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The Socialism and Liberty Party (Portuguese: Partido Socialismo e Liberdade IPA: [paʁˈtʃidu sosjɐˈlizmw i libeʁˈdadʒi], PSOL IPA: [peˈsɔw]) is a Brazilian political party with 147,096 active members. PSOL is a left-wing to far-left party which is self-described as socialist and democratic.

Socialism and Liberty Party

Partido Socialismo e Liberdade
AbbreviationPSOL
PresidentJuliano Medeiros [pt]
Founded6 June 2004
Split fromPT
HeadquartersSDS, Edificio Venâncio V, Loja 28, Brasília
Membership (2018)147,096[1]
IdeologyDemocratic socialism
Anti-capitalism
Eco-socialism
Feminism
Socialism of the 21st century
Political positionLeft-wing[2] to far-left[3]
International affiliationDifferent groups in PSOL have different international affiliations.
ColoursRed, Yellow
TSE Identification Number50
Seats in the Chamber of Deputies
10 / 513
Seats in the Federal Senate
0 / 81
Governors
0 / 27
Seats in State Legislative Assemblies
18 / 1,049
Mayors
2 / 5,570
Seats in City Councils
53 / 56,810
Website
psol50.org.br Edit this at Wikidata

The party leader is Luiz Araújo and the federal deputies Ivan Valente, Chico Alencar, Jean Wyllys, Edmilson Rodrigues, Glauber Braga and Luiza Erundina, with a number of well-known Brazilian left-wing leaders and intellectuals, such as Guilherme Boulos, Milton Temer [pt], Michael Löwy, Luciana Genro, Vladimir Safatle [eo; pt], Marcelo Freixo, Renato Roseno [pt], Carlos Nelson Coutinho [pt], Ricardo Antunes [pt], Francisco de Oliveira [fr; pt], João Machado, Pedro Ruas [pt] and others.

PSOL was formed after Heloísa Helena, Luciana Genro, Babá and João Fontes (also a federal deputy, now a member of the Democratic Labour Party, PDT) were expelled from the Workers' Party after voting against the pension reform proposed by Lula. They opposed liberal decisions of Lula's government and the Workers' Party alliances with polemic right-wing politicians, such as the former presidents José Sarney and Fernando Collor.

After collecting more than 438,000 signatures, PSOL became Brazil's 29th officially recognized political party, the first to do so by this method.[citation needed]

Ideology and supportEdit

The ideology of the party varies between the left and the extreme left. The programmatic elements found in the party are related to socialism, anti-capitalism, and anti-imperialism. There are Marxist, Trotskyist, eco-socialist, and syndicalist tendencies within the party. Among other things, the party program includes the reduction of working hours, agrarian and urban reform, increased spending on health, education and infrastructure, and a break with the International Monetary Fund.[4] It also seeks to decriminalize abortion.[5] Because it is a party formed by trends that possess the political spectrum of the left in common, they represent distinct divisions in question of origin, geographical location and composition of its leaderships. The formation of tendencies provided for in the party statute can be freely organized without direct interference from the party leadership, allowing autonomy of intra-party groups, provided they follow the political prerogatives of the party's statute and program.[4]

Despite being a left-wing party, PSOL is not commonly associated with a labor or low-income electorate. Instead, PSOL is more associated with the upper-middle class electorate with strong secular or socially progressive beliefs in the brazilians metropolitan zones, especially the cultural and intellectual elite of Rio de Janeiro. PSOL is a party often associated with academics of social sciences in public universities, teachers, artistic class, social movements, people who support controversial policies in the brazilian society like legalization of abortion, legalization of marijuana, human rights activism and public sector labor unions. PSOL shows strong difficulties to penetrate in sectors of electorate which are poorer or less affluent; in the last election to Mayor of Rio de Janeiro, PSOL had lost to conservative pentecostal bishop Marcelo Crivella in a runoff with more than 40-point margin in some poor suburbs which are far away from Rio's downtown. Between evangelicals, the margin of defeat was about 80%; Although PSOL tried to made some moves to attract evangelical votes, a strong antagonism between the party and evangelical electorate, many of them poor with strong social conservative and/or economic liberal beliefs exists. Although PSOL officially not rejects any religion, many evangelicals see PSOL as a hostile party which does not represent their values and massively rejects the party.[citation needed]

Internal tendenciesEdit

Abbreviation Name in Portuguese Name in English Ideology International affiliation
APS-CC Ação Popular Socialista - Corrente Comunista Socialist People's Action - Communist Current Democratic socialism -
APS-NE Ação Popular Socialista - Nova Era Socialist People's Action - New Era Democratic socialism -
C1M Coletivo Primeiro de Maio First of May Collective Democratic socialism, Left-wing populism -
CRZ Coletivo Rosa Zumbi Rosa Zumbi Collective Social democracy -
- Comuna Commune Trotskyism, Mandelism Fourth International (reunited)
CST Corrente Socialista dos Trabalhadores Workers' Socialist Current Trotskyism, Morenism International Workers' Unity - Fourth International
EM Esquerda Marxista Marxist Left Trotskyism, Grantism International Marxist Tendency
- Fortalecer o PSOL Strengthen PSOL Social democracy, Left-wing populism -
- Insurgência Insurgency Trotskyism, Mandelism, Socialism of the 21st Century Fourth International (reunited)
LSR Liberdade, Socialismo e Revolução Liberty, Socialism and Revolution Trotskyism Committee for a Workers' International
MES Movimento Esquerda Socialista Socialist Left Movement Left-wing populism, Trotskyism, Morenism Corriente Movimiento
- Resistência Resistance Democratic socialism, Morenism -
- Subverta Subvert Trotskyism, Mandelism, Ecosocialism, Socialism of the 21st Century Fourth International (reunited)

