Socialism and Liberty Party
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The Socialism and Liberty Party (Portuguese: Partido Socialismo e Liberdade IPA: [paʁˈtʃidu sosjɐˈlizmw i libeʁˈdadʒi], PSOL IPA: [peˈsɔw]) is a Brazilian political party with 147,096 active members. PSOL is a left-wing to far-left party which is self-described as socialist and democratic.
|Founded||6 June 2004|
|Headquarters||SDS, Edificio Venâncio V, Loja 28, Brasília|
Socialism of the 21st century
|Political position||Left-wing to far-left|
|International affiliation||Different groups in PSOL have different international affiliations.|
|TSE Identification Number||50|
|Seats in the Chamber of Deputies|
10 / 513
|Seats in the Federal Senate|
0 / 81
0 / 27
|Seats in State Legislative Assemblies|
18 / 1,049
2 / 5,570
|Seats in City Councils|
53 / 56,810
The party leader is Luiz Araújo and the federal deputies Ivan Valente, Chico Alencar, Jean Wyllys, Edmilson Rodrigues, Glauber Braga and Luiza Erundina, with a number of well-known Brazilian left-wing leaders and intellectuals, such as Guilherme Boulos, Milton Temer, Michael Löwy, Luciana Genro, Vladimir Safatle, Marcelo Freixo, Renato Roseno, Carlos Nelson Coutinho, Ricardo Antunes, Francisco de Oliveira, João Machado, Pedro Ruas and others.
PSOL was formed after Heloísa Helena, Luciana Genro, Babá and João Fontes (also a federal deputy, now a member of the Democratic Labour Party, PDT) were expelled from the Workers' Party after voting against the pension reform proposed by Lula. They opposed liberal decisions of Lula's government and the Workers' Party alliances with polemic right-wing politicians, such as the former presidents José Sarney and Fernando Collor.
After collecting more than 438,000 signatures, PSOL became Brazil's 29th officially recognized political party, the first to do so by this method.
Ideology and supportEdit
The ideology of the party varies between the left and the extreme left. The programmatic elements found in the party are related to socialism, anti-capitalism, and anti-imperialism. There are Marxist, Trotskyist, eco-socialist, and syndicalist tendencies within the party. Among other things, the party program includes the reduction of working hours, agrarian and urban reform, increased spending on health, education and infrastructure, and a break with the International Monetary Fund. It also seeks to decriminalize abortion. Because it is a party formed by trends that possess the political spectrum of the left in common, they represent distinct divisions in question of origin, geographical location and composition of its leaderships. The formation of tendencies provided for in the party statute can be freely organized without direct interference from the party leadership, allowing autonomy of intra-party groups, provided they follow the political prerogatives of the party's statute and program.
Despite being a left-wing party, PSOL is not commonly associated with a labor or low-income electorate. Instead, PSOL is more associated with the upper-middle class electorate with strong secular or socially progressive beliefs in the brazilians metropolitan zones, especially the cultural and intellectual elite of Rio de Janeiro. PSOL is a party often associated with academics of social sciences in public universities, teachers, artistic class, social movements, people who support controversial policies in the brazilian society like legalization of abortion, legalization of marijuana, human rights activism and public sector labor unions. PSOL shows strong difficulties to penetrate in sectors of electorate which are poorer or less affluent; in the last election to Mayor of Rio de Janeiro, PSOL had lost to conservative pentecostal bishop Marcelo Crivella in a runoff with more than 40-point margin in some poor suburbs which are far away from Rio's downtown. Between evangelicals, the margin of defeat was about 80%; Although PSOL tried to made some moves to attract evangelical votes, a strong antagonism between the party and evangelical electorate, many of them poor with strong social conservative and/or economic liberal beliefs exists. Although PSOL officially not rejects any religion, many evangelicals see PSOL as a hostile party which does not represent their values and massively rejects the party.
