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The Workers' Party (Portuguese: Partido dos Trabalhadores, PT) is a democratic socialist political party in Brazil. Launched in 1980, it is one of the largest movements of Latin America. PT governed at the federal level in a coalition government with several other parties from 1 January 2003 to 31 August 2016. After the 2002 parliamentary election, PT became the largest party in the Chamber of Deputies and the largest in the Federal Senate for the first time ever.[9] With the highest approval rating in the history of the country, President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva is PT's most prominent member.[10] His successor Dilma Rousseff, also a member of PT, took office on 1 January 2011 and was impeached in 2016.

Workers' Party

Partido dos Trabalhadores
AbbreviationPT
PresidentGleisi Hoffmann
Founded10 February 1980; 39 years ago (1980-02-10)
HeadquartersRua Silveira Martins, 132 – Centro – São PauloSP
SCS – Quadra 2, Bloco C, 256 – Edifício Toufic – Asa Sul – BrasíliaDF
Membership (2019)1,589,788[1]
IdeologyDemocratic socialism
Political positionCentre-left[2][3] to left-wing[4][5]
Regional affiliationForo de São Paulo
International affiliationProgressive Alliance[6]
Colors     Red      White
TSE Identification Number13
Chamber of Deputies
56 / 513
Federal Senate
6 / 81
Governors
4 / 27
State Assemblies[7][8]
149 / 1,219
Local Government[7]
254 / 5,566
City Councillors[7]
5,181 / 51,748
Party flag
Bandeira partido dos trabalhadores.svg
Website
pt.org.br

Both born from the opposition to the coup d'état of 1964 and the subsequent military dictatorship, PT and the Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB) from 1994 to 2014 were the biggest adversaries in contemporary Brazilian politics, with their candidates finishing either first or second on the ballot on the last six presidential elections. Both parties generally prohibit any kind of coalition or official cooperation with each other.

Despite its large number of supporters, the party has been involved in a number of corruption scandals since Lula first came to power and spawned an equally large number of opponents as well. The party's symbols are the red flag with a white star in the center; the five-pointed red star, inscribed with the initials PT in the center; and the Workers Party's anthem.[11] Workers' Party's TSE (Superior Electoral Court) Identification Number is 13.

Contents

HistoryEdit

The Workers' Party was launched by a heterogeneous group made up of militants opposed to Brazil's military government, trade unionists, left-wing intellectuals and artists and Catholics linked to the liberation theology[12] on 10 February 1980 at Colégio Sion in São Paulo, a private Catholic school for girls.[13] The party emerged as a result of the approach between the labor movements in the ABC Region such as the Conferência das Classes Trabalhadoras (Conclat), later developed into the Central Única dos Trabalhadores (CUT) which carried major strikes from 1978 to 1980; and the old Brazilian left-wing, whose proponents, many of whom were journalists, intellectuals, artists and union organizers, were returning from exile with the 1979 Amnesty law, many of them having endured imprisonment and torture at the hands of the military regime[14] in addition to years of exile.[13] Dilma Rousseff herself was imprisoned and tortured by the dictatorship.[15]

PT was launched under a democratic socialism trend.[16] After the 1964 coup d'état, Brazil's main federation of labor unions, the General Command of Workers (Comando Geral dos Trabalhadores – CGT), which since its formation gathered leaders approved by the Ministry of Labour, a practice tied to the fact that since Getúlio Vargas's dictatorship, unions had become quasi-state organs, was dissolved while unions themselves suffered intervention of the military regime. The resurgence of an organized labour movement, evidenced by strikes in the ABC Region on the late 1970s led by Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, enabled the reorganization of the labour movement without the direct interference of the state. The movement originally sought to act exclusively in union politics, but the survival of a conservative unionism under the domination of the state (evidenced in the refoundation of CGT) and the influence exercised over the trade union movement by leaders of traditional left-wing parties, such as the Brazilian Communist Party (Partido Comunista Brasileiro – PCB), forced the unionist movement of ABC, encouraged by anti-Stalinist leaders, to organize its own party in a strategy similar to that held by the Solidarność union movement in Poland.

Therefore, PT emerged rejecting the traditional leaders of official unionism and seeking to put into practice a new form of democratic socialism, trying to reject political models it regarded as decaying, such as the Soviet and Chinese ones. It represented the confluence between unionism and anti-Stalinist intelligentsia.

