Mato Grosso do Sul (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈmatu ˈɡɾosu du ˈsuw] ) is one of Brazil's 27 federal units, located in the southern part of the Central-West Region, bordering five Brazilian states: Mato Grosso (to the north), Goiás and Minas Gerais (northeast), São Paulo (east) and Paraná (southeast); and two South America countries: Paraguay (south and southwestern) and Bolivia (west). It is divided into 79 municipalities and covers an area of 357,145,532 square kilometers, which is about the same size as Germany. With a population of 2,839,188 inhabitants in 2021, Mato Grosso do Sul is the 21st most populous state in Brazil.

Mato Grosso do Sul
Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul
State of Mato Grosso do Sul
Coat of arms of Mato Grosso do Sul
Anthem: Hino de Mato Grosso do Sul
Location of State of Mato Grosso do Sul in Brazil
Location of State of Mato Grosso do Sul in Brazil
Country Brazil
FoundedOctober 11, 1977
Capital and largest cityCampo Grande
 • GovernorEduardo Riedel (PSDB)
 • Vice GovernorJosé Carlos Barbosa (PP)
 • SenatorsNelsinho Trad (PSD)
Tereza Cristina (PP)
Soraya Thronicke (UNIÃO)
 • Total357,124.962 km2 (137,886.719 sq mi)
 • Rank6th
 • Total2,449,024
 • Estimate 
 • Rank21st
 • Density6.9/km2 (18/sq mi)
  • Rank20th
DemonymSul-mato-grossense or Mato-grossense-do-sul
 • Year2010 estimate
 • TotalUS$ 26,283,000,000 (15th)
 • Per capitaUS$ 9,818 (8th)
 • Year2021
 • Category0.742[2]high (9th)
Time zoneUTC-4 (BRT-1)
Postal Code
79000-000 to 79990-000
ISO 3166 codeBR-MS

Campo Grande is the capital and largest city of Mato Grosso do Sul. The economy of the state is largely based on agriculture and cattle-raising. Crossed in the south by the Tropic of Capricorn, Mato Grosso do Sul generally has a warm, sometimes hot, and humid climate, and is crossed by numerous tributaries of the Paraná River. The state has 1.3% of the Brazilian population and is responsible for 1.5% of the Brazilian GDP. Mato Grosso do Sul is also known for its natural environment, and is a destination for domestic and international tourism. The Pantanal lowlands cover 12 municipalities and presents a variety of flora and fauna, with forests, natural sand banks, savannahs, open pasture, fields and bushes. The city Bonito, in the mountain of Bodoquena, has prehistoric caves, natural rivers, waterfalls, swimming pools and the Gruta do Lago Azul cave.

The name Mato Grosso do Sul is Portuguese for "Southern Thick Bush"; the name is inherited from its northern neighbour state of Mato Grosso, from which it was split on 1 January 1979. The state is still commonly referred to as "Mato Grosso" in colloquial speech. Other names that were proposed, at the time of the split and afterwards, include "Pantanal" (a reference to its best known geographical feature) and "Maracaju" (a reference to the Maracaju Mountain Range that crosses the state from north to south).

Geography edit

Climate edit

Map of Köppen climate types of Mato Grosso do Sul

Mato Grosso do Sul has humid subtropical and tropical climates. The average annual rainfall is 1471.1 mm. January is the warmest month, with mean maximum of 34 °C (93.2 °F) and minimum of 24 °C (75.2 °F) and more rain; July experiences the coldest temperatures, with mean maximum of 25 °C (77 °F) and minimum of -2,0 °C (28 °F) and sun.

Vegetation edit

Paraguay River in Mato Grosso do Sul

The "cerrado" landscape is characterized by extensive savanna formations crossed by gallery forests and stream valleys. Cerrado includes various types of vegetation. Humid fields and "buriti" palm paths are found where the water table is near the surface. Alpine pastures occur at higher altitudes and mesophytic forests on more fertile soils. The "cerrado" trees have characteristic twisted trunks covered by a thick bark, and leaves which are usually broad and rigid. Many herbaceous plants have extensive roots to store water and nutrients. The plant's thick bark and roots serve as adaptations for the periodic fires which sweep the cerrado landscape. The adaptations protect the plants from destruction and make them capable of sprouting again after the fire.

The state is located in western Brazil, in a region mostly occupied by the inland marshes of the Pantanal. The highest elevation is the 1,065 m high Morro Grande.

