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An anniversary is the date on which an event took place or an institution was founded in a previous year, and may also refer to the commemoration or celebration of that event. The word was first used for Catholic feasts to commemorate saints.
Most countries celebrate national anniversaries, typically called national days. These could be the date of independence of the nation or the adoption of a new constitution or form of government. There is no definite method for determining the date of establishment of an institution, and it is generally decided within the institution by convention. The important dates in a sitting monarch's reign may also be commemorated, an event often referred to as a "jubilee".
- Birthdays are the most common type of anniversary, on which someone's birthdate is commemorated each year. The actual celebration is sometimes moved for practical reasons, as in the case of an official birthday or one falling on February 29.
- Wedding anniversaries are also often celebrated, on the same day of the year as the wedding occurred.
- Death anniversaries.
The Latin phrase dies natalis (literally "birth day") has become a common term, adopted in many languages, especially in intellectual and institutional circles, for the anniversary of the founding ("legal or statutory birth") of an institution, such as an alma mater (college or other school). In ancient Rome, the [dies] Aquilae natalis was the "birthday of the eagle", the anniversary of the official founding of a legion.
Anniversaries of nations are usually marked by the number of years elapsed, expressed with Latin words or Roman numerals.
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Latin terms for anniversaries are mostly straightforward, particularly those relating to the first twenty years (1–20), or multiples of ten years (30, 40, 50, 60, 70 etc.), or multiples of centuries or millenniums (100, 200, 300, 1000, 2000, 3000, etc.) In these instances, the name of the anniversary is generally derived from the Latin word(s) for the respective number of years. When anniversaries relate to fractions of centuries (125, 150, 175, 225 years—i.e. 1.25, 1.5, 1.75, and 2.25 centuries), the situation is not as simple.
Roman fractions were based on a duodecimal system. From 1⁄12 to 8⁄12 they were expressed as multiples of twelfths (uncia "twelfth"; the source of the English words inch and ounce) and from 9⁄12 to 11⁄12 they were expressed as multiple twelfths less than the next whole unit—i.e. a whole unit less 3⁄12, 2⁄12 or 1⁄12 respectively. There were also special terms for quarter (quadrans), half (semis), and three-quarters (dodrans). Dodrans is a Latin contraction of de-quadrans which means "a whole unit less a quarter" (de means "from"; quadrans means "quarter"). Thus for the example of 175 years, the term is a quarter century less than the next whole (bi)century or 175 = (−25 + 200).
In Latin, it seems that this rule did not apply precisely for 1+1⁄2. While secundus is Latin for "second", and bis for "twice", these terms are not used such as in sesqui-secundus. Instead sesqui (or ses) is used by itself.
|Anniversary||Latin-derived term||Other terms||Comments|
|6 months||Semiannual||'Biannual' means twice in a year, but is also commonly used incorrectly to mean once every two years ('biennial').|
|2 years||Biennial||Cotton||'Biennial' means once every two years, but is also commonly used incorrectly to mean twice in a year ('biannual').|
|121⁄2 years||Parsley||A humorous or mock wedding anniversary celebrated in Germany and the Netherlands where everyone needs to wear something green|
|16 years||Sexdecennial||Sapphire||Sapphire is separately used for other anniversaries|
|50 years||Semicentennial||Golden||Previously, "jubilee" by itself was used to indicate celebrations at 50 year intervals|
|60 years||Sexagennial||Diamond||Diamond is separately used for the 75th anniversary, its use for 60th years being popularized by Diamond Jubilee of Queen Victoria|
|65 years||Quinsexagennial||Sapphire||Sapphire is separately used for other anniversaries|
|75 years||Semisesquicentennial||Diamond||Diamond is separately used for the 60th anniversary|
|125 years||Quasquicentennial||Term is broken down as quasqui- (and a quarter) centennial (100 years). Quasqui is a contraction from quadrans "a quarter" plus the clitic conjunction -que "and". The term was coined by Funk and Wagnalls editor Robert L. Chapman in 1961.|
|150 years||Sesquicentennial||Term broken down as sesqui- (one and a half) centennial (100 years)|
|175 years||Dodransbicentennial||Dodrans is a Latin contraction of de-quadrans which means "a whole unit less a quarter" (de means "from"; quadrans means "quarter"). 175 years is a quarter century less than the next whole (bi)century (175 = 200 − 25).|
|Dodrabicentennial||Alternative Latin form of Dodransbicentennial|
|Dequasbicentennial||Alternative Latin form of Dodransbicentennial|
|Dosquicentennial||Dosquicentennial has been used in modern times and this is perhaps a modern contraction of "de-quadrans".|
|Demisemiseptcentennial||Probably[attribution needed] a modern coined term: demisemiseptcentennial; literally one-half (demi-) × one-half (semi-) × seven (sept-) × 100 years (centennial)—also demisemiseptcentenary.|
|Quartoseptcentennial||Probably[attribution needed] a modern coined term: quartoseptcentennial; literally one-quarter (quarto-) × seven (sept-) × 100 years (centennial)—also quartoseptcentenary.|
|Terquasquicentennial||A coined word for an anniversary of 175 years, but the elements of the word literally refer to an anniversary of 375 years, as follows: ter- (3) × quasqui- (11⁄4) × centennial (100 years)|
|Septaquintaquinquecentennial||Suggested by lexicographer Robert L. Chapman to William Safire; first appeared in Safire's column, "On Language" (The New York Times Magazine, February 12, 1995). It is a coined word for an anniversary of 175 years, but the elements of the word literally refer to an anniversary of 35,000 years, as follows: septaquinta- (70) × quinque- (5) × centennial (100 years)|