PT was officially recognized as a party by the Brazilian Supreme Electoral Court on 11 February 1982.[17] The first membership card belonged to art critic and former Trotskyst activist Mário Pedrosa, followed by literary scholar Antonio Candido and historian Sérgio Buarque de Holanda.[18] Holanda's daughter Ana de Holanda later became Minister of Culture in the Rousseff cabinet.

Electoral historyEdit

 
Presidential elections against PSDB since 1994
 
Workers' Party flag at Brasília

Since 1988, the Workers' Party has grown in popularity on the national stage by winning the elections in many of the largest Brazilian cities, such as São Paulo, Fortaleza, Belo Horizonte, Porto Alegre and Goiânia as well as in some important states, such as Rio Grande do Sul, Espírito Santo and the Federal District. This winning streak culminated with the victory of its presidential candidate Lula in 2002 who succeeded Fernando Henrique Cardoso of the Brazilian Social Democracy Party (Partido da Social Democracia Brasileira – PSDB). For its defense of economic liberalism, PSDB is the party's main electoral rival as well as the Democrats, heir of the National Renewal Alliance Party (Aliança Renovadora Nacional – ARENA), ruling party during the military dictatorship. Along with the Socialist People's Party (Partido Popular Socialista – PPS), a dissidence of PCB, they form the centre-right opposition to the Lula administration.

1989 presidential elections

In the 1989 general elections, Lula went to the second round with Fernando Collor de Mello. Even though all centrist and left-wing candidates of the first round united around Lula's candidacy, Collor's campaign was strongly supported by the mass media (notably Rede Globo as seen on the documentary Beyond Citizen Kane) and Lula lost in the second round by a close margin of 5.7%.[19][20]

1994 and 1998 general elections

Leading up to the 1994 general elections, Lula was the leading presidential candidate in the majority of polls. As a result, centrist and right-wing parties openly united for Fernando Henrique Cardoso's candidacy. As Minister of Economy, Cardoso created the Real Plan, which established the new currency and subsequently ended inflation and provided economic stability. As a result, Cardoso won the election in the first round with 54% of the votes. However, it has been noted that "the elections were not a complete disaster for PT, which significantly increased its presence in the Congress and elected for the first time two state governors".[21] Cardoso would be re-elected in 1998.

2002 general elections

After the detrition of PSDB's image and as a result of an economic crisis that burst in the final years of Cardoso's government, Lula won the 2002 presidential election in the second round with over 52 million votes, becoming the most voted president in history, surpassing Ronald Reagan. Lula's record was eventually surpassed by George W. Bush (in his re-election campaign) and Barack Obama (both presidential campaigns).

2006 general elections

On 29 October 2006, PT won 83 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and 11 seats in the Federal Senate. Lula was re-elected with more than 60% of the votes, extending his position as President of Brazil until 1 January 2011.[22]

PT is now the second largest party in the Chamber of Deputies, the fourth largest party in the Federal Senate and has 5 state governorships. However, it only gained control of one among the ten richest states (Bahia).

2010 general elections

 
PT as a black cat chasing a toucan (PSDB's mascot) by Carlos Latuff

In the 2010 general elections held on 3 October, PT gained control of 17.15% of the seats in the Chamber of Deputies, a record for the party since 2002. With 88 seats gained, it became the largest party in the lower chamber for the first time ever. PT also became the second largest party in the Federal Senate for the first time after electing of 11 senators, making a total of 14 senators for the 2010–2014 legislature. Its national coalition gained control of 311 seats in the lower house and 50 seats in the upper house, a broad majority in both houses which the Lula administration never had. This election also saw the decrease in the number of seats controlled by the centre-right opposition bloc as it shrank from 133 to 111 deputies. The left-wing opposition, formed by PSOL, retained control of three seats.

The party was also expected to elect its presidential candidate Dilma Rousseff in the first round. However, she was not able to receive the necessary amount of valid votes (over 50%) and a second round in which she scored 56% of the votes took place on 31 October 2010. On 1 January 2011, she was inaugurated and thus became the first female head of government ever in the history of Brazil and the first de facto female head of state since the death in 1816 of Maria I, Queen of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves.

