José Sarney de Araújo Costa (Portuguese pronunciation: [ʒuˈzɛ saʁˈnej dʒi aɾaˈuʒu ˈkɔstɐ]; born José Ribamar Ferreira de Araújo Costa; 24 April 1930) is a Brazilian politician, lawyer, and writer who served as 31st president of Brazil from 1985 to 1990. He briefly served as the 20th vice president of Brazil for a month between April and May 1985.
|President of Brazil|
21 April 1985 – 15 March 1990
Acting: 15 March 1985 – 21 April 1985
|Preceded by||João Figueiredo|
|Succeeded by||Fernando Collor de Mello|
|Vice President of Brazil|
15 March 1985 – 21 April 1985
|Preceded by||Aureliano Chaves|
|Succeeded by||Itamar Franco|
|President of the Federal Senate|
2 February 2009 – 1 February 2013
|Preceded by||Garibaldi Alves Filho|
|Succeeded by||Renan Calheiros|
1 February 2003 – 14 February 2005
|Preceded by||Ramez Tebet|
|Succeeded by||Renan Calheiros|
2 February 1995 – 4 February 1997
|Preceded by||Humberto Lucena|
|Succeeded by||Antônio Carlos Magalhães|
|Senator for Amapá|
1 February 1991 – 1 February 2015
|Preceded by||Seat established|
|Succeeded by||Davi Alcolumbre|
|Senator for Maranhão|
1 February 1971 – 15 March 1985
|Preceded by||Vitorino de Brito Freire|
|Succeeded by||Américo de Souza|
|Governor of Maranhão|
31 January 1966 – 14 May 1970
|Vice Governor||Antônio Dino|
|Preceded by||Newton Bello|
|Succeeded by||Antônio Dino|
|Member of the Chamber of Deputies|
6 June 1955 – 31 January 1966
José Ribamar Ferreira de Araújo Costa
24 April 1930
Pinheiro, Maranhão, Brazil
|Political party||PMDB (1985–present)|
|Children||Roseana, Fernando, José|
|Alma mater||Federal University of Maranhão (UFMA)|
Sarney was a member of the Chamber of Deputies from 1955 until 1966 and of the Senate from 1971 until 1985. He was also the Governor of Maranhão from 1966 until 1970. During the Brazilian military dictatorship, Sarney affiliated himself with the government party, ARENA, becoming the president of the party in 1979. Sarney joined the dissenters, and was instrumental in the creation of the Liberal Front Party.
Sarney ran for Vice-President on the ticket of Tancredo Neves of PMDB, formerly the opposition party to the military government. Neves won the presidential election, but fell ill and died before taking office, and Sarney became President. He started out his term with great popularity, but public opinion shifted with the Brazilian debt crisis and the failure of Plano Cruzado to abate chronic inflation. His government is seen today as disastrous and clientelism was widespread having longlasting consequences for the Brazilian Republic post military dictatorship.
Following his presidency, Sarney resumed his senate career elected again in 1991 and serving until 2015. He also held the position of President of the Federal Senate three times following his presidency. At age 92, he is the oldest living former Brazilian president, and at the time of his retirement in 2015, had one of the longest congressional careers in Brazilian history.
Born in Pinheiro, Maranhão, as José Ribamar Ferreira de Araújo Costa, he was the son of Sarney de Araújo Costa, a wealthy land-owner and sugarcane producer, and Kiola Ferreira. His family has origins in Viseu in Portugal. He attended Colégio Marista and the Licéu Maranhense before attending the Federal University of Maranhão. In 1953, he graduated from the federal university receiving his bachelor's degree in law. After his graduation, he launched a postmodernist literary journal titled A Ilha.
In 1965 he legally adopted the name José Sarney de Araújo Costa, usually shortened to José Sarney, for electoral purposes. He was known as "Zé do Sarney", as in "José, son of Sarney". Sarney's father acquired the name after being born on a land owned by an Englishman named "Sir Ney".
Sarney started his political career in the 1950s after becoming a replacement deputy and later as a federal deputy in 1955. He was a member of the centre-right National Democratic Union (União Democrática Nacional—UDN), aligned with the progressive wing of the party. He strongly supported so-called "Revolution of 1964", a military coup that overthrew leftist President João Goulart in 1964. After the military coup, Sarney followed most of the UDN into the National Renewal Alliance (ARENA), the political party of the military government. He was elected governor of the state of Maranhão in 1966, serving until 1971. He was then elected to the Brazilian Senate and became ARENA's president.
