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A manifesto is a published verbal declaration of the intentions, motives, or views of the issuer, be it an individual, group, political party or government.[1][2][3][4] A manifesto usually accepts a previously published opinion or public consensus or promotes a new idea with prescriptive notions for carrying out changes the author believes should be made. It often is political or artistic in nature, but may present an individual's life stance. Manifestos relating to religious belief are generally referred to as creeds.

Contents

EtymologyEdit

It is derived from the Italian word manifesto, itself derived from the Latin manifestum, meaning clear or conspicuous. Its first recorded use in English is from 1620, in Nathaniel Brent's translation of Paolo Sarpi's History of the Council of Trent: "To this citation he made answer by a Manifesto" (p. 102). Similarly, "They were so farre surprised with his Manifesto, that they would never suffer it to be published" (p. 103).[5]

Educational ManifestosEdit

 
An Early Manifesto on Education

Educational manifestos are documents proposing a change or changes to a current education system.[6][unreliable source?] They can be written by governing bodies, organizations, or individuals involved in education as parents, student, administrators, or other stakeholders.[7][specify] The writer or writers are positioned as a minority group, with manifestos aimed at a majority group. Educational manifestos include personal or group beliefs about what is important or right in education, make statements about the current state of education, differentiate common terms in education, and make suggestions for changing current education systems.[8][self-published source]

They can often include observations about society and whether or not students are prepared to participate fully in it when they are finished with mandatory schooling.[9][self-published source] These observations can include a perceived misalignment between mandatory school and society, an unjust, unfair, or right aspect of education, or perceived lack of personalization in learning. Other topics that are frequently addressed in educational manifestos include curriculum, funding, personalization, class size, teacher burnout, and standardized testing, among others.[9][self-published source]

 
Digital Humanities Education Manifesto

These manifestos may offer a reflection or rethinking of some aspect of education or teaching and learning.[10][self-published source] These may include personal stories, quotes, anecdotes, or experiences in the classroom or administration. The reflection or rethinking serves to illustrate how or why an aspect of an educational system requires change.[11] These reflections often remind readers of the importance of positive, consistent teacher-student relationships in a good education system.[9][self-published source]

Educational manifestos call for reflection or ‘rethinking' on the part of the majority in education, offer a reason to hope for change, and make recommendations to put change into action.[10][self-published source] Reasons for hope can include anecdotes from students, teachers, or parents, or a callback to what motivates teachers and students to teach and learn together. Manifestos written by individuals frequently conclude by sharing techniques, tactics, or philosophies that the writer has found helpful in their own teaching or administrative practice.[12][unreliable source?] Those written by groups or organizations include recommendations for initiating or continuing change in appropriate areas.

Notable manifestosEdit

PoliticalEdit

Examples of notable manifestos:

ArtisticEdit

 
1IERE MANIFESTE DE LA REVUE D'ART "LE STYLE" [sic], published in 1918

Scientific and EducationalEdit

ProfessionalEdit

TechnologyEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Merriam-Webster online dictionary definition of Manifesto.
  2. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 12, 2013. Retrieved September 14, 2013.  (in German), article on "Wahlprogramm", literally "election programme".
  3. ^ Dictionary.com definition of Manifesto.
  4. ^ David Robertson, The Routledge Dictionary of Politics, Edition 3, Psychology Press, 1890 p. 295, ISBN 0415323770, 9780415323772
  5. ^ Oxford English Dictionary
  6. ^ Edwards, Mark (2017-05-20). "Manifesto summaries: what do they say about education? | The Key". The Key. Retrieved 2018-04-15. 
  7. ^ "Better Education for better Democracies". Education. Retrieved 2018-04-15. 
  8. ^ "A Teaching Manifesto - DAVIN EBANKS". DAVIN EBANKS. Retrieved 2018-04-15. 
  9. ^ a b c "Radical Hope: A Teaching Manifesto". The Tattooed Professor. 2016-07-06. Retrieved 2018-04-15. 
  10. ^ a b "manifesto for education | A movement from status to value". Claire Boonstra. 2012-11-05. Retrieved 2018-04-15. 
  11. ^ RSA. "Education Manifestos 2017 – Testing, Testing, 123…". Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce. Retrieved 2018-04-15. 
  12. ^ "A Teaching Manifesto | Tomorrow's Professor Postings". tomprof.stanford.edu. Retrieved 2018-04-15. 
  13. ^ Oi Ki Ling (1999). The Changing Role of the British Protestant Missionaries in China, 1945-1952. Madison: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. p. 149. ISBN 978-0-8386-3776-0. 
  14. ^ Malevich, Kazimir. "Suprematist Manifesto Unovis". Scrib.com. 
  15. ^ MacKenzie, Scott (2014). Film Manifestos and Global Cinema Cultures: A Critical Anthology. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. p. 506. ISBN 9780520957411 – via ProQuest ebrary. 
  16. ^ "La Transdisciplinarité - Manifeste". Nicol.club.fr. Retrieved June 24, 2012. 
  17. ^ "Werner Herzog Film: Home". Wernerherzog.com. Retrieved June 24, 2012. 
  18. ^ "Manifesto of Neo-Futuristic City". Neofuturistic.com. Retrieved August 18, 2014. 
  19. ^ "The Neofuturistic City Manifesto released online". Architecturelab.net. July 13, 2014. Archived from the original on September 14, 2014. Retrieved August 18, 2014. 
  20. ^ Luko, C. S. (2011). "Reflections on the versatilist manifesto" (in Portuguese). USP. Retrieved 2014-09-13. 
  21. ^ Critical Arts: A Journal of South-North Cultural and Media Studies 27(6), An Van Dienderen & Kris Rutten, 2013, p. 655-660.
  22. ^ "Psychology as the Behaviorist Views it". Retrieved March 30, 2013. 
  23. ^ "UNESCO Public Library Manifesto". Unesco.org. Unesco. Retrieved 10 May 2017. 
  24. ^ "A Brief History of Debian - The Debian Manifesto". Debian.org. December 31, 2011. Retrieved June 24, 2012. 
  25. ^ "A Cypherpunk's Manifesto". 
  26. ^ "The dotCommunist Manifesto". Retrieved Dec 5, 2017. 
  27. ^ "The Mozilla Manifesto". Mozilla.org. Retrieved June 24, 2012. 
  28. ^ "Guerilla Open Access Manifesto". https://archive.org/.  External link in |website= (help)
  29. ^ "15-312 Principles of Programming Languages". Cs.cmu.edu. Retrieved June 24, 2012. 
  30. ^ "The Hardware Hacker Manifesto - I, Hacker". Daeken.com. Retrieved June 24, 2012. 
  31. ^ "The BINC Manifesto". Retrieved January 27, 2016. 
  32. ^ "The Reactive Manifesto". Retrieved September 16, 2014. 

External linksEdit