In the 2010 elections, PT retained control of the governorships of Bahia, Sergipe and Acre, in addition to gaining back control of Rio Grande do Sul and the Federal District. Nevertheless, it lost control of Pará. Candidates supported by the party won the race in Amapá, Ceará, Espírito Santo, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Pernambuco, Piauí and Rio de Janeiro, which means that PT would participate in 13 out of 27 state governorships.

Cabinet representationEdit

PT enjoyed strong representation in the cabinets it led for most of the time that it was in office. PT held the majority of cabinet positions in the first two coalitions, with its occupation of ministerial positions comprising 60% in the first coalition,[23][24] 54.8% in the second coalition and 46.5% in the third coalition.[25]

IdeologyEdit

Although PT deliberately never identified itself with a particular brand of leftism, it nevertheless "always defined itself as socialist" and espoused many radical positions.[7] For example, at the Brazilian Constituent Assembly of 1988 it advocated repudiation of Brazil's external debt, nationalization of the country's banks and mineral wealth and a radical land reform.[7] In addition, as a form of protest and as a signal that the party did not fully accept the "rules of the game" PT's delegates refused to sign the draft constitution.[7]

Over the next few years, the party moderated a bit, but it never clearly shed its radicalism and undertook no major reforms of party principles even after Lula's defeat in the 1989 presidential elections.[7] For example, the resolution from the party's 8th National Meeting in 1993 reaffirmed PT's "revolutionary and socialist character", condemned the "conspiracy" of the elites to subvert democracy, stated that the party advocated "radical agrarian reform and suspension of the external debt" and concluded that "capitalism and private property cannot provide a future for humanity".[7]

In 1994, Lula ran for the presidancy again and during his campaign dismissed Fernando Henrique Cardoso's recently implemented Real Plan as an "electoral swindle".[7] The resolutions from the 1994 National Meeting condemned the "control by the dominant classes over the means of production" and reaffirmed the party's "commitment to socialism".[7] PT's Program of Government that year also committed the party to "anti-monopolist, anti-latifúndio, and anti-imperialist change [...] as part of a long-term strategy to construct an alternative to capitalism", statements that "sent shivers down the spine of the international financial community". Thus, as of 1995 "little or nothing" had changed in PT's official ideology since the early 1990s.[7]

After Lula's 1994 loss, the party began a slow process of self-examination.[7] The resolution adopted at its 10th National Meeting in 1995 stated that "our 1994 defeat invites a cruel reflection about our image in society, about the external impact of our internal battles, [and] about our ideological and political ambiguities".[7] The move from self-examination did not involve a clean break with the past as in other socialist parties after the end of the Cold War.[7] The process was gradual, full of contradictions and replete with intra-party tension.[7] By 1997, the National Meeting resolution redefined PT's version of socialism as a "democratic revolution", emphasizing a political rather than economic vision of socialism that aimed to make the state "more transparent and socially accountable".[7]

Lula's third presidential campaign platform in 1998 cut socialist proposals and even the mention of a transition to a socialist society, but the party's self-definition remained highly ambiguous as the resolution from the party's Meeting that year affirmed that Lula's platform "should not be confused with the socialist program of PT".[7] Thus, while PT had begun to distance itself from its original socialist rhetoric and proposals by 1998, a clearer shift did not occur until after Lula lost again that year and after Lula and his group had more fully digested the impact of Brazil's changing political context and of Cardoso's economic reforms.[7]

Electoral historyEdit

Presidential electionsEdit

Election Candidate First round Second round Result
Votes % Votes %
1989 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva 11,622,673 16.1% 31,076,364 47.0% Lost  N
1994 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva 17,122,127 27.0% - - Lost  N
1998 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva 21,475,211 31.7% - - Lost  N
2002 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva 39,455,233 46.4% 52,793,364 61.3% Elected  Y
2006 Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva 46,662,365 48.6% 58,295,042 60.8% Elected  Y
2010 Dilma Rousseff 47,651,434 46.9% 55,752,529 56.1% Elected  Y
2014 Dilma Rousseff 43,267,668 41.6% 54,501,118 51.6 % Elected  Y
2018 Fernando Haddad 31,341,997 29.3% 47,040,380 44.8% Lost  N
Source: Election Resources: Federal Elections in Brazil – Results Lookup

