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Brazil elects on the national level a head of state—the president—and a legislature. The president is elected to a four-year term by absolute majority vote through a two-round system. The National Congress (Congresso Nacional) has two chambers. The Chamber of Deputies (Câmara dos Deputados) has 513 members, elected to a four-year term by proportional representation. The Federal Senate (Senado Federal) has 81 members, elected to an eight-year term, with elections every four years for alternatively one-third and two-third of the seats. Brazil has a multi-party system, with such numerous parties that often no one party has a chance of gaining power alone, and so they must work with each other to form coalition governments.

Contents

ScheduleEdit

ElectionEdit

Position 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
Type Presidential (October)
National Congress (October)
Gubernatorial (October)
States and Federal District Parliaments (October)
None Mayors (October)
City Councils (October)
None Presidential (October)
National Congress (October)
Gubernatorial (October)
States and Federal District Parliaments (October)
None Mayors (October)
City Councils (October)
None Presidential (October)
National Congress (October)
Gubernatorial (October)
States and Federal District Parliaments (October)
President and
vice president
President and vice president None President and vice president None President and vice president
National Congress All seats (Chamber of Deputies)
One third (Federal Senate)
None All seats (Chamber of Deputies)
Two thirds (Federal Senate)
None All seats (Chamber of Deputies)
One third (Federal Senate)
States, cities and municipalities All positions (States and Federal District) None All positions (Municipalities) None All positions (States and Federal District) None All positions (Municipalities) None All positions (States and Federal District)

InaugurationEdit

Position 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023
Type Presidential (January)
National Congress (January)
Gubernatorial (January)
States and Federal District Parliaments (January)
None Mayors (January)
City Councils (January)
None Presidential (January)
National Congress (January)
Gubernatorial (January)
States and Federal District Parliaments (January)
None Mayors (January)
City Councils (January)
None Presidential (January)
National Congress (January)
Gubernatorial (January)
States and Federal District Parliaments (January)
President and
vice president
1 January None 1 January None 1 January
National Congress 1 February None 1 February None 1 February
States, cities and municipalities 1 January None 1 January None 1 January None 1 January None 1 January

Electoral systemsEdit

Deputies are elected to the Chamber of Deputies using a form of party-list proportional representation known as the "open list."[1]

Senators are elected to the Federal Senate with a plurality of the vote in a first-past-the-post system, which is not proportional.[2] Three senators are elected for each state and for the Federal District.[3]

In municipal governments, the city council is elected using an open list proportional representation system. Seats are allocated using a version of the D'Hondt method where only parties (or coalitions) who receive at least V/n votes (where V is the total number of votes cast and n is the total number of seats to be filled) may win seats in the legislature.[4][5] A presidential candidate in Brazil needs to gain fifty per cent plus one of votes to be named as winner.[6]

Voting in Brazil is compulsory for all literate citizens over 18 and under 70, and optional for citizens who are aged 16 and 17, older than 70 or illiterate. Brazil introduced compulsory voting into its Electoral Code in 1932 and lowered the voting age from 18 to 16 in the 1988 constitution.[7]

Brazilian voting machinesEdit

2018 general electionEdit

Presidential electionEdit

Candidate Running mate Coalition First round Second round
Valid Votes % Valid Votes %
Jair Bolsonaro (PSL) Hamilton Mourão (PRTB) Brazil Above Everything, God Above Everyone 49,276,990 46.03 57,797,847 55.13
Fernando Haddad (PT) Manuela d'Ávila (PCdoB) The People Happy Again 31,342,005 29.28 47,040,906 44.87
Ciro Gomes (PDT) Kátia Abreu (PDT) Sovereign Brazil 13,344,366 12.47
Geraldo Alckmin (PSDB) Ana Amélia (PP) To Unite Brazil 5,096,349 4.76
João Amoêdo (NOVO) Christian Lohbauer (NOVO) 2,679,744 2.50
Cabo Daciolo (PATRI) Suelene Balduíno (PATRI) 1,348,323 1.26
Henrique Meirelles (MDB) Germano Rigotto (MDB) This is the Solution 1,288,948 1.20
Marina Silva (REDE) Eduardo Jorge (PV) United to Transform Brazil 1,069,577 1.00
Álvaro Dias (PODE) Paulo Rabello de Castro (PSC) Real Change 859,601 0.80
Guilherme Boulos (PSOL) Sônia Guajajara (PSOL) Let's Go Without Fear of Changing Brazil 617,122 0.58
Vera Lúcia (PSTU) Hertz Dias (PSTU) 55,762 0.05
José Maria Eymael (DC) Hélvio Costa (DC) 41,170 0.04
João Vicente Goulart (PPL) Léo Dias (PPL) 30,176 0.03
Valid votes 107,050,133 91.21 104,838,753 90.43
Null votes 7,206,205 6.14 8,608,105 7.43
Blank votes 3.106.936 2.65 2,486,593 2.14
Total votes 117,363,274 100.00 115,933,451 100.00
Registered voters/turnout 117,363,274 79.67 115,933,451 78.70
Source: Tribunal Superior Eleitoral.