History edit

In the 1630s, the Jesuits also established short-lived missions among the Guaraní people in the Itatín region of present-day Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. They were destroyed by Bandeirantes and revolts by the indigenous people.[3][4]

The first peoples or indigenous peoples of Mato Grosso do Sul, particularly occupying the Nhande Ru Marangatu tropical rainforested area, are the Guarani-Kaiowá, first contacted by non-indigenous peoples in the 1800s.

On October 11, 1977, the state was created by dividing the state of Mato Grosso. Its status as a state went into full effect two years later on January 1, 1979. The new state also incorporated the former territory of Ponta Porã and the northern part of the former territory of Iguaçu.

Demographics edit

Aerial view of Campo Grande, the capital.

According to the IBGE of 2008, there were 2,372,000 people residing in the state. The population density was 6.4 inhabitants/km2.

Urbanization: 84.7% (2006); Population growth: 1.7% (1991–2000); Houses: 689,000 (2006)[5]

The last PNAD (National Research for Sample of Domiciles) census revealed the following numbers: 1,293,797 Brown (Multiracial) people (46.9%), 1,168,407 White people (42.2%), 179,101 Black people (6.5%), 96,029 Amerindian people (3.5%), 19,616 Asian people (0.7%).[6]

In the Cerrado areas, mostly in the south, central and east, there is a predominance of Southern Brazilian farmers of Spanish, German, Portuguese, Italian and Slavic descent.

According to an autosomal DNA study from 2008, the ancestral composition of Mato Grosso do Sul is 73,60% European, 13,90% African and 12,40% Native American.[7] Additionally, according to a different 2013 DNA study, the ancestral composition of Mato Grosso do Sul is: 58.8% European, 25.9% Amerindian and 15.3% African ancestries, respectively.[8]

Largest cities edit

Largest cities or towns in Mato Grosso do Sul
Rank Mesoregion Pop. Rank Mesoregion Pop.
Campo Grande
1 Campo Grande Centro-Norte 796 252 11 Maracaju Sudoeste 38 264  
Três Lagoas
2 Dourados Sudoeste 198 421 12 Amambai Sudoeste 35 133
3 Corumbá Pantanais 104 317 13 Coxim Centro-Norte 32 258
4 Três Lagoas Leste 103 536 14 Rio Brilhante Sudoeste 31 279
5 Ponta Porã Sudoeste 79 173 15 Caarapó Sudoeste 26 155
6 Naviraí Sudoeste 47 173 16 Miranda Pantanais 25 794
7 Nova Andradina Leste 46 368 17 Jardim Sudoeste 24 484
8 Aquidauana Pantanais 45 781 18 Anastácio Pantanais 23 939
9 Sidrolândia Centro-Norte 43 563 19 Bela Vista Sudoeste 23 290
10 Paranaíba Leste 40 329 20 Ivinhema Sudoeste 22 395

Education edit

Campo Grande is the most important educational centre of the state.

There are more than 44 universities in whole state of Mato Grosso do Sul.[10]

Educational institutions edit

Economy edit

The service sector is the largest component of GDP at 46.1%, followed by the industrial sector at 22.7%. Agriculture represents 31.2%, of GDP (2004). Mato Grosso do Sul exports: soybean 34.9%, pork and chicken 20.9%, beef 13.7%, ores 8%, leather 7.4%, timber 5.1% (2002).

Share of the Brazilian economy: 1% (2005).

Agriculture edit

Harvester in a corn plantation in Dourados.

According to data from 2020, if Mato Grosso do Sul were a country, it would be the world's fifth largest producer of oilseeds.[11] In 2020, Mato Grosso do Sul was the 5th biggest grain producer in the country, with 7.9%.[12] In soy, produced 10.5 million tons in 2020, one of the largest producing states in Brazil, around 5th place.[13] It is the 4th largest producer of sugarcane, with around 49 million tons harvested in the 2019/20 harvest.[14][12] In 2019, Mato Grosso do Sul was also one of the largest producer of maize in the country with 10,1 million tons.[15] In cassava production, Brazil produced a total of 17.6 million tons in 2018. Mato Grosso do Sul was the 6th largest producer in the country, with 721 thousand tons.[16]

Livestock edit

The state has the 4th largest cattle herd in Brazil, with a total of 21.4 million head of cattle.[17] The state is a major exporter of beef, but also poultry and pork. In poultry farming, the state had, in 2017, a flock of 22 million birds.[18] In pork, in 2019, Mato Grosso do Sul slaughtered more than 2 million animals. The state occupies the 7th Brazilian position in pig farming, moving towards becoming the 4th largest Brazilian producer in the coming years.[19]

Mining edit

In 2017, Mato Grosso do Sul had 0.71% of the national mineral participation (6th place in the country). Mato Grosso do Sul had production of iron (3.1 million tons at a value of R$324 million) and manganese (648 thousand tons at a value of R$299 million).[20]

Industry edit

Metalfrio headquarters in Três Lagoas, Brazilian multinational manufacturer of refrigeration equipment.