Despite his support for the government's heavy-handed measures against dissent, Sarney had never been quite accepted by the military establishment, which tried to block his career. In 1979 ARENA reorganized as the Democratic Social Party (PDS), and Sarney remained the party's president. In 1984, the junta was under pressure due to popular protests to reinstate direct elections for president (Diretas Já movement). PDS was divided but launched Paulo Maluf as its candidate for the presidency in indirect elections.
Sarney disagreed with this decision and left PDS to form the Liberal Front Party, which then allied with the PMDB. As part of the deal, Sarney became Tancredo Neves' running mate on the opposition ticket. Neves won the election of 15 January 1985, but became gravely ill the night before his inauguration. Sarney assumed office as vice-president and acting president until Neves died on 21 April, and he formally became the first civilian president in 21 years.
His succession raised some question because as Neves could not attend the inauguration ceremony on 15 March, several politicians contended at the time that Sarney should not have been inaugurated as vice-president and allowed to become acting president. They believed that Sarney had been elected vice-president only by virtue of the election of his running mate as president. Each member of the Electoral College cast one vote, for president, and the choice of president carried with it the automatic selection of the ticket's running mate as vice-president, Sarney could take office only as vice-president together with Neves. Some critics argued that in the event of the head of the presidential ticket not being able to assume office, the presidential powers and duties should pass to the speaker of the Chamber of Deputies, Ulysses Guimarães.
There was some partisanship in this line of thought since both Neves and Guimarães were members of the same party, and Sarney was not. He had been a supporter of the military, and only recently had joined the coalition to defeat the military's candidate in the electoral college. The challenge to Sarney's inauguration was short-lived, however, because in the early hours of inauguration day, Guimarães himself stated that he believed that Sarney had the right to be inaugurated even without Neves, as the role of the vice-president was precisely that of replacing the president when needed.
Sarney and the president of Argentina, Raúl Alfonsín, started the process of creating a common market between the two nations in 1985. As first steps, they agreed to subsidize regional trade with a special currency for the purpose (the Gaucho). The agreement led to the formation of the Mercosur in 1991. He also oversaw constitutional amendments that purged the remaining vestiges of authoritarianism from the 1967/1969 Constitution.
He faced many problems: enormous foreign debt, rampant inflation and corruption as well as the transition to democracy. During his presidency, the country had a 934% inflation rate and was overshadowed with union strikes and corruption scandals. Sarney launched an economic plan to stabilize the economy, called "Plano Cruzado", successful at first. The inflation worsened however under Sarney's Plano Cruzado. A new, fully democratic constitution was promulgated in 1988, and in the following year, the first direct elections since 1960 were held. Sarney was barred from running for president in his own right in that election.
He supported Fernando Henrique Cardoso as presidential candidate in 1994 and 1998 and Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva in 2002. He returned to the Senate after his presidency, this time representing Amapá, and served as President of the Senate from 1995 to 1997, 2003 to 2005, 2009 to 2011, and 2011 to 2013. He retired in 2015 from politics and was the longest-serving member of the Brazilian Congress at the time of his retirement. His retirement was noted by The New York Times as a "decline of a political dynasty" which would cause a political shift in the country. All told, he spent all but two years out of office from 1955 to 2015.
Sarney is regarded as the foremost of Brazil's oligarchs. Sarney owns the most important newspapers and television stations in Maranhão. Sarney has also faced multiple allegations of nepotism and corruption in his career. In 2009, the British weekly The Economist called his election as President of the Senate "a victory for semi-feudalism" and "a throwback to an era of semi-feudal politics that still prevails in corners of Brazil and holds the rest of it back." Veja columnist Roberto Pompeu de Toledo deemed him "the perfect oligarch".
Sérgio Machado, former president of Transpetro, said in his plea agreement within the Operation Car Wash that Sarney received R$18.5 million of the bribe money from a Petrobras subsidiary, in the PMDB account during the period in which he directed the company (2003–2015).