Parliamentary electionEdit

Party Chamber of Deputies Senate
Votes % Seats +/– Votes % Elected Total +/–
Social Liberal Party 11,457,878 11.7 52 +44 19,413,869 11.3 4 4 +4
Workers' Party 10,126,611 10.3 56 –13 24,785,670 14.5 4 6 –6
Brazilian Social Democracy Party 5,905,541 6.0 29 –25 20,310,558 11.9 4 8 –2
Social Democratic Party 5,749,008 5.8 34 –2 8,202,342 4.8 4 7 +4
Progressistas 5,480,067 5.6 37 –1 7,529,901 4.4 5 6 +1
Brazilian Democratic Movement 5,439,167 5.5 34 –32 12,800,290 7.5 7 12 –6
Brazilian Socialist Party 5,386,400 5.5 32 –2 8,234,195 4.8 2 2 –5
Republic Party 5,224,591 5.3 33 –1 3,130,082 1.8 1 2 –2
Brazilian Republican Party 4,992,016 5.1 30 +9 1,505,607 0.9 1 1
Democrats 4,581,162 4.7 29 +8 9,218,658 5.4 4 6 +2
Democratic Labour Party 4,545,846 4.6 28 +9 7,737,982 4.5 2 5 –3
Socialism and Liberty Party 2,783,669 2.8 10 +5 5,273,853 3.1 0 0 –1
New Party 2,748,079 2.8 8 New 3,467,746 2.0 0 0
Podemos 2,243,320 2.3 11 +7 5,494,125 3.2 1 5 +5
Republican Party of the Social Order 2,042,610 2.1 8 –3 1,370,513 0.8 1 1
Brazilian Labour Party 2,022,719 2.1 10 –15 1,899,838 1.1 2 3
Solidariedade 1,953,067 2.0 13 –2 4,001,903 2.3 1 1
Avante 1,844,048 1.9 7 +5 713,379 0.4 0 0
Social Christian Party 1,765,226 1.8 8 –5 4,126,068 2.4 1 1 +1
Green Party 1,592,173 1.6 4 –4 1,226,392 0.7 0 0 –1
Popular Socialist Party 1,590,084 1.6 8 –2 2,954,800 1.7 2 2 +2
Patriota 1,432,304 1.5 5 +3 60,589 0.0 0 0
Humanist Party of Solidarity 1,426,444 1.5 6 +1 4,228,973 2.5 2 2 +2
Communist Party of Brazil 1,329,575 1.4 9 –1 1,673,190 1.0 0 0 –1
Progressive Republican Party 851,368 0.9 4 +1 1,974,061 1.2 1 1 +1
Sustainability Network 816,784 0.8 1 New 7,166,003 4.2 5 5 New
Brazilian Labour Renewal Party 684,976 0.7 0 –1 886,267 0.5 0 0
Party of National Mobilization 634,129 0.6 3 329,973 0.2 0 0
Christian Labour Party 601,814 0.6 2 222,931 0.1 0 1 +1
Free Homeland Party 385,197 0.4 1 +1 504,209 0.3 0 0
Christian Democracy 369,386 0.4 1 –1 154,068 0.1 0 0
Party of Brazilian Women 228,302 0.2 0 51,027 0.0 0 0
Brazilian Communist Party 61,343 0.1 0 256,655 0.1 0 0
United Socialist Workers Party 41,304 0.0 0 413,914 0.2 0 0
Workers Cause Party 2,785 0.0 0 38,691 0.0 0 0
Invalid/blank votes 18,771,737 61,995,824
Total 117,111,476 100.0 513 0 117,111,478 100.0 54 81 0
Registered voters/turnout 146,750,529 79.8 146,750,529 79.8
Source: Election Resources

