Social Liberal Party (Brazil)

The Social Liberal Party (Portuguese: Partido Social Liberal, PSL) is a far-right[15] political party in Brazil in a merger process with the Democrats to form the Brazil Union. Founded in 1994 as a social-liberal political party, the PSL was registered on the Superior Electoral Court in 1998.

Social Liberal Party
Partido Social Liberal
AbbreviationPSL
PresidentLuciano Bivar
Founded30 October 1994; 27 years ago (1994-10-30)
Merged intoBrazil Union
HeadquartersSHN, Quadra 02, Bloco F, Ed. Executive Office Tower, Sala 1.122 – Brasília, DF
Membership (October 2021)74,824[1]
IdeologyMajority
Anti-communism[2]
Antifeminism[3]
Anti-LGBT[4][5]
Brazilian nationalism[2]
Conservatism[4][6]
Economic liberalism[7]
Federalism[2]
Militarism[8]
National conservatism[9]
Right-wing populism[10]
Minority
Monarchism[11][12][13]
Historical
Classical liberalism[14]
Cultural liberalism[14]
Political positionFar-right[15]
Historical
Centre
Colours  Blue
  Yellow
  Green
TSE Identification Number17
Governorships
2 / 27
Mayors
30 / 5,570
Federal Senate
2 / 81
Chamber of Deputies
41 / 513
Mercosur Parliament
5 / 55
State Assemblies
76 / 1,035
City Councillors
875 / 56,810
Website
psl.org.br

In January 2018, former Social Christian Party politician Jair Bolsonaro joined the party and later converted it into an economically liberal, Brazilian nationalist, radically anti-communist and social conservative party. The original name remained after the ideological shift, and after Livres (the party's original main wing) left the party and formed their own political movement to continue the party's original goals. Bolsonaro became the party's nominee for the 2018 Brazilian general election and won in both rounds. Bolsonaro left the party in 2019 after disagreements with its president, Luciano Bivar, and then founded Alliance for Brazil.[16]

On October 6, 2021, the party voted to merge with the Democrats to establish the Brazil Union party.[17]

HistoryEdit

PSL was originally founded on 30 October 1994 by businessman Luciano Bivar as a social liberal party.[18] It was registered on the Superior Electoral Court on 2 June 1998.[19]

In the 2002 legislative elections, PSL won 1 out of 513 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and no seats in the Federal Senate. In the 2006 legislative elections, the party won no seats in the Chamber of Deputies or the Federal Senate. In the 2010 legislative elections, PSL won 1 seat in the Chamber of Deputies and no seats in the Federal Senate, maintaining the same results in the 2014 legislative elections.

In 2015, PSL underwent a reform led by the internal social liberal wing Livres, with names such as political scientist Fábio Ostermann [pt] and journalist Leandro Narloch reinforcing the party's affiliation with social liberal policies.[20][21] PSL also supported the impeachment of former president Dilma Rousseff.[22]

On 5 January 2018, conservative and former Social Christian politician Jair Bolsonaro became a member of the party, which prompted the Livres wing to leave the party in protest of Bolsonaro's social conservative views. After the exit of Livres, the party followed a national conservative path, changed its colors from purple to the more nationalist blue, yellow and green (the colors of Brazil's flag) and since then has discussed a name change either to Republicans (Republicanos) or Mobilize (Mobiliza).[23] On 5 March 2018, Bivar stepped down from party's presidency and Gustavo Bebianno was appointed as acting president.

Bolsonaro eventually became PSL's nominee for the 2018 presidential election, exceeding polling forecasts to receive 46% of the popular vote in the first round.[24] Bolsonaro's coattails helped elect 52 deputies and 4 senators from PSL, which made it the second largest political party in the post-2018 Chamber of Deputies.[25] It also became the largest single party in the legislative assemblies of both Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo.[26][27] On 28 October 2018, Bolsonaro was elected president with 55.13% of the votes, defeating Workers' Party's Fernando Haddad.[28] He took office on 1 January 2019.[29]

On 29 October 2018, Bivar was re-appointed as party's president.[30] On 12 November 2019, Bolsonaro announced his departure from the party following disagreements with the national executive.[31]

On October 6, 2021, the party voted to merge with the Democrats to establish the Brazil Union party. The new party plans to use the number 44 as its electoral number.[17] The merger has yet to be approved by the Superior Electoral Court.