Mato Grosso do Sul had an industrial GDP of R $19.1 billion in 2017, equivalent to 1.6% of the national industry. It employs 122,162 workers in the industry. The main industrial sectors are: Public Utility Industrial Services, such as Electricity and Water (23.2%), Construction (20.8%), Food (15.8%), Pulp and Paper (15.1%) and Petroleum Derivatives and Biofuels (12.5%). These 5 sectors concentrate 87.4% of the state's industry.[21]

In the city of Três Lagoas, the production of paper and cellulose is considerable. Mato Grosso do Sul recorded growth above the national average in the production of cellulose, reached the mark of 1 million hectares of planted eucalyptus, expanded its industrial park in the sector and consolidated itself as the largest exporter of the product in the country in the first quarter of 2020. Between 2010 and 2018, production in the south of Mato Grosso increased by 308%, reaching 17 million cubic meters of round wood for paper and cellulose in 2018. In 2019, Mato Grosso do Sul reached the leadership of exports in the product in the country, with 9.7 million tons traded: 22.20% of the total Brazilian pulp exports that year.[22]

Infrastructure edit

Campo Grande International Airport.
Ferrovia Norte Brasil, stretch over the Paraná River, between the states of Mato Grosso do Sul and São Paulo.
BR-163, duplicate stretch in Mato Grosso do Sul.
Engineer Souza Dias Dam.

In 2022, Mato Grosso do Sul had, between municipal, Mato Grosso do Sul state and federal highways, 45,176.8 km of municipal highways, 15,084.0 km of Mato Grosso do Sul state highways and 3,197.6 km of federal highways. In 2022 there were about 8,000 km of paved roads (between state and federal highways).[23] [24] In BR-163 there were about 120 km of duplicated highways in 2022, with future planning to have a total of 847 km of duplications, crossing the entire state. Other important highways in the state are BR-262, BR-060 and BR-267. As it is a state that only became more populated in the 1970s, its transport network is in a clear process of evolution, and it continues to be a low-density road network.[25][26]

The state also has two railway lines: the Estrada de Ferro Noroeste do Brasil, which connects the center-west of the state of São Paulo with the city of Corumbá, in Mato Grosso do Sul, on the of the Paraguay River, with 1,330 kilometers in length; and Ferrovia Norte Brasil, which has connected the city of Santa Fé do Sul with Rondonópolis since 1989, being one of the main corridors for the flow of grain in the region, with 755 kilometers connect the northwest of São Paulo with the south of Mato Grosso.[27]

River navigation, once again important, is losing its pre-eminence. Two fluvial axes make up the state, both belonging to the Río de la Plata basin. The Paraguay River integrates the state with the neighboring countries Paraguay and Argentina, and with Mato Grosso through the port of Cáceres. The main products transported by the river are: iron and manganese ores, cement, wood, petroleum derivatives and cattle. In 1999, this waterway began transporting sugar, departing from Porto Murtinho. The main ports are Corumbá (Corumbá, Ladário and Porto Esperança) and Porto Murtinho. Finally, the Paraná-Tieté Waterway runs through the Paraná River.[28]

About international Airports:

  • Campo Grande - The operation of Campo Grande International Airport is shared with the Campo Grande Air Base. The airport has two runways. Construction of the main runway, made of concrete, began in 1950 and was finished in 1953. The passenger terminal was concluded in 1964, and in 1967 concrete aprons were built for both military and civilian aircraft. As commercial aviation demand grew, it became necessary to widen the civil aircraft apron, which was completed 12 years after its construction. The airport has been administered by Infraero since 1975.
  • Corumbá - Corumbá International Airport, located just 3 km (1.86 mi) from the city center, was opened on September 21, 1960, the city's anniversary. Built on a land plot of 290 hectares and at an elevation of 140 meters above sea, it has an asphalt runway measuring 1660 x 30 meters, with one of its thresholds reinforced with concrete for an additional 60 meters. Corumbá International Airport has been administered by Infraero since February 1975.
  • Ponta Porã - Ponta Porã International Airport is also administered by Infraero.