|Abbreviation||Name in Portuguese||Name in English||Ideology||International affiliation|
|APS-CC||Ação Popular Socialista - Corrente Comunista||Socialist People's Action - Communist Current||Democratic socialism||-|
|APS-NE||Ação Popular Socialista - Nova Era||Socialist People's Action - New Era||Democratic socialism||-|
|C1M||Coletivo Primeiro de Maio||First of May Collective||Democratic socialism, Left-wing populism||-|
|CRZ||Coletivo Rosa Zumbi||Rosa Zumbi Collective||Social democracy||-|
|-||Comuna||Commune||Trotskyism, Mandelism||Fourth International (reunited)|
|CST||Corrente Socialista dos Trabalhadores||Workers' Socialist Current||Trotskyism, Morenism||International Workers' Unity - Fourth International|
|EM||Esquerda Marxista||Marxist Left||Trotskyism, Grantism||International Marxist Tendency|
|-||Fortalecer o PSOL||Strengthen PSOL||Social democracy, Left-wing populism||-|
|-||Insurgência||Insurgency||Trotskyism, Mandelism, Socialism of the 21st Century||Fourth International (reunited)|
|LSR||Liberdade, Socialismo e Revolução||Liberty, Socialism and Revolution||Trotskyism||Committee for a Workers' International|
|MES||Movimento Esquerda Socialista||Socialist Left Movement||Left-wing populism, Trotskyism, Morenism||Corriente Movimiento|
|-||Resistência||Resistance||Democratic socialism, Morenism||-|
|-||Subverta||Subvert||Trotskyism, Mandelism, Ecosocialism, Socialism of the 21st Century||Fourth International (reunited)|
PSOL also allows certain unregistered political parties to launch candidates through its TSE registry number. These organizations, however, cannot participate in the party's congresses.
|Abbreviation||Name in Portuguese||Name in English||Ideology|
|BP||Brigadas Populares||People's Brigades||Democratic socialism, Left-wing nationalism, Socialism of the 21st Century, Bolivarianism|
|MRT||Movimento Revolucionário de Trabalhadores||Workers' Revolutionary Movement||Trotskyism|
|PCR||Partido Comunista Revolucionário||Revolutionary Communist Party||Marxism-Leninism, Hoxhaism|
|PCLCP||Polo Comunista Luiz Carlos Prestes||Luiz Carlos Prestes Communist Pole||Marxism-Leninism, Left-wing nationalism|
|RAiZ||Raiz - Movimento Cidadanista||Roots - Citizens' Movement||Ecosocialism, Teko Porã, Ubuntu|
|RC||Refundação Comunista||Communist Refoundation||Revolutionary socialism|
Members of the National CongressEdit
Following the 2018 general election, PSOL currently has ten federal deputies in the National Congress of Brazil. Although having a small presence in parliament, PSOL is the 5th most popular party in Brazil, and it is recognized as different from the bigger PSDB and PT parties and the cronyist and catch-all parties without an ideology.
It is the only party present in the Congress which did not receive money from large corporations and the only party that called for the removal of the former President of the Chamber of Deputies Eduardo Cunha, currently in jail.
|Áurea Carolina||Minas Gerais||Independent|
|David Miranda||Rio de Janeiro||Socialist Left Movement|
|Edmilson Rodrigues||Pará||Popular Socialist Action - Communist Current|
|Fernanda Melchionna||Rio Grande do Sul||Socialist Left Movement|
|Glauber Braga||Rio de Janeiro||Independent|
|Ivan Valente||São Paulo||Popular Socialist Action - Communist Current|
|Luiza Erundina||São Paulo||Raiz - Citizens' Movement|
|Marcelo Freixo||Rio de Janeiro||Independent|
|Sâmia Bomfim||São Paulo||Socialist Left Movement|
|Talíria Petrone||Rio de Janeiro||Subvert|
Notes: The military union leader, Corporal Daciolo (RJ), was expelled from the party in 2015.
|Daniella Monteiro||Rio de Janeiro||Insurgency|
|Eliomar Coelho||Rio de Janeiro||Independent|
|Flavio Serafini||Rio de Janeiro||Subvert|
|Mônica Francisco||Rio de Janeiro||Independent|
|Renata Souza||Rio de Janeiro||Independent|
|Carlos Giannazi||São Paulo||Independent|
|Erica Malunguinho||São Paulo||Independent|
|Mônica Souza||São Paulo||Independent|
|Isadora Penna||São Paulo||Insurgency|
|Hilton Coelho||Bahia||Popular Socialist Action - New Era|
|Fábio Felix||Federal District||Independent|
|Andréia de Jesus||Minas Gerais||Popular Brigades|
|Marinor Brito||Pará||Popular Socialist Action - Communist Current|
|Sandro Pimentel||Rio Grande do Norte||Socialist Left Movement|
|Luciana Genro||Rio Grande do Sul||Socialist Left Movement|
|Oton Costa||Jaçana||Socialist Left Movement|
PSOL launched Heloísa Helena to run for president in 2006 elections. The vice-presidential candidate was intellectual César Benjamin. The party ran in a left-wing ticket along with two other parties: Trotskyist United Socialist Workers' Party (PSTU) and Marxist–Leninist Brazilian Communist Party (PCB).
The alliance was extended to gubernatorial elections. In Minas Gerais, for instance, Vanessa Portugal, from the PSTU, ran for governor with PSOL's support, although not with PCB's. Prominent PSOL gubernatorial candidates were Plínio de Arruda Sampaio in São Paulo, Milton Temer in Rio de Janeiro and Roberto Robaina in Rio Grande do Sul. However, they were all defeated.
