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The Campeonato Brasileiro Série A (Brazilian Portuguese: [kãmpjoˈnatu braziˈlejɾu ˈsɛɾii ˈa]; English: Brazilian Championship A Series), commonly referred as Brasileirão (Brazilian Portuguese: [brazilejˈɾãw]), is a Brazilian professional league for men's football clubs. At the top of the Brazilian football league system, it is the country's primary football competition. Contested by 20 clubs, it operates on a system of promotion and relegation with the Campeonato Brasileiro Série B.

Brazilian Championship A Series
Campeonato Brasileiro Série A logo.png
FoundedAugust 23, 1959 (as Taça Brasil)[1]
1970 (as Campeonato Brasileiro)[2]
CountryBrazil
ConfederationCBF
Number of teams20 (since 2006)
Level on pyramid1
Relegation toSérie B
Domestic cup(s)Copa do Brasil
International cup(s)Copa Libertadores
Copa Sudamericana
Current championsPalmeiras (10th title)
(2018 season)
Most championshipsPalmeiras
(10 titles)
Top goalscorerBrazil Roberto Dinamite (190)
TV partnersList of broadcasters
WebsiteOfficial website
2019 Campeonato Brasileiro Série A

Due to historical peculiarities and the large geographical size of the country, Brazil has a relatively short history of nationwide football competitions. Only in 1959, with the advancements in civil aviation and air transport and the need to appoint a Brazilian representative to the first edition of the Copa Libertadores was a nationwide tournament created, Taça Brasil. In 1967, the Torneio Rio-São Paulo was expanded to include teams from other states, becoming the Torneio Roberto Gomes Pedrosa, which was also considered a national tournament. The first Campeonato Brasileiro with that name was held in 1989. Prior to this, only the seasons post-1971 were regarded as Campeonato Brasileiro. In 2010, the national tournaments from 1959 and 1970 – Taça Brasil and Torneio Roberto Gomes Pedrosa – were unified by the Brazilian Football Confederation in the Brazilian championship history[3] but cataloging these with their original name in the statistics, indeed hey confer the same title despite being different competitions.[4]

The Campeonato Brasileiro is one of the strongest leagues in the world; it contains the most club world champions titles, with 10 championships won among six clubs, and the second-most Copa Libertadores titles, with 17 titles won among 10 clubs. The International Federation of Football History & Statistics (IFFHS) ranked the league fourth in strength for the 2001–12 period after the Premier League (England), La Liga (Spain), and Serie A (Italy).[5] The Campeonato Brasileiro is the most-watched football league in the Americas and one of the world's most exposed, broadcast in 155 nations. It is also one of the world's richest championships, ranked as the sixth most valuable with a worth of over US$1.43 billion, generating an annual turnover of over US$1.17 billion in 2012.

Since 1959, a total of 156 clubs have played in the Campeonato Brasileiro.[6] Seventeen clubs have been crowned Brazilian football champions, twelve of which have won the title more than once. Palmeiras is the most successful club of the Campeonato Brasileiro, having won the competition ten times including the most recent edition (2018), followed by Santos with eight titles, Corinthians with seven titles and São Paulo with six titles. Santos' Os Santásticos won five consecutive titles between 1961 and 1965, a feat that remains unequaled. The State of São Paulo is the most successful state, amassing 31 titles among five clubs.

HistoryEdit

 
The Taça Brasil trophy.

The Taça Brasil was introduced in 1959, and ran until 1968. The Torneio Roberto Gomes Pedrosa was competed for between 1967 and 1970. In 2010 the CBF announced that these were to be regarded as Brazilian championships.[7]

In 1968, the delay in closing the 1968 Taça Brasil made CBD use the Robertão to determine the Libertadores representants. With the extinction of the Taça Brasil, the Robertão, officially named by CBD as "Taça de Prata" (Silver Cup) remained the top Brazilian championship the following two years.[8]

Following Brazil's third world title at the 1970 FIFA World Cup, president Emílio Médici decided to better organize Brazilian football. In a reunion with the CBD and the club presidents in October 1970, it was decided to create the following year a Brazilian championship contested by twenty teams, inspired by the national tournaments in the European nations. The first edition of the named "Campeonato Nacional" ("National Championship"), was held in 1971.[2] The top division was named "Divisão Extra" (Extra Division), while a newly created second division earned the "Primeira Divisão" (First Division) name.[9]

 
Illustration of Taça das Bolinhas, the CBF Brazilian Championship old trophy.