OrganizationEdit

Ideology and policiesEdit

Since Bolsonaro's entrance in the party, PSL has changed much of its ideologies. It went from a social-liberal party with an economic liberal group Livres[32] to a far-right and right-wing populist party, abandoning its former cultural liberalism and keeping its economic liberal policies, supporting privatisation and decentralisation, while at the same time adopting cultural conservatism as well as social-conservative policies regarding abortion, legalization of marijuana, and teaching of gender identity in schools.[2]

Electoral historyEdit

Presidential electionsEdit

Election Party candidate Running mate Colligation Votes % Votes % Result Sources
First round Second round
2006 Luciano Bivar (PSL) Américo de Souza (PSL) None 62.064 0.06% (#7) - - Lost  N [33][34][35]
2014 Marina Silva (PSB) Beto Albuquerque (PSB) PSB; PHS; PRP; PPS; PPL; PSL 22,176,619 21.32% (#3) - - Lost  N [36][37][38][39]
2018 Jair Bolsonaro (PSL) Hamilton Mourão (PRTB) PSL; PRTB 49,276,990 46.0% (No. 1) 57,797,801 55.13% (No. 1) Elected  Y [40][41][42][43][44]

Chamber of Deputies and Senate electionsEdit

Election Chamber of Deputies Federal Senate Government
Votes % Seats +/– Votes % Seats +/–
2002 408,512 0.5%
1 / 513
  1 N/A 0%
0 / 81
  Junior party in government coalition
2006 190,793 0.2%
0 / 513
  1 46,542 0.0%
0 / 81
  Extraparliamentary opposition
2010 499,963 0.5%
1 / 513
  1 446,517 0.3%
0 / 81
  In opposition
2014 808,710 0.83%
1 / 513
  N/A 0%
0 / 81
  In opposition
2018 11,457,878 11.7%
52 / 513
  51 19,413,869 11.3%
4 / 81
  4 Government