Heloísa Helena finished the presidential race in the third place, receiving 6.5 million votes throughout the country (6.85% of the valid votes). Three federal deputies, Luciana Genro, Chico Alencar and Ivan Valente, managed to get re-elected.
In the 2010 candidate for presidential election Plínio de Arruda Sampaio received 888.000 votes (0.87%). Plinio presented an agrarian reform project in 1964 when he was federal deputy, but the 1964 Military Coup ended the project and Plinio lost his mandate. Although he received very few votes Plinio became famous after the elections because he was qualified as an anti-candidate.
PSOL elected three deputies again, Chico Alencar, Ivan Valente and Jean Wyllys.
Toninho do PSOL from Federal District got the best gubernatorial result. He finished in third place with 14.25%.
In the northern second largest city Belém and in Rio de Janeiro, PSOL finished second and elected four city councillors – the second largest group in those councils. In Belem Edmilson Rodrigues got 43.39% and in Rio de Janeiro Marcelo Freixo got 28.15%, almost 1 million votes.
In São Paulo, Fortaleza, Campinas, Belo Horizonte, Curitiba, Salvador, Natal, Florianópolis, Niterói, São Gonçalo and Pelotas PSOL also got respectable results. In the 2012 49 city councilors from PSOL were elected.
The former federal deputy Luciana Genro, from Left Socialist Movement, was the candidate in the 2014 Presidential Elections. She got 1,612,186 votes finishing in 4th place. She received the support of important Brazilian intellectuals and popstars like Chico de Oliveira, Rogério Arantes, Vladimir Safatle, Michel Löwy, Gregorio Duvivier, Valesca Popozuda, Zélia Duncan, Karina Buhr, Clara Averbuck, Marina Lima, Juca Kfouri, Preta Gil, Laerte Coutinho, Marcelo Yuka and the international popstar Jessica Sutta. Her candidature was well regarded in the LGBT community.
PSOL elected 5 federal deputies and 12 state deputies. Marcelo Freixo (RJ) received the highest vote for a state deputy in Brazil with 350,408 votes. Carlos Giannazi was the leftist most voted in São Paulo with 164,929 votes.
Governors Tarcísio Motta (RJ) with 8.92% (14.62% in city of Rio Janeiro) and Robério Paulino (RN) with 8.74% (22.45% in capital Natal) got excellent results. Senate candidate Heloísa Helena (AL) got 31.86%, but she lost the election to former Brazilian president Fernando Collor de Mello, who was impeached.
|Election year||Candidate||1st round||2nd round|
|# of overall votes||% of overall vote||# of overall votes||% of overall vote|
|2006||Heloísa Helena||6,575,393||6.9 (#3)|
|2010||Plínio de Arruda Sampaio||886,816||0.9 (#4)|
|2014||Luciana Genro||1,612,186||1.6 (#4)|
|2018||Guilherme Boulos||617,122||0.6 (#10)|
Chamber of Deputies
|Election year||# of overall votes||% of overall vote||# of overall seats won||+/-||Government||Notes|
3 / 513
3 / 513
5 / 513
10 / 513
|Election year||# of overall votes||% of overall vote||# of overall seats won||+/-||Notes|
1 / 81
|1||PSOL did not originally gain a seat at the 2006 election. However, after Senator Ana Júlia de Vasconcelos Carepa (PT) resigned, following her election as Governor of Pará State, José Nery de Azevedo (PSOL) took her seat in the Senate as a member of the class of 2006.|
2 / 81
1 / 81
0 / 81
- "Estatísticas do eleitorado – Eleitores filiados".
- Senra, Ricardo; Guimarães, Thiago (31 October 2016). "Como as eleições municipais desidrataram os partidos de esquerda". BBC Brasil (in Portuguese). Retrieved 3 December 2017.
- Gonçalves da Silva, Júlio César. "Partido dos professores: elite partidária e evolução política do Partido Socialismo e Liberdade (PSOL)". Electoral Justice of Brazil (in Portuguese). Retrieved 3 December 2017.
- (PDF) https://repositorio.ufscar.br/bitstream/handle/ufscar/8912/DissHSO.pdf?sequence=1. Missing or empty
- http://congressoemfoco.uol.com.br/noticias/psol-vai-ao-stf-pela-descriminalizacao-suburbrto/. Missing or empty
- https://psol50.org.br/site/noticias/2131/mesmo-sem-candidato-definido-a-presidencia-da-republica-psol-e-citado-em-pesquisa-espontanea[dead link]
45 – BSDP (PSDB)
| Numbers of Brazilian Official Political Parties
50 – SOLP (PSOL)
51 – PATRI