Amapá ([amaˈpa] ) is one of the 26 states of Brazil. It is in the North Region of Brazil. It is the second-least populous state and the eighteenth-largest state by area. Located in the far northern part of the country, Amapá is bordered clockwise by French Guiana to the north for 730 km, the Atlantic Ocean to the east for 578 km, Pará to the south and west, and Suriname to the northwest for 63 km. The capital and largest city is Macapá. The state has 0.4% of the Brazilian population and is responsible for only 0.22% of the Brazilian GDP.

Amapá
Estado do Amapá
State of Amapá
Coat of arms of Amapá
Anthem: Hino do Amapá
Location of Amapá
Coordinates: 1°N 52°W / 1°N 52°W / 1; -52
Country Brazil
Founded1 January 1991
Capital and largest cityMacapá
Government
 • GovernorClécio Luís (Solidarity)
 • Vice GovernorAntônio Teles Jr. (PDT)
 • SenatorsDavi Alcolumbre (UNIÃO)
Lucas Barreto (PSD)
Randolfe Rodrigues (REDE)
Area
 • Total142,814.585 km2 (55,141.020 sq mi)
 • Rank18th
Highest elevation681 m (2,234 ft)
Population
 (2007)[1]
 • Total669,526
 • Estimate 
(2019)
845,731
 • Rank26th
 • Density4.7/km2 (12/sq mi)
  • Rank23rd
DemonymAmapaense
GDP
 • TotalR$ 20.1 billion
(US$ 3.7 billion)
HDI
 • Year2021
 • Category0.688[3]medium (25th)
Time zoneUTC−03:00 (BRT)
Postal Code
68900-000 to 68999-000
ISO 3166 codeBR-AP
License Plate Letter SequenceNEI to NFB, QLN to QLT, SAK to SAO
WebsiteAP.gov.br

In the colonial period the region was called Portuguese Guiana and was part of Portugal's State of Brazil. Later, the region was distinguished from the other Guianas. Amapá was once part of Pará, but became a separate territory in 1943, and a state in 1988.[4]

The dominant feature of the region, and 90 percent of its total area, is the Amazon rainforest. Unexplored forests occupy 70 percent of Amapá, and Tumucumaque Mountains National Park, established in 2002, is the largest tropical forest park in the world. The mouth of the River Oiapoque is the northern end of Brazil's coastline.

History

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During the colonial era from 1637 to 1654 the Amapá region was merged into the Captaincy of Pará, which was the Captaincy of Cabo de Norte.[5] In the early colonial period the Amapá region was a rich source of lumber, resins, annatto, vegetable oils, and salted fish, all of which were exported to Europe. The French established sugarcane plantations in this period.

 
São José de Macapá

With the discovery of mineral deposits the Amapá region was invaded by the British and Dutch, who were ultimately repelled by the Portuguese.[5] The Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 established the boundaries between the colony of Brazil and French Guiana, but these were not respected by the French. A fort was constructed at São José de Macapá, in present-day Macapá, as a base of Portuguese power in the region.[5] In the 18th century, France retook control of the area. This international dispute continued until 1900.

The discovery of gold and the increasing value of rubber on the international market during the 19th century increased the Portuguese population of Amapá, bringing the dispute with France to a head. Although French settlers had established the Republic of Independent Guyana (1886–1891), Brazil challenged the Amapá claim through international arbitration in Geneva on 1 December 1900, which was found in favour of Brazil. It was subsequently incorporated into the state of Pará, as Araguari after the Araguari River and in 1943 this became the federal territory of Amapá.

The discovery of rich manganese deposits in Serra do Navio in 1945 revolutionized the local economy. Manganese remains the largest source of revenue in the state.[5] Amapá did not achieve statehood until 5 October 1988, at the time of the promulgation of the new Brazilian Constitution.

