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Fernando Haddad (born 25 January 1963) is a Brazilian academic and politician who served as Mayor of São Paulo from 2013 to 2017. He was the Workers' Party candidate for President of Brazil in the 2018 election, replacing former President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, whose candidacy was barred by the Superior Electoral Court under the Clean Slate law.[1] Haddad faced Jair Bolsonaro in the run-off of the election,[2] and lost the election with 44.87% of the votes against the 55.13% of Bolsonaro.[3]

Fernando Haddad
Haddad em campanha 2018 (cropped).jpg
51st Mayor of São Paulo
In office
1 January 2013 – 1 January 2017
Vice MayorNádia Campeão
Preceded byGilberto Kassab
Succeeded byJoão Doria
Minister of Education
In office
29 July 2005 – 24 January 2012
PresidentLuiz Inácio Lula da Silva
Dilma Rousseff
Preceded byTarso Genro
Succeeded byAloizio Mercadante
Personal details
Born (1963-01-25) 25 January 1963 (age 56)
São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
Political partyWorkers' Party
Spouse(s)Ana Estela Haddad (1988–present)
Children2
EducationUniversity of São Paulo

Haddad is of Antiochian Greek Orthodox Christian origin and studied law, economics and philosophy at the University of São Paulo.[4] He was Minister of Education from 2005 to 2012 in the cabinets of Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and Dilma Rousseff.[5]

Early lifeEdit

 
Haddad as a child

Haddad was born in São Paulo, the second of three children of salesman Khalil Haddad, a Lebanese Antiochian Greek Orthodox immigrant that arrived in Brazil in 1948 from Ain Aata, and Norma Teresa Gousain, the daughter of immigrants from Lebanon. Haddad has two sisters, Priscila and Lúcia. Their mother is a spiritist. Haddad's grandfather Khoury Habib Haddad, whom he did not meet, was a priest for the Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch in Lebanon and Brazil.[6]

Haddad attended high school at Colégio Bandeirantes,[6] and in 1981 entered the Law School of the University of São Paulo as an undergraduate.[7]

CareerEdit

Haddad holds a Master's Degree in Economics and a Doctorate in Philosophy from the University of São Paulo.[7] His Master's dissertation was on socio-economic aspects of the Soviet Union, defended in 1990, whereas his doctorate thesis is concerned with Historical materialism, defended in 1996.[8] He began his career as an investment analyst at Unibanco,[9] but has devoted much of his career to public service. Haddad has been a consultant for the Fundação Instituto de Pesquisas Econômicas, an economics research institute, based at the School of Economics, Business and Accounting of the University of São Paulo,[10] chief of staff to the Finance and Economic Development Secretary of the municipality of São Paulo,[10] and a special advisor to the Ministry of Planning, Budget and Management.[10] He is also a professor in the political science department of the University of São Paulo.[11]

Haddad took over the cabinet position of Minister of Education on 29 July 2005, when his predecessor, Tarso Genro, left the position to become the chairman of the Workers' Party.[10] In 2007, Haddad established the Basic Education Development Index (IDEB) to measure the quality of public primary and middle schools.[12] Under Haddad's tenure as minister, the Lula administration implemented the University for All Program (ProUni), which aims at offering scholarships for low-income students attending private universities.[13] The Ministry also made several reforms to the National High School Exam (ENEM) so as to amplify its usage in university admissions. In 2009 Haddad's ministry became embroiled in controversy after that year's ENEM leaked, which forced the government to cancel the exam scheduled for October.[14][15]

During the 2012 municipal elections, Haddad was a candidate for Mayor of São Paulo. After successfully advancing to the second round, he faced former mayor José Serra[16] (who had received the most votes in the first round)[17] and won with 55.57% of the valid votes.[4] As Mayor, Haddad implemented an expansion of the city's network of bike lanes, promising to extend it from 64.7 km to 400 km in 2016. The project sparked polarized reactions by residents of São Paulo.[18][19]

In June 2013, his administration faced widespread demonstrations, when São Paulo city hall and the government of the state of São Paulo (which runs the train and metro system of São Paulo) announced that bus fares would be raised from R$3.00 to R$3.20.[20] The violent repression of these protests by the São Paulo state police generated a widespread reaction by the general population.[21] The resulting 2013 protests were the second biggest movement in comparison with 2015 protests against President Dilma Roussef.[22][23]

In July 2016, Haddad had the approval of only 14% of city residents, the lowest for the end of a mayoral term since Celso Pitta in 2000.[24] On 2 October 2016, Haddad lost his bid for re-election to Brazilian Social Democracy Party candidate João Doria, receiving only 17% of the vote.[25] He left office on 1 January 2017.

