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Social Liberal Party (Brazil)

The Social Liberal Party (Portuguese: Partido Social Liberal, PSL) is a conservative political party in Brazil. Founded in 1994 as a social liberal party, the PSL was registered on the Superior Electoral Court in 1998.

Social Liberal Party

Partido Social Liberal
AbbreviationPSL
PresidentLuciano Bivar
Founded30 October 1994; 25 years ago (1994-10-30)
HeadquartersSHN, Quadra 02, Bloco F, Ed. Executive Office Tower, Sala 1.122 – Brasília, DF
Membership (July 2019)271,320[1]
IdeologyConservatism[2]
Brazilian nationalism[3]
Social conservatism[4]
Economic liberalism[5]
Right-wing populism[6]
National conservatism[7]
Militarism[8]
Anti-communism[3]
Minority:
Monarchism[9][10][11]
Political positionRight-wing[12] to far-right[13]
Colours     Blue
     Yellow
     Green
TSE Identification Number17
Seats in the
Chamber of Deputies
53 / 513
Seats in the
Senate
3 / 81
Governors
3 / 27
State deputies
76 / 1,035
City councillors (2016)
878 / 57,720
Party flag
Bandeira PSL.jpg
Website
psl.org.br

In January 2018, former Social Christian politician Jair Bolsonaro joined the party and later converted it into an economically liberal, nationalist, radically anti-communist and social conservative party. The original name remained after the ideological shift, and after Livres (the party's original main wing) left the party and formed their own political movement to continue the party's original goals. Bolsonaro became the party's nominee for the 2018 presidential election and won in both rounds.

HistoryEdit

PSL was originally founded on 30 October 1994 by businessman Luciano Bivar as a social liberal party.[14] It was registered on the Superior Electoral Court on 2 June 1998.[15]

In the 2002 legislative elections, PSL won 1 out of 513 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and no seats in the Federal Senate. In the 2006 legislative elections, the party won no seats in the Chamber of Deputies or the Federal Senate. In the 2010 legislative elections, PSL won 1 seat in the Chamber of Deputies and no seats in the Federal Senate, maintaining the same results in the 2014 legislative elections.

In 2015, PSL underwent a reform led by the internal social liberal wing Livres, with names such as political scientist Fábio Ostermann [pt] and journalist Leandro Narloch reinforcing the party's affiliation with social liberal policies.[16][17] PSL also supported the impeachment of former president Dilma Rousseff.[18]

On 5 January 2018, conservative and former Social Christian politician Jair Bolsonaro became a member of the party, which prompted the Livres wing to leave the party in protest of Bolsonaro's social conservative views. After the exit of Livres, the party followed a national conservative path, changed its colors from purple to the more nationalist blue, yellow and green (the colors of Brazil’s flag) and since then has discussed a name change either to Republicans (Republicanos) or Mobilize (Mobiliza).[19] On 5 March 2018, Bivar stepped down from party’s presidency and Gustavo Bebianno was appointed as acting president.

Bolsonaro eventually became PSL’s nominee for the 2018 presidential election, exceeding polling forecasts to receive 46% of the popular vote in the first round.[20] Bolsonaro's coattails helped elect 52 deputies and 4 senators from PSL, which made it the second largest political party in the post-2018 Chamber of Deputies.[21] It also became the largest single party in the legislative assemblies of both Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo.[22][23] On 28 October 2018, Bolsonaro was elected President with 55.13% of the votes, defeating Workers' Party's Fernando Haddad.[24] He took office on 1 January 2019.[25]

On 29 October 2018, Bivar was re-appointed as party’s president.[26] On 12 November 2019, Bolsonaro announced his departure from the party following disagreements with the national executive.[27]

OrganizationEdit

Ideology and policiesEdit

Since Bolsonaro's entrance in the party, PSL has changed much of its ideologies, abandoning its former socially liberal policies and keeping its economic liberal policies, supporting privatisation and decentralisation while at the same time adopting socially conservative policies regarding abortion, legalization of marijuana and teaching of gender identity in schools.[3]

Electoral historyEdit

Presidential electionsEdit

Election Party candidate Votes % Votes % Result
First round Second round
2006 Luciano Bivar 62.064 0.06% - - Lost  N
2014 None (it endorsed Marina Silva)[28] 22,176,619 21.32% - - Lost  N
2018 Jair Bolsonaro 49,276,990 46.0% 57,797,801 55.13% Elected  Y