Geography

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The State of Amapá possesses the lowest rate of loss of its original vegetation for any Brazilian state, estimated at only 2%. Most of the Amapá territory is covered with rainforest, while the remaining areas are covered with savannah and plains. On the Amapá coast, almost intact beaches mix with swamps, creating the largest representation of this biome in Brazil. This mixture of salt and fresh water is perfect for the food chain reproduction of several animal species. Pollution, however, is now a chronic problem in the state of Amapá. Mercury, which is used in the extraction of gold, is widely found in water sources and sewage systems in the population centers of Amapá.[5]

Nature

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To protect the natural resources of the state, there are, as of 2016, 12 protected areas and five indigenous territories covering 10,476,117 hectares (25,887,050 acres), or 72% of the state.[6] The Amapá Biodiversity Corridor has been established in 2003 to provide integrated management for the conservation area.[7] The most important protected areas are the Tumucumaque Mountains National Park located in the west of the state, and the Cabo Orange National Park located near the coast. The Tumucumaque Mountains National Park is the world's largest tropical forest national park.[8] The Cabo Orange National Park contains flooded grasslands and mangrove forests which are important fish nurseries.[9]

Climate

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Köppen map for Amapá

Most of Amapá has a Tropical monsoon climate, a tropical climate with a short dry season and heavy rainfall for the majority of the year. In the Köppen climate classification, it is classified under the letters Am. Tropical rainforest is the natural vegetation, and also provides the other climate type located in the state.

Demographics

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Race and ethnicity in Amapá
Ethnicity Percentage
Pardo (Multiracial)
65.3%
White
21.4%
Black
11.8%
Amerindian
1.4%
Asian
0.1%

According to the 2022 census, there were 733,759 people residing in the state, with a population density of 5.1/km2. The population of Amapá is highly urbanized, with 93.7% of the population residing primarily in Macapá and Santana.[10] Population growth: 5.7% (1991–2000); Houses: 144,000 (2006).

During the 2022 census, 65.3% identified as Pardo (multiracial), 21.4% as White Brazilians, 11.8% as Black Brazilians and 1.4% as Indigenous. The remaining 0.1% are Asians and undeclared.[11]

The majority of the residents of Amapá live in poverty. According to the Fundação Getulio Vargas (FGV) 36.56% of the population live on only R$79 per month, which the foundation considers below a decent standard of living.[5]

Religion

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According to data obtained by the IBGE in the 2010 Brazilian Census, 64% of Amapá residents are Roman Catholics, 28% are evangelicals (Protestants) and 6% do not profess any religion. The other faiths added together add up to 2% of the population. [12]

The Catholic Church comprises the Diocese of Macapá (1949) a suffragan diocese of the Archdiocese of Belém de Pará, under Bishop Pedro José Conti (2004) with 27 parishes.[13]

Municipalities

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Largest cities or towns in Amapá
Rank Mesoregion Municipal pop. Rank Mesoregion Municipal pop.
 
Macapá
 
Santana
1 Macapá Sul 407,023 11 Amapá Norte 8,142  
Laranjal do Jari
 
Oiapoque
2 Santana Sul 102,860 12 Ferreira Gomes Sul 5,974
3 Laranjal do Jari Sul 40,819 13 Cutias Sul 4,805
4 Oiapoque Norte 21,094 14 Serra do Navio Sul 4,463
5 Mazagão Sul 17,419 15 Itaubal Sul 4,370
6 Porto Grande Sul 17,252 16 Pracuuba Norte 3,909
7 Tartarugalzinho Norte 12,981
8 Vitória do Jari Sul 12,725
9 Pedra Branca do Amapari Sul 11,291
10 Calçoene Norte 9,174

Indigenous population

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Celebration of Indian Day in Manga

The Amerindians tribes in Amapá are located in the north near the Oiapoque River, and in the east in the Wayampi Indigenous Territory. All the indigenous territories in Amapá have been demarcated. The tribes living in Amapá are the Galibi do Oiapoque, the Karipuna do Amapá, the Palikur, the Wayampi and the Galibi Marwono.[15]

The region around the Amazon River used to support a large population of Amerindians during the pre-Columbian era.[16] The policy of the Portuguese monarchy was to engage in war in order to clear them from the land.[17] The Cabanagem Revolt in the 1830s, resulted in the final dispersal of the Amerindians along the Amazon.[18]

Education

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Portuguese is the official national language, and thus the primary language taught in schools. French is the second language taught in every school due to the proximity of French Guiana. A Creole language called Lanc-Patuá is spoken among some of the people.