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Estatísticas do eleitorado – Eleitores filiados" (in Portuguese). Superior Electoral Court. November 2021. Retrieved 10 November 2021.
  2. ^ a b c d "Em que acreditamos" (in Portuguese). Social Liberal Party. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  3. ^ "Ex-feminista que criou Congresso Antifeminista vai atuar em pasta de Damares". Folha de S.Paulo. 19 February 2019. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  4. ^ a b "Brazil elections: Bolsonaro and Haddad choices before voters". BBC. 28 October 2018.
  5. ^ "Brazil's Polarizing New President, Jair Bolsonaro, in His Own Words". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  6. ^ Scuch, Matheus (5 January 2018). "Bolsonaro decide concorrer à Presidência pelo PSL" (in Portuguese). GaúchaZH. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  7. ^ "Com chegada de bolsonaro livres anuncia saida do psl".
  8. ^ Venaglia, Guilherme (5 August 2018). "Com discurso militarista, PSL de Bolsonaro lança Major Olímpio ao Senado" (in Portuguese). MSN. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  9. ^ "Jair Bolsonaro seeks top judge to become Brazil justice minister". BBC News. 30 October 2018. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  10. ^ Pearson, Samantha; Magalhaes, Luciana (28 October 2018). "Far-right populist Jair Bolsonaro wins divisive Brazil presidential election". MarketWatch. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  11. ^ "Príncipe da família imperial brasileira será candidato a deputado federal". Gazeta do Povo (in Portuguese). 2 March 2018. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  12. ^ Holderf Nascimento, Raul (7 May 2018). "Monarquistas se aproximam de Bolsonaro e reforçam base de apoio do presidenciável" (in Portuguese). Conexão Política. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  13. ^ Amendola, Gilberto; Venceslau, Pedro (5 May 2018). "O séquito de Bolsonaro já tem um príncipe". O Estado de São Paulo (in Portuguese). Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  14. ^ a b "Quem Somos" (in Portuguese). Livres. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  15. ^ a b
  16. ^ "Bolsonaro anuncia saída do PSL e criação de novo partido" (in Portuguese). G1. 12 November 2019. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  17. ^ a b null. "Convenção coletiva formaliza fusão PSL-DEM e criação do União Brasil". Gazeta do Povo (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 7 October 2021.
  18. ^ "PSL - Partido Social Liberal 17" (in Portuguese). Social Liberal Party. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  19. ^ "Partido Social Liberal - Nossa História". psl.org.br (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 24 November 2018.
  20. ^ "Partido Social Liberal". Pslnacional.org.br (in Portuguese). Social Liberal Party. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  21. ^ Constantino, Rodrigo (28 January 2016). "PSL se renova e foca mais no "liberal" da sigla. Ou: It's happening!" (in Portuguese). Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  22. ^ "Impeachment de Dilma: saiba como votou cada um dos partidos na Câmara" (in Portuguese). Agência Brasil. 18 April 2016. Retrieved 29 October 2018.
  23. ^ "Deputado Jair Bolsonaro anuncia filiação ao PSL" (in Portuguese). G1. 5 January 2018. Retrieved 16 July 2018.
  24. ^ "Jair Bolsonaro: Far-right candidate wins first round of Brazil election". BBC News. 8 October 2018. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  25. ^ Gamarski, Rachel; Adghirni, Samy (8 October 2018). "Bolsonaro Election Effect Turns Brazil's Congress on Its Head". Bloomberg. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  26. ^ "Deputados estaduais eleitos no RJ; veja lista" (in Portuguese). G1. 8 October 2018. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  27. ^ Pessoa, Gabriela Sá; Saldaña, Paulo (8 October 2018). "PSDB cai pela metade na Assembleia de SP e PSL se torna principal bancada". Folha de S.Paulo (in Portuguese). Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  28. ^ Faiolo, Anthony; Lopes, Marina (7 October 2018). "Brazil's far-right candidate takes big lead in presidential election". The Washington Post. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  29. ^ Londoño, Ernesto; Darlington, Shasta (28 October 2018). "Jair Bolsonaro, Far-Right Populist, Elected President of Brazil". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  30. ^ Grillo, Marco (29 October 2018). "Um dia após vitória de Bolsonaro, PSL troca presidência do partido". O Globo (in Portuguese). Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  31. ^ "Bolsonaro anuncia saída do PSL e criação do Aliança pelo Brasil" (in Portuguese). R7. 12 November 2019.
  32. ^ Fucs, José (5 January 2018). "Com chegada de Bolsonaro, Livres anuncia saída do PSL". O Estado de São Paulo (in Portuguese). Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  33. ^ "Candidatos - Presidente - Luciano Bivar". Folha de São Paulo (in Portuguese). 12 August 2006.
  34. ^ "Luciano Bivar (PSL)" (in Portuguese). 21 August 2006.
  35. ^ "Bivar por Bivar". G1 (in Portuguese). 11 November 2006.
  36. ^ "PSL ficará na coligação, diz assessoria de Marina Silva". Exame. 3 December 2018.
  37. ^ "Marina Silva's coalition likely to back presidential candidate Aécio Neves". Agência Brasil. 9 October 2014.
  38. ^ "Wilderness to wildest dreams: the remarkable rise of Bolsonaro's Social Liberal Party in Brazil". LSE. 1 March 2019.
  39. ^ "Partidos da coligação aprovam candidatura de Marina Silva". G1 (in Portuguese). 21 August 2014.
  40. ^ "Jair Bolsonaro: Far-right candidate wins Brazil poll". BBC. 29 October 2018.
  41. ^ "Ficha do candidato a presidente Jair Bolsonaro - PSL | Eleições 2018 | Folha". Folha de S.Paulo (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 23 July 2020.
  42. ^ "Front-runner Bolsonaro has campaign riddled with controversy". Agência Brasil. 7 October 2018.
  43. ^ "Apuração pelo Brasil". G1 (in Portuguese). 28 October 2018.
  44. ^ "Jair Bolsonaro gana en Brasil y se convierte en presidente electo: mira aquí los resultados de las elecciones estado por estado". BBC (in Spanish). 28 October 2018.
Preceded by Numbers of Brazilian official political parties
17 – SLP (PSL)
Succeeded by