Chamber of Deputies and Senate electionsEdit

Election Chamber of Deputies Federal Senate Role in government
Votes % Seats +/– Votes % Seats +/–
1982 1,458,719 3.5%
8 / 479
  8 1,538,786 3.6%
0 / 25
  In opposition
1986 3,253,999 6.9%
16 / 487
  8 N/A N/A
0 / 49
  In opposition
1990 4,128,052 10.2%
35 / 502
  19 N/A N/A
1 / 31
  1 In opposition
1994 5,959,854 13.1%
49 / 513
  14 13,198,319 13.8%
4 / 54
  3 In opposition
1998 8,786,528 13.2%
58 / 513
  9 11,392,662 18.4%
7 / 81
  3 In opposition
2002 16,094,080 18.4%
91 / 513
  33 32,739,665 21.3%
14 / 81
  7 In government coalition
2006 13,989,859 15.0%
83 / 513
  8 16,222,159 19.2%
10 / 81
  4 In government coalition
2010 16,289,199 16.9%
88 / 513
  5 39,410,141 23.1%
15 / 81
  5 In government coalition
2014 13,554,166 14.0%
68 / 513
  20 15,155,818 17.0%
12 / 81
  3 In government coalition (2014-2016)
In opposition (2016-2018)
2018 10,126,611 10.3%
56 / 513
  12 24,785,670 14.5%
6 / 81
  6 In opposition
1^ Percentage of seats up for election that year.
2^ Total seats: seats up for election that year plus seats not up for election.
Sources: Georgetown University, Election Resources, Rio de Janeiro State University

Voter baseEdit

Most of the Workers' Party votes in presidential elections since 2006 stems from the North and Northeast regions of Brazil. Nevertheless, the party has always won every presidential election in Rio de Janeiro from 1998 to 2014 and in Minas Gerais from 2002 to 2014 (these are two of the three largest states by number of voters and together they comprise 18.5% of voters). The party also maintains a stronghold in the southernmost state of Rio Grande do Sul, where it has won continuously since the second round of 1989 until 2002. Originally an urban party, with ties to ABC Region's unionism, PT has recently seen a major increase of its support in smaller towns.

Most of PT's rejection comes from São Paulo as it has won elections there only once in 2002 (both rounds). The historical PT rejection in São Paulo was more widespread in interior than the capital as PT won the 1988, 2000 and 2012 São Paulo mayoral election and was a major force in his homeland, the Greater São Paulo. Despite this, the party lost its support even in the region and has not won any electoral zone in the capital in 2016 municipal elections. Fernando Haddad, the candidate seeking reelection, stayed in a distant second place, with 36 percentual points below the winner João Doria. PT managed to win in only one city of the region, the small and distant municipality of Franco da Rocha. PT is also strongly rejected in other states of the Center-South, such as Rio de Janeiro, which until 2018 had voted in the Workers Party presidential candidates in all new republic elections except 1994, the party shows strong difficulties to make representatives in federal, state and municipal levels. The party never elected a mayor in the capital of the state, never elected a governor (Benedita da Silva, the sole governor of the state from the party, took over because the resignation of the titular Anthony Garotinho in 2002, which her party had broken some years early, and was massive defeated in the same year's election by the Garotinho's wife Rosângela Matheus) and is often overturned in elections by left-wing parties with much less weight in national elections. The triumphs in the state were more associated with a strong rejection of PSDB in the state (which is even more weak and rejected despite his national strength) than a support of PT's program. In 2018 presidential elections, PT lost in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo with similar percentages in both states, with a difference of only 0,02% less percent of valid votes to the party in São Paulo. Despite being a southeastern state, many regions of Minas Gerais, especially in the north region of the state, had strong economic, cultural and socially ties with the Northeast. São Francisco River, a symbol of the Northeast, has its source in a small city of Minas, Pirapora. With the exception of Rio Grande do Sul and Distrito Federal, PT never gets an elected governor in the Center-south until 2014, when Fernando Damata Pimentel was elected governor of Minas Gerais.