Educational institutions

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  • Universidade Federal do Amapá (Unifap) (Federal University of Amapá)
  • Universidade Estadual do Amapá (UEAP) (Amapá State University)
  • Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Amapá (IFAP) (Amapá Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology)
  • Centro de Ensino Superior do Amapá (Ceap)
  • Instituto de Ensino Superior do Amapá (Iesap)
  • Instituto Macapaense de Ensino Superior (IMMES)
  • Faculdade Seama (Seama College)

Economy

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The service sector is the largest component of GDP at 87.6%, followed by the industrial sector at 7.8%. Agriculture represents 4.6% of GDP (2004). Amapá exports: wood 75.5%, ores 18.7%, heart of palm 5.5% (2002). The state, which has 0.4% of the Brazilian population, is responsible for only 0.22% of the Brazilian GDP.[19][20][21][22]

Transport

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Main transport infrastructure in 2018

International Airport

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The main airport of the state is Macapá International Airport. On 12 April 2019 a new terminal was opened replacing an older facility. Following its closure, the old terminal was demolished to make room for an enlarged apron which was completed by 2020.[23][24]

Highways

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There are two federal highways in Amapá: BR-156 connects Laranjal do Jari, Macapá and Oiapoque.[25] The highway is connected to the road network of French Guiana via the Oyapock River Bridge.[26] BR-210 connects Macapá with Serra do Navio.[27] It is supposed to be extended all the way to the border with Colombia in Amazonas; however, as of 2021, it ends in the Wayampi Indigenous Territory.[28] An important state road is the AP-010 which connects Macapá with Santana and Mazagão Velho.[29]

There are no road connections to other Brazilian states. In Laranjal do Jari there is a ferry to Monte Dourado in Pará.[30] In Port Santana, there is a ferry to Belém, Pará.[31]

Ports and harbours

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There is a small port in Macapá; however, it is not suitable for cargo traffic.[32] The main harbour is the Port of Santana which is also used for international cargo.[33]

Flag

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The flag was adopted by Decree No. 8 of 23 April 1984. The blue represents the sky over Amapá and justice, the green represents the native rainforest, and the yellow represents the Union and its natural resources. The black stands for the deceased who worked for the state, and the white for the will of the state to live in peace and stability. The symbol on the hoist-side represents the Fortress of São José, out of which the state capital grew.[34]

Before 1984, the state had a red-white-red flag, based on the flag of Pará, and similar to the flag of Peru.[35]