|250 years||Sestercentennial||To express 2+1⁄2 in Latin it would be expressed as "half-three". The term relates to being halfway [from the second] to the third integer. In Latin this is "Sestertius", which is a contraction of semis (halfway) tertius (third)—hence Sestercentennial.|
|Semiquincentennial||Probably[attribution needed] a modern coined term: semi- (half) × quin (5) × centennial (100 years) = 250 years. Used by Brown University in 2015.|
|Bicenquinquagenary||Used by Princeton University in 1996, Reading, Pennsylvania in 1998, and Washington and Lee University in 1999. It is a coined word for an anniversary of 250 years: bi- (2) × cen(t)- (100) + quinquagenary (50 years).|
|350 years||Sesquarcentennial||Sesquarcentennial is a modern coined term; sesquarcentennial for 350 years is deduced here from the "Sestertius" definition for 250 years above. For 350 years it relates to being halfway from the third to the fourth integer; thus a contraction of semis (halfway) and quartus (fourth); hence Sesquarcentennial. Semiseptcennial is probably[attribution needed] a modern coined term: semi- (half) × sept (7) × cen(t)- (100) × centennial (350 years).|
|700 years||Septcentennial||Probably[attribution needed] a coined term; earliest known use in March 1988. Chiang Mai Septcentennial Stadium (Chiang Mai, Thailand) was completed in 1991.|
|1500 years||Sesquimillennial||Term broken down as sesqui- (one and a half) millennial (1000 years)|
Many anniversaries have special names. Etiquette in Society, in Business, in Politics and at Home by Emily Post, published in 1922, contained suggestions for wedding anniversary gifts for 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 50, and 75 years. Wedding anniversary gift suggestions for other years were added in later editions and publications; they now comprise what is referred to as the "traditional" list. Generally speaking, the longer the period, the more precious or durable the material associated with it.
There are variations according to some national traditions. There exist numerous partially overlapping, partially contradictory lists of anniversary gifts (such as wedding stones), separate from the 'traditional' names. The concepts of a person's birthday stone and zodiac stone, by contrast, are fixed for life according to the day of the week, month, or astrological sign corresponding to the recipient's birthday.
- "SA 175th Jubilee". Clipper Ship 'City of Adelaide'. Archived from the original on 27 November 2013. Retrieved March 8, 2011.
So the name for a 175th anniversary? For now it is really up to the preference of the reader. One day one of these terms may make its way into popular usage, become accepted, and find a place in a dictionary.
- Chapman, Robert L. (February 1965). "The History of "Quasquicentennial"". American Speech. 40 (1): 53–57. doi:10.2307/454178. ISSN 0003-1283. JSTOR 454178.
It is our policy to reply as courteously and helpfully as we can to such requests, and I answered Mr. Hatten on August 7, suggesting quasquicentennial. Since this is a history, I shall quote the letter in full: Dr. Wilfred Funk has passed your letter of July I on to us. We are happy to help, if you feel that you really want a new Latinate word meaning "one hundred and twenty-fifth anniversary". The best model upon which to form the word is "sesquicentennial", meaning "one hundred and fiftieth anniversary". We need a first element meaning "plus a fourth", analogous with "sesqui" which means "plus a half". "Sesqui" is apparently formed from "semis que", meaning "and a half". Now, both "quarta" and "quadrans" mean "a fourth", so we may begin with either "quarta que" or "quadrans que". The trick is to combine and shorten one of these as "sesqui" was combined and shortened from "semis que". If we follow the model of "sesqui" very closely, retaining the stressed vowel and final "s" of "quadrans", we get the word "quasquicentennial". Combining and shortening in other ways we can also get "quadqui-", "quansqui-", "quarsqui-", and perhaps several others. On the grounds that it is closest to the model and also probably the least ugly of the set, I would choose "quasquicentennial" (pronounced kwahskwee-) as the new word. Of course, you may decide that you do not really want or need a new word. There is no point in proliferating them needlessly. I should add, perhaps, that this word would not appear in any of our dictionaries until it had established itself in wide currency, even if you should decide to use it. I hope we have been able to help you.
- "Under the Cupola". Neighbors of Batavia. July–August 2008. p. 29.
The etymology of "demisemiseptcentennial" is compared to "hemidemisemiquaver", a 64th note.
- "Pickle Barrel: 175th-birthday bash planned for Dillsburg." The Patriot-News (Mechanicsburg, Penn.), Wednesday, 18 June 2008.
- "Brown lowers the curtain on 15-month semiquincentenary". Brown University. 2015-06-11. Retrieved 2015-06-11.
- McCleery, William (November 19, 1997). "The Meaning of the 250th". Princeton Alumni Weekly. Princeton University. Retrieved March 23, 2011.
Faster, it seems, than you can say "bicenquinquagenary", Princeton's 250th anniversary has come and gone.
- "A Memorial of the Celebration of the Two Hundred and Fiftieth Anniversary of the Settlement of the Town of Northampton, Massachusetts". City of Northampton. Archived from the original on January 27, 2013. Retrieved March 23, 2011.
- Kersten, Glenn (March 1988). "Naming the Anniversaries". Quidnunc. Archived from the original on 21 January 2005. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
- Architects 49: Selected and Current Work. (The Master Architect Series; 5.) Image Publishing Group, 2006. ISBN 978-1-876907-09-9
- "22. The Day of the Wedding. Post, Emily. 1922. Etiquette". bartleby.com.