PSOL also allows certain unregistered political parties to launch candidates through its TSE registry number. These organizations, however, cannot participate in the party's congresses.

Abbreviation Name in Portuguese Name in English Ideology
BP Brigadas Populares People's Brigades Democratic socialism, Left-wing nationalism, Socialism of the 21st Century, Bolivarianism
MRT Movimento Revolucionário de Trabalhadores Workers' Revolutionary Movement Trotskyism
PCR Partido Comunista Revolucionário Revolutionary Communist Party Marxism-Leninism, Hoxhaism
PCLCP Polo Comunista Luiz Carlos Prestes Luiz Carlos Prestes Communist Pole Marxism-Leninism, Left-wing nationalism
RAiZ Raiz - Movimento Cidadanista Roots - Citizens' Movement Ecosocialism, Teko Porã, Ubuntu
RC Refundação Comunista Communist Refoundation Revolutionary socialism

Members of the National CongressEdit

Following the 2018 general election, PSOL currently has ten federal deputies in the National Congress of Brazil. Although having a small presence in parliament, PSOL is the 5th most popular party in Brazil,[6] and it is recognized as different from the bigger PSDB and PT parties and the cronyist and catch-all parties without an ideology.

It is the only party present in the Congress which did not receive money from large corporations and the only party that called for the removal of the former President of the Chamber of Deputies Eduardo Cunha, currently in jail.

Federal DeputiesEdit

Name State Internal tendency
Áurea Carolina Minas Gerais Independent
David Miranda Rio de Janeiro Socialist Left Movement
Edmilson Rodrigues Pará Popular Socialist Action - Communist Current
Fernanda Melchionna Rio Grande do Sul Socialist Left Movement
Glauber Braga Rio de Janeiro Independent
Ivan Valente São Paulo Popular Socialist Action - Communist Current
Luiza Erundina São Paulo Raiz - Citizens' Movement
Marcelo Freixo Rio de Janeiro Independent
Sâmia Bomfim São Paulo Socialist Left Movement
Talíria Petrone Rio de Janeiro Subvert

Notes: The military union leader, Corporal Daciolo (RJ), was expelled from the party in 2015.

State DeputiesEdit

Name State Internal tendency
Daniella Monteiro Rio de Janeiro Insurgency
Eliomar Coelho Rio de Janeiro Independent
Flavio Serafini Rio de Janeiro Subvert
Mônica Francisco Rio de Janeiro Independent
Renata Souza Rio de Janeiro Independent
Carlos Giannazi São Paulo Independent
Erica Malunguinho São Paulo Independent
Mônica Souza São Paulo Independent
Isadora Penna São Paulo Insurgency
Paulo Lemos Amapá Independent
Hilton Coelho Bahia Popular Socialist Action - New Era
Renato Roseno Ceará Insurgency
Fábio Felix Federal District Independent
Andréia de Jesus Minas Gerais Popular Brigades
Marinor Brito Pará Popular Socialist Action - Communist Current
Robeyoncé Lima Pernambuco Independent
Sandro Pimentel Rio Grande do Norte Socialist Left Movement
Luciana Genro Rio Grande do Sul Socialist Left Movement

MayorsEdit

Name Municipality Internal tendency
Gelsimar Gonzaga Itaocara Independent
Oton Costa Jaçana Socialist Left Movement

Clécio Luís, Mayor of Macapá, left the party to join Sustainability Network.

ElectionsEdit

2006Edit

PSOL launched Heloísa Helena to run for president in 2006 elections. The vice-presidential candidate was intellectual César Benjamin [es; pt]. The party ran in a left-wing ticket along with two other parties: Trotskyist United Socialist Workers' Party (PSTU) and Marxist–Leninist Brazilian Communist Party (PCB).

The alliance was extended to gubernatorial elections. In Minas Gerais, for instance, Vanessa Portugal, from the PSTU, ran for governor with PSOL's support, although not with PCB's. Prominent PSOL gubernatorial candidates were Plínio de Arruda Sampaio in São Paulo, Milton Temer [pt] in Rio de Janeiro and Roberto Robaina in Rio Grande do Sul. However, they were all defeated.

Heloísa Helena finished the presidential race in the third place, receiving 6.5 million votes throughout the country (6.85% of the valid votes). Three federal deputies, Luciana Genro, Chico Alencar and Ivan Valente, managed to get re-elected.