See also

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References

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  1. ^ "2014 Brazilian Population Estimates" (PDF). IBGE. Retrieved 29 March 2015.
  2. ^ "PIB por Unidade da Federação, 2021". ibge.gov.br.
  3. ^ "Atlas do Desenvolvimento Humano no Brasil. Pnud Brasil, Ipea e FJP, 2022". www.atlasbrasil.org.br. Retrieved 11 June 2023.
  4. ^ "Amapá". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. 2015. Retrieved 2 February 2015.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Presser, Margaret (2006). Pequeña enciclopédia para descobrir o Brasil. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Senac Rio. pp. 26–29. ISBN 8587864742.
  6. ^ Tamburelli, Gianfranco (2008). Legal Systems for the Management of Protected Areas in Italy and Ukraine: The Experiences of the Lazio and Kyiv Regions. Giuffrè Editore. p. 40. ISBN 978-88-14-14368-7. Retrieved 5 April 2021.
  7. ^ Corredor de Biodiversidade do Amapá Biodiversity Corridor (PDF). Belém: CI-Brasil, Governo do Amapá, Fundação Lee & Gund. 2007. Retrieved 5 April 2021.
  8. ^ "Brazil creates largest rainforest reserve". BBC News. 5 April 2021. Retrieved 23 August 2015.
  9. ^ "Cabo Orange National Park". Ramsar. Retrieved 5 April 2021.
  10. ^ "Perfil do Estado" (in Portuguese). Macapá: Governo do Estado do Amapá. 2015. Archived from the original on 2 February 2015. Retrieved 2 February 2015.
  11. ^ "Censo 2022 - Panorama".
  12. ^ «Pesquisa». IBGE. 2010. Consultado em 30 de setembro de 2021
  13. ^ "Macapá (Diocese) [Catholic-Hierarchy]".
  14. ^ "Estimativas da população residente nos municípios brasileiros com data de referência em 1º de julho de 2011" [Estimates of the Resident Population of Brazilian Municipalities as of July 1, 2011] (PDF) (in Portuguese). Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. 30 August 2011. Retrieved 31 August 2011.
  15. ^ "Índios do Amapá". Terras Indigenas (in Portuguese). Retrieved 6 April 2021.
  16. ^ Charles R. Clement (2015). "4". The domestication of Amazonia before European conquest. Vol. 282. The Royal Society Publishing. doi:10.1098/rspb.2015.0813. PMC 4528512. PMID 26202998. {{cite book}}: |journal= ignored (help)
  17. ^ Mark Harris and Silvia Espelt-Bombin (2018). "Rethinking Amerindian Spaces in Brazilian History". Ethnohistory. 65 (4): 537–547. doi:10.1215/00141801-6991187. hdl:10023/16408.
  18. ^ Anonby, Stan (2007). "A report on the creoles of Amapá". Journal of Language Survey Reports: 7.
  19. ^ Camargo, Sophia (15 December 2019). "Descubra quais são os 15 Estados mais ricos do Brasil". R7 (in Portuguese). Retrieved 4 June 2022.
  20. ^ "100 maiores PIBs da agropecuária". Terra (in Portuguese). Retrieved 4 June 2022.
  21. ^ "Cidades e Estados". Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica (in Portuguese). Retrieved 4 June 2022.
  22. ^ "Projeção da população do Brasil e das Unidades da Federação". Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. Retrieved 4 June 2022.
  23. ^ "Infraero entrega novo aeroporto de Macapá" (in Portuguese). Amazônia Brasil Rádio Web. 11 April 2019. Retrieved 5 April 2021.
  24. ^ "Após 15 anos de obras e paralizações novo aeroporto de Macapá será inaugurado" (in Portuguese). G1. 11 April 2019. Retrieved 5 April 2021.
  25. ^ "BR-156" (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 12 September 2012. Retrieved 5 April 2021.
  26. ^ "Le pont de l'Oyapock inauguré et officiellement ouvert à la circulation". France TV Info (in French). Retrieved 5 April 2021.
  27. ^ "Serra do Navio". Government of Amapá (in Portuguese). Retrieved 3 April 2021.
  28. ^ "Rodovias Transversais" (PDF). Retrieved 5 April 2021.
  29. ^ "Obra da Rodovia AP-010 fortalece setor primário e turístico em Mazagão". Diário do Amapá (in Portuguese). Retrieved 5 April 2021.
  30. ^ "Balsa que faz travessia de laranjal do Jari para Monte Dourado está quebrada, no AP". Globo (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2 April 2021.
  31. ^ "Maior balsa do Brasil começa a operar no Amapá". Seles Nafes (in Portuguese). Retrieved 5 April 2020.
  32. ^ "Macapa". Fleet Mon (in Portuguese). Retrieved 5 April 2021.
  33. ^ "O Porto". Docas De Santana (in Portuguese). Retrieved 5 April 2021.
  34. ^ "Símbolos do Estado" (in Portuguese). Macapá: Governo do Estado do Amapá. 2015. Archived from the original on 2 February 2015. Retrieved 2 February 2015.
  35. ^ "Estado do Amapá". www.vexilologia.com.br (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
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