female Caucus Leader
Eliziane Gama, PSD
since 17 February 2021
Length of term
|Salary||R$ 33,763.00 (and benefits)|
|Plurality voting, alternating every four years between single-member elections (FPTP) and dual-member elections (block voting)|
|2 October 2022|
|4 October 2026|
|Senate plenary chamber|
National Congress building
Brasília, Federal District, Brazil
The current president of the Federal Senate is Rodrigo Pacheco, a member of the Social Democratic Party from Minas Gerais. He was elected in February 2021 for a two-year term and re-elected in February 2023 for another two-year term.
The Senate has 81 members, serving an eight-year term of office. There are three senators from each of the country's 27 federative units, the Federal District and the 26 states. Elections are staggered so that either a third or two-thirds of senators are up for election every four years. The most recent election took place in 2022, where one-third of the Senate was elected.
Elections are held under the first-past-the-post and block voting systems. In years when a third of members are up for election, voters can cast only one vote and the candidate who receives a plurality of votes within their state is elected. In years when two-thirds of members are up for election, voters can cast two votes. People can not vote for the same candidate twice, but each party can field up to two candidates in each state. The two highest-placed candidates in each state are elected.
The Federal Senate of Brazil was established as the Imperial Senate by the Constitution of 1824, first enacted after the Declaration of Independence. It was modelled on the House of Lords of the British Parliament.
Following independence, in 1822, Emperor Pedro I ordered the convocation of a Assembleia Geral Constituinte e Legislativa (Legislative and Constituent General Assembly) to draft the country's first Constitution. Following several disagreements with the elected deputies (which included representatives from present-day Uruguay, then part of the Brazilian Empire under the name of Província Cisplatina), the Emperor dissolved the Assembly. In 1824, Pedro I implemented the first Constitution which established a legislative branch with the Chamber of Deputies as the lower house, and the Senate as an upper house.
The first configuration of the Senate was a consulting body to the Emperor. Membership was for life and it was a place of great prestige, to which only a small part of the population could aspire. The original Senate had 50 members, representing all of the Empire's provinces, each with a number of senators proportional to its population. In addition to these elected senators, daughters and sons of the Emperor aged at least 25 were senators by right.
The elected members of the Senate had to be at least 40 years old and have an annual income of 800,000 contos-de-réis, which limited candidates to wealthy citizens. Voters also faced an income qualification. Voting in an election for the Senate was limited to male citizens with an annual income of at least 200,000 contos-de-réis. Those who qualified for this did not vote directly for senators; instead, they voted for candidates to be Senate electors. To be a Senate elector required an annual income of 400,000 contos-de-réis. Once elected, these electors would then vote for senator. The election itself would not result in a winner automatically. The three candidates receiving the most votes would make up what was called a "triple list", from which the Emperor would select one individual that would be considered "elected". The Emperor usually chose the candidate with the most votes, but it was within his discretion to select whichever of the three individuals listed.
Following the adoption of the 1824 Constitution, the first session of the Senate took place in May 1826. The Emperor had repeatedly delayed calling the first election, which had led to accusations that he would attempt to establish an absolutist government.
The Proclamation of the Republic in 1889 ended the Brazilian Empire in favor of the First Republic. The 1891 Constitution was then adopted, transforming Brazil's provinces into states and the Senate into an elected body. This was retained under later constitutions, including the current 1988 Constitution. Now known as the Federal Senate, it resembles the United States Senate in that each state has the same number of senators.
Palácio Conde dos Arcos, seat of the Imperial Senate in Rio de Janeiro, then Brazil's capital.
Palácio Monroe, second seat of the Senate.
The Federal Senate in the National Congress building in Brasília, capital city of Brazil since 1960.
The current composition of the Mesa Diretora (Presiding Board) of the Federal Senate is as follows:
|President||Rodrigo Pacheco||PSD||Minas Gerais|
|1st Vice-President||Veneziano Vital do Rêgo||MDB||Paraíba|
|2nd Vice-President||Rodrigo Cunha||PSDB||Alagoas|
|1st Secretary||Rogério Carvalho||PT||Sergipe|
|2nd Secretary||Weverton Rocha||PDT||Maranhão|
|3rd Secretary||Chico Rodrigues||PSB||Roraima|
|4th Secretary||Styvenson Valentim||PODE||Rio Grande do Norte|
|1st Substitute||Mara Gabrilli||PSD||São Paulo|
|2nd Substitute||Ivete da Silveira||MDB||Santa Catarina|
The current composition of the Senate (57th Legislature) is as follows:
|Social Democratic||Otto Alencar||16|
|Brazilian Democratic Movement||Eduardo Braga||10|
|Brazil Union||Efraim Filho||9|
|Brazilian Socialist||Jorge Kajuru||4|
|Republicanos||Mecias de Jesus||4|
|Brazilian Social Democracy||Izalci Lucas||3|
|Democratic Labour||Cid Gomes||3|
|Agriculture and Agrarian Reform||Soraya Thronicke (UNIÃO-MS)|
|Constitution, Justice and Citizenship||Davi Alcolumbre (UNIÃO-AP)|
|Economic Affairs||Vanderlan Cardoso (PSD-GO)|
|Education, Culture and Sports||Flávio Arns (PSB-PR)|
|Environment||Leila Barros (PDT-DF)|
|Ethics and Parliamentary Decorum||Jayme Campos (UNIÃO-MT)|
|External Relations and National Defence||Renan Calheiros (MDB-AL)|
|Human Rights and Participative Legislation||Paulo Paim (PT-RS)|
|Infrastructure Services||Confúcio Moura (MDB-RO)|
|Public Security||Sérgio Petecão (PSD-AC)|
|Regional Development and Tourism||Marcelo Castro (MDB-PI)|
|Science, Technology, Innovation, Communication and Computing||Carlos Viana (PODE-MG)|
|Social Affairs||Humberto Costa (PT-PE)|
|Transparency, Governance, Inspection and Control and Consumer Defence||Omar Aziz (PSD-AM)|
- ^ Santos, Larissa (11 January 2021). "Saiba quanto ganham os presidentes do Senado e da Câmara". CNN Brasil (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 28 January 2022.
- ^ "Senado Federal completa hoje 185 anos". R7 (in Portuguese). 6 May 2011. Retrieved 22 May 2012.
O Senado Federal foi criado com a primeira Constituição do Império, outorgada em 1824, inspirado, primeiramente, na Câmara dos Lordes da Grã-Bretanha. Sua primeira reunião ocorreu em 6 de maio de 1826..
- ^ "Lideranças Parlamentares" (in Brazilian Portuguese). Senado Federal. Retrieved 17 March 2017.
- Official website of the Brazilian Senate (archived 15 June 2014)
- (in Portuguese) Photos 360° of the Brazilian Senate
- List of all Brazilian senators (1826–2011) (in Portuguese)