Chamber of Deputies and Senate electionsEdit

Election Chamber of Deputies Federal Senate Government
Votes % Seats +/– Votes % Seats +/–
2002 408,512 0.5%
1 / 513
  1 N/A 0%
0 / 81
  Junior party in government coalition
2006 190,793 0.2%
0 / 513
  1 46,542 0.0%
0 / 81
  Extraparliamentary opposition
2010 499,963 0.5%
1 / 513
  1 446,517 0.3%
0 / 81
  In opposition
2014 808,710 0.83%
1 / 513
  N/A 0%
0 / 81
  In opposition
2018 11,457,878 11.7%
52 / 513
  51 19,413,869 11.3%
4 / 81
  4 Government

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Estatísticas do eleitorado – Eleitores filiados" (in Portuguese). Superior Electoral Court. July 2018. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  2. ^ "Brazil elections: Bolsonaro and Haddad choices before voters". BBC. 28 October 2018.
  3. ^ a b c "Em que acreditamos" (in Portuguese). Social Liberal Party. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  4. ^ Scuch, Matheus (5 January 2018). "Bolsonaro decide concorrer à Presidência pelo PSL" (in Portuguese). GaúchaZH. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  5. ^ Fucs, José (5 January 2018). "Com chegada de Bolsonaro, Livres anuncia saída do PSL". O Estado de São Paulo (in Portuguese). Retrieved 6 November 2018..
  6. ^ Pearson, Samantha; Magalhaes, Luciana (28 October 2018). "Far-right populist Jair Bolsonaro wins divisive Brazil presidential election". MarketWatch. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  7. ^ "Jair Bolsonaro seeks top judge to become Brazil justice minister". BBC News. 30 October 2018. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  8. ^ Venaglia, Guilherme (5 August 2018). "Com discurso militarista, PSL de Bolsonaro lança Major Olímpio ao Senado" (in Portuguese). MSN. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  9. ^ "Príncipe da família imperial brasileira será candidato a deputado federal". Gazeta do Povo (in Portuguese). 2 March 2018. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  10. ^ Holderf Nascimento, Raul (7 May 2018). "Monarquistas se aproximam de Bolsonaro e reforçam base de apoio do presidenciável" (in Portuguese). Conexão Política. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  11. ^ Amendola, Gilberto; Venceslau, Pedro (5 May 2018). "O séquito de Bolsonaro já tem um príncipe". O Estado de São Paulo (in Portuguese). Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  12. ^ "Eleições 2014: direita política se populariza no Brasil". diap.org (in Portuguese). Retrieved 14 September 2019.
  13. ^
  14. ^ "PSL - Partido Social Liberal 17" (in Portuguese). Social Liberal Party. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  15. ^ "Partido Social Liberal - Nossa História". psl.org.br (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2018-11-24.
  16. ^ "Partido Social Liberal". Pslnacional.org.br (in Portuguese). Social Liberal Party. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  17. ^ Constantino, Rodrigo (28 January 2016). "PSL se renova e foca mais no "liberal" da sigla. Ou: It's happening!" (in Portuguese). Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  18. ^ "Impeachment de Dilma: saiba como votou cada um dos partidos na Câmara" (in Portuguese). Agência Brasil. 18 April 2016. Retrieved 29 October 2018.
  19. ^ "Deputado Jair Bolsonaro anuncia filiação ao PSL" (in Portuguese). G1. 5 January 2018. Retrieved 16 July 2018.
  20. ^ "Jair Bolsonaro: Far-right candidate wins first round of Brazil election". BBC News. 8 October 2018. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  21. ^ Gamarski, Rachel; Adghirni, Samy (8 October 2018). "Bolsonaro Election Effect Turns Brazil's Congress on Its Head". Bloomberg. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  22. ^ "Deputados estaduais eleitos no RJ; veja lista" (in Portuguese). G1. 8 October 2018. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  23. ^ Pessoa, Gabriela Sá; Saldaña, Paulo (8 October 2018). "PSDB cai pela metade na Assembleia de SP e PSL se torna principal bancada". Folha de S.Paulo (in Portuguese). Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  24. ^ Faiolo, Anthony; Lopes, Marina (7 October 2018). "Brazil's far-right candidate takes big lead in presidential election". The Washington Post. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  25. ^ Londoño, Ernesto; Darlington, Shasta (28 October 2018). "Jair Bolsonaro, Far-Right Populist, Elected President of Brazil". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  26. ^ Grillo, Marco (29 October 2018). "Um dia após vitória de Bolsonaro, PSL troca presidência do partido". O Globo (in Portuguese). Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  27. ^ "Bolsonaro anuncia saída do PSL e criação do Aliança pelo Brasil" (in Portuguese). R7. 12 November 2019.
  28. ^ "PSL ficará na coligação, diz assessoria de Marina Silva". Exame. 03/12/2018. Check date values in: |date= (help)
Preceded by
16 – USWP (PSTU)
Numbers of Brazilian official political parties
17 – SLP (PSL)
Succeeded by
18 – NETWORK (REDE)