Floriano Peixoto

Floriano Vieira Peixoto (Portuguese pronunciation: [floriˈɐ̃nu viˈe(j)rɐ pe(j)ˈʃotu] 30 April 1839 – 29 July 1895), born in Ipioca (today a district of the city of Maceió in the State of Alagoas), nicknamed the "Iron Marshal",[1] was a Brazilian soldier and politician, a veteran of the Paraguayan War, and the second President of Brazil.[2] He was the first Vice President of Brazil to have succeeded a former President mid-term.


Floriano Peixoto
Floriano Peixoto (1891) (Cropped).jpg
Marshal Floriano in 1891
2nd President of Brazil
In office
23 November 1891 – 14 November 1894
Vice PresidentManuel Vitorino
Preceded byDeodoro da Fonseca
Succeeded byPrudente de Morais
1st Vice President of Brazil
In office
26 February 1891 – 23 November 1891
PresidentDeodoro da Fonseca
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded byManuel Vitorino
Minister of War
In office
19 April 1890 – 22 January 1891
PresidentDeodoro da Fonseca
Preceded byEduardo Wandenkolk
Succeeded byFalcão da Frota
President of the Mato Grosso Province
In office
13 September 1884 – 5 October 1885
MonarchPedro II
Preceded byBaron of Batovi
Succeeded byRamos Ferreira
Personal details
Born(1839-04-30)30 April 1839
Maceió, Alagoas, Empire of Brazil
Died29 July 1895(1895-07-29) (aged 56)
Barra Mansa, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
NationalityBrazilian
Political partyIndependent
Spouse(s)
(m. 1872)
Signature
Military service
Nickname(s)The Iron Marshal
AllegianceEmpire of Brazil Empire of Brazil
Brazil Brazil
Branch/serviceCoat of arms of the Brazilian Army.svg Brazilian Army
Years of service1861–1889
RankField Marshal
Battles/warsParaguayan War

ElectionEdit

 
Monument to Marshal Floriano Peixoto, by Eduardo de Sá, in Downtown Rio de Janeiro

Peixoto was an army marshal when elected vice-president in February 1891. In November 1891, he rose to the presidency after the resignation of Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca, the first president of Brazil. Peixoto came to the presidency in a difficult period of the new Brazilian Republic, which was in the midst of a general political and economic crisis made worse by the effects of the bursting of the Encilhamento economic bubble. As Vice President, he had also served as the President of the Senate.[3]

PresidencyEdit

His government was marked by several revolutions. Ruling in an authoritarian fashion, Peixoto defeated a naval officers' rebellion against him in 1893–1894 and the Federalist Riograndense Revolution in the States of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina during the same years. His government was marked by an increased centralization of power and nationalism, with the florianista cult of personality being the first phenomenon of a favorable political expression towards a republican politician in Brazil.[4]

LegacyEdit

He is often referred to as "the Consolidator of the Republic" or "The Iron Marshal." He left the presidency on 15 November 1894. In spite of his unpopularity, he was responsible for the consolidation of the First Brazilian Republic.

Desterro, the capital of the state of Santa Catarina, was renamed Florianópolis after its defeat by loyalist troops at the end of the Federalist Revolution.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "A República de Ferro" (in Portuguese). www1.folha.uol.com.br. Retrieved July 12, 2015.
  2. ^ Floriano Vieira Peixoto (in Portuguese)
  3. ^ "República Velha (1889 - 1930) - Senado Federal". www25.senado.leg.br.
  4. ^ "Florianismo | Atlas Histórico do Brasil - FGV". atlas.fgv.br (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2018-05-19.

External linksEdit

  Media related to Floriano Peixoto at Wikimedia Commons

Political offices
New office Vice President of Brazil
1891
Succeeded by
Manuel Vitorino
Preceded by
Deodoro da Fonseca
President of Brazil
1891–1894
Succeeded by
Prudente de Morais
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Deodoro da Fonseca
Honorary President of the
Superior Military Court

1891–1894
Vacant