Other airports edit

  • Dourados Regional Airport
  • Bonito Airport

Miscellaneous facts edit

Vehicles: 835,259 (June 2009); Mobile phones: 2.407 million (July/2009); Telephones: 471,000 (April 2007); Cities: 78 (2007)[29]

Tourism edit

Rio da Prata (River of Silver) in Jardim.
Recreational scuba diver in Bonito.

The most important tourist city in the state is Bonito, considered the capital of ecotourism in Brazil. Its main attractions are the natural landscapes, and the immersions in rivers of transparent waters, waterfalls, caves and sinkholes. Along with Jardim, Guia Lopes da Laguna and Bodoquena, it is the main municipality that integrates the region's tourist complex. [30] The Pantanal is also an area of considerable visitation.[31]

Ponta Porã, Bela Vista and Porto Murtinho, being located on the border with Paraguay, receive many visitors, and with the construction of Bioceanic Corridor, Porto Murtinho will have a considerable increase in business tourism.[32]

Flag edit

Mato Grosso do Sul's flag was designed by Mauro Michael Munhoz. A white stripe divides an upper left green corner from a bottom right blue space with a yellow star. White symbolizes hope, green is an allusion to the state's rich flora, blue represents its vast sky, while the yellow star adds balance, force and serenity. The star on the flag is Alphard, the brightest star in the constellation Hydra.

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "IBGE". Retrieved 23 May 2015.
  2. ^ "Atlas do Desenvolvimento Humano no Brasil. Pnud Brasil, Ipea e FJP, 2022". Retrieved 2023-06-11.
  3. ^ Gott 1993, pp. 37–43.
  4. ^ Henning 1978, pp. 271–273.
  5. ^ Source: PNAD.
  6. ^ "Censo 2022 - Panorama".
  7. ^ "Untitled Document" (PDF). Archived from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
  8. ^ Revisiting the Genetic Ancestry of Brazilians Using Autosomal AIM-Indels
  9. ^ "Estimativas da população residente nos municípios brasileiros com data de referência em 1º de julho de 2011" [Estimates of the Resident Population of Brazilian Municipalities as of July 1, 2011] (PDF) (in Portuguese). Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. 30 August 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 October 2011. Retrieved 31 August 2011.
  10. ^ OnLine - Hospedagens e Desenvolvimento de Web Sites. "Faculdades reconhecidas pelo MEC, Vestibular, Apostilas, Universitário, Profissão, Professor". Ser Universitário. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
  11. ^ MS deve registrar maior safra de soja da história e produção pode chegar a mais de 11 milhões de toneladas
  12. ^ a b IBGE prevê safra recorde de grãos em 2020
  13. ^ Produção de 10 milhões de toneladas confirma safra recorde de soja em Mato Grosso do Sul
  14. ^ Goiás é o segundo maior produtor de cana-de-açúcar do País
  15. ^ Produção de milho em MS pode chegar a mais de 10 milhões de toneladas
  16. ^ Produção brasileira de mandioca em 2018
  17. ^ Com quarto maior rebanho bovino do país, MS recebe evento para debater todos os elos da cadeia produtiva
  18. ^ Com um rebanho de 22 milhões de aves, setor avícola gera 8,8 mil empregos diretos em MS
  19. ^ MS caminha para se tornar o 4º maior produtor de suínos do país
  20. ^ Algumas Gemas Clássicas
  21. ^ Industry Profile of Mato Grosso do Sul
  22. ^ MS se consolida como maior exportador de celulose do país
  25. ^ Duplicação da BR-163 não é mais necessária, diz CCR
  26. ^ Duplicação avança na BR-163/MS
  27. ^ Ferrovia Mato Grosso do Sul: conheça tudo sobre!
  28. ^ Novo porto seco de Corumbá terá investimentos de mais de R$ 176 milhões
  29. ^ Source: IBGE.
  30. ^ Bonito é eleito o Melhor Destino de Ecoturismo do Brasil for the 16th time
  31. ^ Sustainable travel and ecotourism in Brazil
  32. ^ Município de Porto Murtinho investe em estratégias de fomento ao turismo

Bibliography edit

  • Gott, Richard (1993). Land without Evil. London: Verso. ISBN 0860913988.
  • Henning, John (1978). Red Gold. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0674751078.

External links edit

20°26′34″S 54°38′45″W / 20.44278°S 54.64583°W / -20.44278; -54.64583