PT had a strong electoral stronghold in North Brazil and in the Amazonian region; The party triumphed in every state governorship in Acre from 1990 to 2018. However, the Acre section of the party is far more independent and moderate than the rest of the party and PT had only won the presidential election in the state twice in 2002 and 2006. PT also lost the governorship of Acre in 2018 to a candidate from right-wing Progressive Party. Roraima, which the impact of the controversy about the indigenous territory of Raposa Serra do Sol, which former President Lula gave strong support despite the opposition of the non-indigenous people; and Rondonia, which had a large population of evangelicals and south/southeastern migrants, also show reservations about the party. The electoral stronghold was also lost in 2018 elections; PT only triumphed in the states of Pará and Tocantins, the only states in the region which borders Brazilian Northeast and much of their culutre is near from Northwest than the rest of Amazon. In Amazonas, the largest brazilian states, PT lost in 2018 for the first time since 1998; PT lost in the capital of the state, Manaus, a free zone which concentrates more than the half of the population of the state; in the large, sparsely inhabitated interior of the Amazonian state, PT win by a large margin but insufficient to guarantee the fifth triumph of the party in the state on presidential election.

PT, however, maintaned and expanded his stronghold in Northeast Brazil, conquered in Lula first elections in 2002. Since 2002, the only time that a state other than these which did not vote in PT in a presidential election was Alagoas in both rounds of 2002 presidential elections. PT and its allies was able to made big gains in north and northeast regions of Brazil even in times which the party was in crisis, like in the last mayoral elections. PT's most loyal party PCdoB and former allies Brazilian Socialist Party (Partido Socialista Brasileiro − PSB) and Democratic Labour Party (Partido Democrático Trabalhista − PDT) made huge gains in region together with PT in the Lula−Rouseff era. PCdoB is now the strongest party in Maranhão state and was able to elect the mayor of Aracaju, Sergipe; PSB is now the strongest party in the states of Pernambuco and Paraiba; and PDT was able to triumph in three capitals of the northeastern. Despite losing all capitals in northwest, PT had the governorships of three northwestern states, Piaui, Bahia and Ceará. The governorship of Bahia, conquered in 2006, is symbolical. The party was a stronghold of Liberal Front Party (Partido da Frente Liberal − PFL) , now Democrats (Democratas − DEM), the greatest ideological rival of PT in national level. PSDB is a strongest party and headed all presidential tickets which PFL/DEM participated since 1994, but the origin of PSDB resembling with the origins PT as a leftist opposition to the dictatorship, and the parties had strong links until PSDB broke with PT and join in a coalition with PFL, a right-wing party with strong fiscal conservative views, associated with the Brazilian military regime in 1993 and the homeland of Antonio Carlos Magalhães, the strongest leadership of PFL and a fierce foe of PT. Bahia is now the main stronghold of PT, the most reliable state for the Petismo and is considered a governance model to the party. Despite this, the state's capital Salvador is governed by ACM Neto, a leading member of DEM and grandson of Antonio Carlos Magalhães.

The party is often accused of exploit the North–South divide in Brazil to gain votes in the northeast. The party denies the claims and accuses the opposition to do the same in the South and Southeast.

According to a poll conducted by IBOPE on 31 October 2010, during the second round voting PT's candidate Dilma Rouseff had an overwhelming majority of votes among the poorest Brazilians.[26] Her lead was of 26% among those who earned a minimum wage or less per month.[26] Rouseff also had the majority of votes among Catholics (58%), blacks (65%) and mixed-race Brazilians (60%).[26] Amongst whites and Protestants, she was statistically tie to José Serra and her lead was of only 4% on both demographic groups.[26] Even though she was the first female candidate in a major party, her votes amongst men was wider than amongst women.[26]

ControversiesEdit

2003–2007 internal crisis and splitEdit

The changes in the political orientation of PT (from a left-wing socialist to a centre-left social-democratic party) after Lula was elected President were well received by many in the population, but as a historically more radical party PT has experienced a series of internal struggles with members who have refused to embrace the new political positions of the party. These struggles have fueled public debates, the worst of which had its climax in December 2003, when four dissident legislators were expelled from the party for voting against Social Insurance Reform.[27] Among these members were congressman João Batista Oliveira de Araujo (known as Babá) and senator Heloísa Helena, who formed the Socialism and Liberty Party (Partido Socialismo e Liberdade − PSOL) in June 2004 and ran for President in 2006, becoming at the time the woman who had garnered the most votes in Brazilian history.

In another move, 112 members of the radical wing of the party announced they were abandoning PT in the World Social Forum in Porto Alegre on 30 January 2005. They also published a manifesto entitled Manifesto of the Rupture that states that PT "is no longer an instrument of social transformation, but only an instrument of the status quo", continuing with references to the International Monetary Fund and other economic and social issues.