2018 presidential electionEdit

Haddad was announced as Lula da Silva's running mate in the 2018 presidential election in August 2018. However, the Superior Electoral Court ruled on 31 August that the former president is ineligible for candidacy due to his being disqualified under the Clean Slate law, which bans people convicted on appeal from running for public office. Lula had been arrested in April after his conviction for corruption was upheld by the Federal Court of the Fourth Region.[26] On 11 September 2018, Haddad was named by the Workers' Party as Lula's replacement, with Communist Party legislator Manuela d'Ávila taking Haddad's place as the vice presidential candidate.[1]

Haddad came in second place in the first round of the election with 29% of the vote, behind Jair Bolsonaro, who had 46%. The two faced again in the run-off on 28 October 2018,[27] in which Haddad placed second with 44.87% of the vote against Bolsonaro, who won the election.[3]

BibliographyEdit

Some of the academic production of Dr. Fernando Haddad:

Year Portuguese title English translation
1992 O Sistema Soviético - Relato de Uma Polêmica[8] The Soviet System - Report of a Polemic
1998 Em Defesa do Socialismo[8] In Defense of Socialism
1998 Sindicatos, Cooperativas e Socialismo[8] Unions, Cooperatives and Socialism
1998 Teses sobre Karl Marx[8] Theses on Karl Marx
2001 Rumo à redialectização do materialismo histórico Toward the redialectization of historical materialism [28]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Lewis, Jeffrey T.; Magalhaes, Luciana (11 September 2018). "Brazil's da Silva Steps Aside, Names Haddad as Replacement Candidate". Wall Street Journal – via www.wsj.com.
  2. ^ Stargardter, Gabriel (2018-10-09). "Far-right Brazil candidate snubs 'peace and love,' readies for..." Reuters.
  3. ^ a b Official TSE vote tally
  4. ^ a b "Haddad supera Serra, e PT volta a governar São Paulo após oito anos". UOL (in Portuguese). São Paulo. 28 October 2012. Retrieved 28 October 2012.
  5. ^ "In Lula's footsteps: Brazil's presidential campaign". The Economist. 396 (8689): 50. 1 July 2010. Retrieved 7 July 2010.
  6. ^ a b "O candidato da esquerda".
  7. ^ a b "Currículo de Fernando Haddad no Sistema de Currículos Lattes" (in Portuguese). buscatextual.cnpq.br. Retrieved 7 July 2010.
  8. ^ a b c d e "Currículo de Fernando Haddad no Sistema de Currículos Lattes" (in Portuguese). lattes.cnpq.br. Retrieved 5 November 2018.
  9. ^ "Estou confiante na recuperação de Lula, diz Haddad - Política - Estadão".
  10. ^ a b c d "Fernando Haddad é o novo ministro da Educação" (in Portuguese). educacaopublica.rj.gov.br. Retrieved 7 July 2010.
  11. ^ "Conversa com o Ministro da Educação" (in Portuguese). miniweb.com.br. Retrieved 7 July 2010.
  12. ^ "Folha de S.Paulo - Ensino: SP e MG vão aderir ao PAC da Educação, afirma ministério - 27/02/2008". www1.folha.uol.com.br.
  13. ^ "Dilma comemora um milhão de bolsas no ProUni e exalta realizações de Haddad na Educação".
  14. ^ "Folha de S.Paulo - Poder - Falhas do Enem viram vidraça de Haddad - 19/02/2012". www1.folha.uol.com.br.
  15. ^ "Enem vaza e ministério anuncia cancelamento do exame - Educação - Estadão".
  16. ^ "Brazil's ruling party wins Sao Paulo mayor race: exit polls". France 24. AFP. 28 October 2012. Archived from the original on 29 October 2012. Retrieved 28 October 2012.
  17. ^ Tavener, Ben (9 October 2012). "Brazil in Second Round of 2012 Elections". The Rio Times. Rio de Janeiro. Retrieved 28 October 2012.
  18. ^ Barifouse, Rafael (27 June 2015). "Pedal power forges ahead in Sao Paulo's famous Avenida Paulista". BBC News – via www.bbc.com.
  19. ^ Johnson, Reed; Jelmayer, Rogerio (23 September 2015). "Mayor Fernando Haddad's Pro-Bike Push Polarizes São Paulo". Wall Street Journal – via www.wsj.com.
  20. ^ Agência Brasil: Manifestantes contra aumento da passagem entram em conflito com PM em São Paulo Archived 2013-11-21 at the Wayback Machine
  21. ^ "Por 20 centavos e muito mais: manifestações completam um ano". epoca.globo.com. Retrieved 2018-11-05.
  22. ^ "Manifestação anti-Dilma entra para a história". epoca.globo.com. Retrieved 2018-10-28.
  23. ^ "Paulista reúne maior ato político desde as Diretas Já, diz Datafolha". www1.folha.uol.com.br (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2018-10-28.
  24. ^ "Haddad tem pior avaliação em fim de mandato desde Pitta".
  25. ^ Media mogul's Sao Paulo win boosts backer's hopes of Brazil presidency Oct. 3, 2016
  26. ^ "TSE decide por 6 votos a 1 rejeitar a candidatura de Lula a presidente".
  27. ^ "Brazilian presidential election goes to a second round as far-right candidate narrowly misses an outright win". www.washingtonpost.com.
  28. ^ Washbourne, R. Kelly; Horvath, Greg; Haddad, Fernando (2001). "Toward the redialectization of historical materialism". Cultural Critique (49): 111–138. JSTOR 1354705.

External linksEdit

Political offices
Preceded by
Gilberto Kassab
51st Mayor of São Paulo
2013–2017
Succeeded by
João Doria
Preceded by
Tarso Genro
Minister of Education
2005–2012
Succeeded by
Aloízio Mercadante
Party political offices
Preceded by
Aloízio Mercadante
PT nominee for Vice President of Brazil
2018 (declined)
Most recent
Preceded by
Dilma Rousseff (2014)
Luís Inácio Lula da Silva (2018)
PT nominee for President of Brazil
2018
Most recent