Awards and decorationsEdit
Below is a selected list of awards Temer has received:
|Grand Cross of the Order of the Southern Cross||1985 – automatic upon taking presidential office|
|Grand Cross of the Order of Rio Branco||1985 – automatic upon taking presidential office|
|Grand Cross of the Order of Military Merit||1995 – automatic upon taking presidential office|
|Grand Cross of the Order of Naval Merit||1985 – automatic upon taking presidential office|
|Grand Cross of the Order of Aeronautical Merit||1985 – automatic upon taking presidential office|
|Grand Cross of the Order of Military Judicial Merit||1985 – automatic upon taking presidential office|
|Grand Cross of the National Order of Merit||1985 – automatic upon taking presidential office|
|France||Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour|
|Italy||Medal of the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George|
|Norway||Grand Cross of the Royal Norwegian Order of Merit|
|Peru||Grand Cross with diamonds of the Order of the Sun of Peru|
|Portugal||Collar of the Military Order of Saint James of the Sword|
|Portugal||Grand Cross of the Order of Christ|
|Portugal||Grand Cross of the Order of Prince Henry|
|Romania||Grand Cross of the Order of the Star of Romania|
- Neves fell ill the day before he was to take office as president and died before he could be sworn in, therefore never assumed the presidency
- "Presideny by Chance, Sarney of Brazil is Agitator Who Makes Things Happen". The New York Times. 10 May 1985. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
- Brooke, James (13 March 1990). "In Brazil, Scathing Criticism For the Departing President". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 July 2010.
- "SARNEY'S TENURE EMBROILS BRAZILIAN POLITICS". 17 March 1987. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
- "Decline of a Political Family Opens the Way for a Shift in Brazil". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
- "Dona Kiola, mãe de Sarney, 94 anos" (PDF) (in Portuguese). Senado.leg.br. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
- "Os laços de Jader com o escândalo da fazenda fantasma" (in Portuguese). Politica. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
- Crocitti, John J.; Vallance, Monique (2012). Brazil Today: A-Z. ISBN 9780313346729. Retrieved 18 July 2021.
- "JOSE RIBAMAR FERREIRA DE ARAUJO COSTA" (in Portuguese). FGV.br. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
- "President Jose Sarney - 1985-1990". Global Security. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
- "Sarney's Presidency, 1985-90". Country Side. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
- "DEMOCRACY IN BRAZIL: ORIGINS, PROBLEMS, PROSPECTS" (PDF). Kellogg. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
- Zirker, Daniel (1993). "The Military Ministers and Political Change in Post-Authoritarian Brazil". Canadian Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Studies / Revue Canadienne des Études Latino-Américaines et Caraïbes. Jstor. 18 (35): 87–110. doi:10.1080/08263663.1993.10816691. JSTOR 41799827. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
- "Veteran Brazilian politician jailed for corruption". France24. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
- "Sarney Seeking New Political Allies in Brazil". The Los Angeles Times. 9 October 1987. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
- "Jose Sarney was sworn in as Brazil's first civilian president". UPI. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
- "José Sarney, Hyperinflation and The Cruzado Plan in Brazil in the Late 1980s". SJSU. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
- "El día que Raúl Alfonsín y José Sarney intentaron romper la rivalidad entre Argentina y Brasil y plantaron la semilla del Mercosur". Infobae. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
- Barbosa, Luiz C. (1993). "The World-System and the Destruction of the Brazilian Amazon Rain Forest". Review (Fernand Braudel Center). JSTOR. 16 (2): 215–240. JSTOR 40241255. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
- "In-depth: 30 years ago, Mercosur's creation put an end to the historic tensions between Brazil and Argentina". Rio Times Online. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
- "PLANO CRUZADO". FGV. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
- "Governo Fernando Henrique Cardoso". Brasilescola. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
- "Lula tem encontro com Sarney após Bolsonaro tentar se aproximar de emedebista" (in Portuguese). Folha. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
- "Presidentes do Senado Federal - Nova República". 22 January 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
- "How Brazil's Poorest State Minted One Of The Country's Richest -- And Most Controversial -- Political Clans". Forbes. 11 June 2014. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
- "Ph.D. Thesis Uncovers Widespread Nepotism in Brazil's Congress". AP. 15 March 1989. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
- "Where dinosaurs still roam". The Economist. 5 February 2009. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
- "O oligarca perfeito". Veja. Archived from the original on 15 June 2011.
- "Sérgio Machado relata repasse de R$ 18,5 milhões a Sarney" (in Portuguese). Revista Exame. Retrieved 15 June 2016.
- Queiroz, Adolpho (2006). Na arena do marketing político: ideologia e propaganda nas campanhas (in Portuguese). ISBN 9788532302168. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
- "Livro: Os Maribondos de Fogo". Estantevirtual. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
- "BRAZILIAN ACADEMY OF LETTERS". Glli-us. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
- "Brazil's former president Jose Sarney has heart surgery". BBC. 16 April 2012. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
- "José Sarney é internado em hospital em Brasília" (in Portuguese). Oimparcial. Retrieved 16 July 2021.
- "Presidentes da Câmara dos Deputados – República – Michel Temer". Portal da Câmara. Retrieved 7 November 2017.