BANCOOP scandalEdit

This scandal, called the BANCOOP case, included João Vaccari Neto and four other directors of the housing cooperative. The cooperative received government contracts and had multi-million reais in revenue. The cooperative was found to have illegally padded the service contracts by 20%, with many of the contracts going unfulfilled. The cooperative eventually folded with a deficit of over R$100 million, requiring liquidation of assets to minimize the loss by members.

2006 electoral scandalEdit

This scandal unfolded around September 2006, just two weeks before general elections. As a result, Berzoini left the coordination of Lula's re-election after allegedly using PT's budget (which is partially state-funded through party allowances) to purchase from a confessed fraudster a dossier that would be used to attack political adversaries. On 25 April 2007, the Supreme Electoral Tribunal unanimously cleared Lula of any responsibility for this scandal.[28]

Mensalão scandalEdit

In July 2005, members of the party suffered a sequence of corruption accusations, started by a deputy of the Brazilian Labour Party (Partido Trabalhista Brasileiro – PTB), Roberto Jefferson.[29] Serious evidence for slush funding and bribes-for-votes were presented, dragging PT to the most serious crisis in its history, known colloquially as the Mensalão. José Genoíno resigned as president of the party and was replaced by Tarso Genro, former mayor of Porto Alegre. A small minority of party members defected as a result of the crisis. Most of them went to PSOL.

Lava Jato scandalEdit

The investigation of a series of crimes, such corruption and money laundering, led to the arrest of the party's treasurer João Vaccari Neto and his sister-in-law. José Genoino, José Dirceu, Delcídio do Amaral, André Vargas and Delúbio Soares were also arrested in the process. Most recently, former President Lula was arrested in April 2018.[30]

OrganizationEdit

Since its inception the party has been led by the following:

FactionsEdit

There are about thirty factions (tendências) within PT, ranging from Articulação, the centre-left group that Lula is a part of, to Marxists and Christian socialists.

Tendencies integrating the Building a New Brazil fieldEdit

Considered the right-wing of the party, i.e. going from centre to centre-left.