Past elections and referendumsEdit

Election results 1982–2018Edit

Brazilian legislative elections (Chamber of Deputies), 1982–2018

Parties 1982 1986 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 2010 2014 2018
Workers' Party 3.5 6.9 10.2 12.8 13.2 18.4 15.0 16.9 14.0 10.3
Brazilian Democratic Movement 43.0 48,1 19.3 20.3 15.2 13.4 14.6 13.0 11.1 5.5
Brazilian Social Democracy Party - - 8.7 13.9 17.5 14.3 13.6 11.9 11.4 6.0
Liberal Front Party/Democrats - 17.7 12.4 12.9 17.3 13.4 10.9 7.6 4.2 4.7
Liberal Party / Party of the Republic - 2.8 4.3 3.5 2.5 4.3 4.4 7.6 5.8 5.3
Brazilian Socialist Party - 0.9 1.9 2.2 3.4 5.3 6.2 7.1 6.5 5.5
Progressistas - - - 6.9 11.3 7.8 7.1 6.6 6.4 5.6
Democratic Labour Party 5.8 6.5 10.0 7.2 5.7 5.1 5.2 5.0 3.6 4.6
Brazilian Labour Party 4.5 4.5 5.6 5.2 5.7 4.6 4.7 4.2 4.0 2.1
Green Party - - - 0.1 0.4 1.3 3.6 3.8 2.1 1.6
Social Christian Party - - 0.8 0.5 0.7 0.6 1.9 3.2 2.5 1.8
Communist Party of Brazil - 0.8 0.9 1.2 1.3 2.2 2.1 2.8 2.0 1.4
Popular Socialist Party - 0.9 1.0 0.6 1.3 3.1 3.9 2.6 2.0 1.6
Brazilian Republican Party - - - - - - 0.3 1.7 4.5 5.1
Socialism and Liberty Party - - - - - - 1.2 1.2 1.8 2.8
Party of National Mobilization - - 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.3 0.9 1.1 0.5 0.6
Democratic Social / Reform Progressive Party 43.2 7.8 8.9 9.4 - - - - - -
National Reconstruction Party / Christian Labour Party - - 8.3 0.4 0.1 0.1 0.9 0.6 0.7 0.6
Christian Democratic Party / Christian Social Democratic Party / Christian Democracy - 1.2 3.0 - 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.2 0.5 0.4
Party of the Reconstruction of the National Order - - - 0.7 0.9 2.1 1.0 - - -
Social Democratic Party - - - - - - - - 6.2 5.8
Republican Party of the Social Order - - - - - - - - 2.0 2.1
Solidariedade - - - - - - - - 2.7 2.0
National Labor Party / Podemos - - - - 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.4 2.3
National Ecologic Party / Patriota - - - - - - - - 0.7 1.5
Labour Party of Brazil / Avante - - 0.2 - 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.7 0.8 1.9
Humanist Party of Solidarity - - - - - 0.3 0.5 0.8 0.9 1.5
Progressive Republican Party - - 0.2 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.7 0.9
Social Liberal Party - - - - 0.3 0.5 0.2 0.5 0.8 11.7
Brazilian Labour Renewal Party - - - 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.7
New Party - - - - - - - - - 2.8
Sustainability Network - - - - - - - - - 0.8
Others 0.0 2.8 3.7 0.7 1.7 1.5 0.4 0.0 0.7 0.7

Source: [1] Source: [2]

ReferendumsEdit

Brazil has held three national referendums in its history. In the first, held on January 6, 1963, the people voted for the re-establishment of the presidential system of government (82% of valid ballots), which had been modified by a constitutional amendment in 1961. A second referendum, as ordered by the Federal Constitution of 1988, was held on April 21, 1993, when the voters voted for a republican form of government and reaffirmed the presidential system.

A third national referendum, on the prohibition of the commerce of personal firearms and ammunition, was held on October 23, 2005. The ban proposal was rejected by 64% of the electorate.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Grumpy about voting reform". The Economist. 2011-02-22. Retrieved 2011-05-04.
  2. ^ "The Federal Senate". Portal da Câmara dos Deputados. Retrieved 2011-05-04.
  3. ^ Andrianantoandro, Andy (2010-10-14). "Brazil's Presidential Hopefuls Face Runoff, National Congress Needs Reform". FairVote.org. Retrieved 2011-05-04.
  4. ^ "Como funciona o sistema proporcional?". Tribunal Superior Eleitoral (Superior Electoral Court). Retrieved 2017-09-01.
  5. ^ Romao, Mauricio (2010-05-05). "PARLAMENTARES "ELEITOS POR MÉDIA"". Retrieved 2017-09-01.
  6. ^ Brazil: Lula renounces candidacy ahead of presidential poll
  7. ^ ""Voting is compulsory for Brazilians aged 18 to 70"". Tribunal Superior Eleitoral (Superior Electoral Court). Retrieved 2019-04-08.

External linksEdit