2010Edit

In the 2010 candidate for presidential election Plínio de Arruda Sampaio received 888.000 votes (0.87%). Plinio presented an agrarian reform project in 1964 when he was federal deputy, but the 1964 Military Coup ended the project and Plinio lost his mandate. Although he received very few votes Plinio became famous after the elections because he was qualified as an anti-candidate.

PSOL elected three deputies again, Chico Alencar, Ivan Valente and Jean Wyllys.

Toninho do PSOL from Federal District got the best gubernatorial result. He finished in third place with 14.25%.

2012Edit

In 2012 PSOL got its best results so far. Clecio Luis and Gelsimar Gonzaga were elected mayors in Macapá, Amapá's state capital, and Itaocara.

In the northern second largest city Belém and in Rio de Janeiro, PSOL finished second and elected four city councillors – the second largest group in those councils. In Belem Edmilson Rodrigues got 43.39% and in Rio de Janeiro Marcelo Freixo got 28.15%, almost 1 million votes.

In São Paulo, Fortaleza, Campinas, Belo Horizonte, Curitiba, Salvador, Natal, Florianópolis, Niterói, São Gonçalo and Pelotas PSOL also got respectable results. In the 2012 49 city councilors from PSOL were elected.

2014Edit

The former federal deputy Luciana Genro, from Left Socialist Movement, was the candidate in the 2014 Presidential Elections. She got 1,612,186 votes finishing in 4th place. She received the support of important Brazilian intellectuals and popstars like Chico de Oliveira, Rogério Arantes, Vladimir Safatle, Michel Löwy, Gregorio Duvivier, Valesca Popozuda, Zélia Duncan, Karina Buhr, Clara Averbuck, Marina Lima, Juca Kfouri, Preta Gil, Laerte Coutinho, Marcelo Yuka and the international popstar Jessica Sutta. Her candidature was well regarded in the LGBT community.

PSOL elected 5 federal deputies and 12 state deputies. Marcelo Freixo (RJ) received the highest vote for a state deputy in Brazil with 350,408 votes. Carlos Giannazi was the leftist most voted in São Paulo with 164,929 votes.

Governors Tarcísio Motta (RJ) with 8.92% (14.62% in city of Rio Janeiro) and Robério Paulino (RN) with 8.74% (22.45% in capital Natal) got excellent results. Senate candidate Heloísa Helena (AL) got 31.86%, but she lost the election to former Brazilian president Fernando Collor de Mello, who was impeached.

Electoral resultsEdit

PresidentialEdit

Election year Candidate 1st round 2nd round
# of overall votes % of overall vote # of overall votes % of overall vote
2006 Heloísa Helena 6,575,393 6.9 (#3)
2010 Plínio de Arruda Sampaio 886,816 0.9 (#4)
2014 Luciana Genro 1,612,186 1.6 (#4)
2018 Guilherme Boulos 617,122 0.6 (#10)

CongressEdit

Chamber of Deputies

Election year # of overall votes % of overall vote # of overall seats won +/- Government Notes
2006 1,149,619 1.2
3 / 513
in opposition
2010 1,142,737 1.2
3 / 513
 0 in opposition
2014 1,745,470 1.8
5 / 513
 2 in opposition
2018 2,783,669 2.8
10 / 513
 5 in opposition

Senate

Election year # of overall votes % of overall vote # of overall seats won +/- Notes
2006 351,527 0.4
1 / 81
 1 PSOL did not originally gain a seat at the 2006 election. However, after Senator Ana Júlia de Vasconcelos Carepa (PT) resigned, following her election as Governor of Pará State, José Nery de Azevedo [pt] (PSOL) took her seat in the Senate as a member of the class of 2006.
2010 3,041,854 1.8
2 / 81
 1
2014 1,045,275 1.2
1 / 81
 1
2018 5,273,853 3.1
0 / 81
 1

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Estatísticas do eleitorado – Eleitores filiados".
  2. ^ Senra, Ricardo; Guimarães, Thiago (31 October 2016). "Como as eleições municipais desidrataram os partidos de esquerda". BBC Brasil (in Portuguese). Retrieved 3 December 2017.
  3. ^ Gonçalves da Silva, Júlio César. "Partido dos professores: elite partidária e evolução política do Partido Socialismo e Liberdade (PSOL)". Electoral Justice of Brazil (in Portuguese). Retrieved 3 December 2017.
  4. ^ a b (PDF) https://repositorio.ufscar.br/bitstream/handle/ufscar/8912/DissHSO.pdf?sequence=1. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  5. ^ http://congressoemfoco.uol.com.br/noticias/psol-vai-ao-stf-pela-descriminalizacao-suburbrto/. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  6. ^ https://psol50.org.br/site/noticias/2131/mesmo-sem-candidato-definido-a-presidencia-da-republica-psol-e-citado-em-pesquisa-espontanea[dead link]
Preceded by
45 – BSDP (PSDB)
Numbers of Brazilian Official Political Parties
50 – SOLP (PSOL)
Succeeded by
51 – PATRI