Tendencies categorized as the left-wing of the partyEdit

Former factionsEdit

Famous membersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ (in Portuguese) "Eleitores filiados".
  2. ^ Claire Rigby (14 November 2016). "How Lula's party fell from grace: the toppling of the Brazilian left". New Statesman. Retrieved 20 July 2017.
  3. ^ Daniel Gallas (29 March 2016). "Dilma Rousseff and Brazil face up to decisive month". BBC News. Retrieved 20 July 2017.
  4. ^ The demise of Brazil’s great centrist party. The Economist. Published 1 November 2018. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
  5. ^ Jair Bolsonaro: Brazil's far-right president-elect accused of campaign funding irregularities. The Independent. Author - Shehab Khan. Published 14 November 2018. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
  6. ^ "Participants of the Denpasar Seminar, 19 – 20 September 2016 - Progressive Alliance". September 22, 2016. Retrieved November 22, 2016.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Convocação: Dia Nacional de Mobilização Dilma Presidente 27 DE OUTUBRO Archived July 6, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, Secretaria de cultura do PT-DF, 22 October 2010
  8. ^ "PT elege 149 deputados estaduais e lidera participação nas Assembleias". October 7, 2010. Retrieved November 22, 2016.
  9. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Portuguese) "PT elege maior bancada na Câmara e a segunda do Senado". JusBrasil. 5 October 2010.
  10. ^ Rabello, Maria Luiza. "Lula's Chosen Heir Surges in Brazil Presidential Poll". Business Week. 1 February 2010.
  11. ^ LuizPuodzius (September 18, 2011). "Hino do PT - Workers' Party of Brazil". Retrieved November 22, 2016 – via YouTube.
  12. ^ Samuels, David. "From Socialism to Social Democracy: Party Organization and The Transformation of the Workers’ Party in Brazil". Comparative Political Studies. p. 3.
  13. ^ a b ‹See Tfd›(in Portuguese) Agência Brasil. "Saiba mais sobre a história do PT". Terra. 24 June 2006.
  14. ^ "Para que não se esqueça, para que nunca mais aconteça". April 2, 2014. Retrieved November 22, 2016.
  15. ^ "Leader's Torture in the '70s Stirs Ghosts in Brazil". The New York Times. August 5, 2012. Retrieved November 22, 2016.
  16. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Portuguese) "Manifesto aprovado na reunião do Sion". 24 April 2006. Fundação Perseu Abramo.
  17. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Portuguese) Political parties registered under the Supreme Electoral Court Archived November 29, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. Tribunal Superior Eleitoral.
  18. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Portuguese) OGASSAWARA, Juliana Sayuri. "Onde estão os intelectuais brasileiros". Fórum. São Paulo: Editora Publisher, May 2009. Page 20.
  19. ^ "Brazil – The Presidential Election of 1989". Countrystudies.us. Retrieved November 1, 2010.
  20. ^ "author:"Boas" intitle:"Television and Neopopulism in Latin America" – Google Acadêmico". Retrieved November 1, 2010.
  21. ^ Branford, Sue; Bernardo Kucinski (1995). Brazil: Carnival of the Oppressed. London: Latin America Bureau. p. 120. ISBN 978-0-906156-99-5.
  22. ^ "Brazil re-elects President Lula", BBC, 30 October 2006.
  23. ^ http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/research/files/papers/2010/11/10-brazil-politics-pereira/1110_brazil_politics_pereira.pdf
  24. ^ Horowitz, Irving Louis (July 1, 1981). Policy Studies Review Annual. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 9780803913158. Retrieved November 22, 2016 – via Google Books.
  25. ^ Hunter, Wendy (September 13, 2010). The Transformation of the Workers' Party in Brazil, 1989–2009. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781139492669. Retrieved November 22, 2016 – via Google Books.
  26. ^ a b c d e Entre mais pobres, Dilma teve 26 pontos de folga. O Estado de S. Paulo. 7 November 2010.
  27. ^ "Lula's purge: The Workers' Party sheds its dissenters". The Economist. October 1, 2003.
  28. ^ Duffy, Gary (April 25, 2007). "Lula cleared of electoral scandal". BBC News. Retrieved November 1, 2010.
  29. ^ "Portal da Cidadania". web.archive.org. September 29, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2019.
  30. ^ Press, Associated (April 16, 2015). "Brazil Workers' Party treasurer arrested in Petrobras corruption investigation". The Guardian. Associated Press. Retrieved November 22, 2016 – via The Guardian.
  31. ^ "Esquerda Marxista (Marxist Left) decides to leave PT". In Defense of Marxism. May 5, 2015. Retrieved June 26, 2015.

Further readingEdit

In EnglishEdit

  • Baiocchi, Gianpaolo (ed.) (2003). Radicals in Power: The Workers' Party and Experiments in Urban Democracy in Brazil. Zed Books.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  • Branford, Sue; Kucinski, Bernardo (2005). Lula and the Workers' Party in Brazil. New Press.
  • Bruera, Hernán F. Gómez (2013). Lula, the Workers' Party and the Governability Dilemma in Brazil. Routledge.
  • Hunter, Wendy (2010). The Transformation of the Workers' Party in Brazil, 1989–2009. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-51455-2.
  • Keck, Margaret E. (1995). The Workers' Party and Democratization in Brazil. Yale University Press.

In PortugueseEdit

  • Couto, A. J. Paula. O PT em pílulas.
  • Dacanal, José Hildebrando. A nova classe no poder.
  • Demier, Felipe. As Transformações do PT e os Rumos da Esquerda no Brasil.
  • Godoy, Dagoberto Lima. Neocomunismo no Brasil.
  • Harnecker, Martha (1994). O sonho era possível. São Paulo: Casa das Américas.
  • Hohlfeldt, Antônio. O fascínio da estrela.
  • Moura, Paulo. PT – Comunismo ou Social-Democracia?.
  • Paula Couto, Adolpho João de. A face oculta da estrela.
  • Pedrosa, Mário (1980). Sobre o PT. São Paulo: CHED Editorial.
  • Pluggina, Percival. Crônicas contra o totalitarismo.
  • Tavares, José Antônio Giusti with Fernando Schüller, Ronaldo Moreira Brum and Valério Rohden. Totalitarismo tardio – o caso do PT.
  • Singer, André. O PT – Folha Explica.
  • Singer, André. Os Sentidos do Lulismo.

Annotated bibliographyEdit

External linksEdit

Preceded by
12 – DLP (PDT)
Numbers of Brazilian Official Political Parties
13 – WP (PT)
Succeeded by
14 – BLP (PTB)