In 1987, CBF announced it was not able to organize the Brazilian football championship, a mere few weeks before it was scheduled to begin. As a result, the thirteen most popular football clubs in Brazil created a league, The Clube dos 13, to organize a championship of their own. This tournament was called Copa União and was run by the 16 clubs that eventually took part in it (Santa Cruz, Coritiba and Goiás were invited to join). CBF initially stood by the Club of the 13 decision. However, weeks later, with the competition already underway, and under pressure from football clubs excluded from the Copa União, CBF adopted a new set of rules, which considered the Copa União part of a larger tournament, comprising another 16 teams. According to that new set of rules, the Copa União would be dubbed the Green Module of the CBF championship, whereas the other 16 teams would play the Yellow Module. In the end, the first two teams of each Module would play each other to define the national champions and the two teams that would represent Brazil in the Copa Libertadores in 1988. However, that new set of rules was never recognized by the Club of the 13 and largely ignored by most of the Brazilian media, who concentrated their attention in the independent league, eventually won by Clube de Regatas do Flamengo. The eventual final tourney was set to have Sport and Guarani, from the yellow module, and Flamengo and Internacional from the green one. It never materialized, however, as Flamengo and Internacional refused to partake in it. As a result, Sport and Guarani played each other, with the first one winning the Championship for 1987 and both going on to represent Brazil in the Copa Libertadores in 1988. Although Flamengo has attempted to gain ownership of the championship multiple times through the justice system, Sport remains recognized by both CBF and FIFA as 1987 Champions.[10][11][12]

In 2010, CBF decided to recognize the champions of both Taça Brasil (1959-1968) and Torneio Roberto Gomes Pedrosa (1967-1970) as Brazilian Champions, creating some controversy as there was a two-year period when both tournaments were held, thus Palmeiras was awarded two times for winning both in 1967 and both Santos and Botafogo were recognized as champions in 1968 as each tournament was won by one of them.[3]

Competition formatEdit

CompetitionEdit

There are 20 clubs in the Brasileirão. During the course of a season (from May to December) each club plays the others twice (a double round-robin system), once at their home stadium and once at that of their opponents, for a total of 38 games. Teams receive three points for a win and one point for a draw. No points are awarded for a loss. Teams are ranked by total points, victories, goal difference, and goals scored. At the end of each season, the club with the most points is crowned champion. If points are equal between two or more clubs, the rules are:[13]

  • If the tie is between more than two clubs not competing for the national title or relegation, then the tie is broken, using the games the clubs have played against each other:
    • a) most games won
    • b) total goal difference
    • c) total goals scored
    • d) head-to-head record (with the away goals rule in effect if only two clubs are taken into account)
  • If the tie is still not broken, the winner will be determined by Fair Play scales.
  • If there is a tie for the championship, for relegation, or for qualification to other competitions, the Fair Play scales will not be taken into account; a play-off match at a neutral venue decides rank. Otherwise, a drawing of lots will determine the final positions.

A system of promotion and relegation exists between the Brasileirão and the Série B. The four lowest placed teams in the Brasileirão are relegated to Série B, and the top four teams from the Série B promoted to the Brasileirão.

Qualification for international competitionsEdit

 
Peñarol vs Santos in the Centenario Stadium of Montevideo during the 2011 Copa Libertadores Finals.

Since 2016 edition, the top six clubs in Brasileirão qualify for the next year Copa Libertadores. The top four clubs directly enter the group stage. The fifth and sixth-placed clubs enters Libertadores at the second round and must win 2 knockout stages to enter the group stage.

Brazilian clubs can also qualify for the next Copa Libertadores group phase by winning Copa do Brasil or a continental competition (Copa Sudamericana or Copa Libertadores itself). If Copa do Brasil winners finishes Brasileirão in the top six, or a Brazilian club wins Sudamericana and finishes Brasileirão in the top six, or a Brazilian club wins Libertadores and finishes Brasileirão in the top six, the remaining Libertadores spots go to the next-best placed finishers in Brasileirão. So it is possible for the seventh, eighth and even the ninth-placed club to qualify for Copa Libertadores first round.

Also since 2016 edition, clubs from seventh to twelfth place in Brasileirão qualify for the next year Copa Sudamericana. But, as explained above, depending on Copa do Brasil, Copa Libertadores and Copa Sudamericana results, it is possible for the thirteenth, fourteenth and even the fifteenth-placed club to qualify for Copa Sudamericana. Therefore, Brasileirão may qualify at least twelve and up to a very exceeding fifteen clubs for continental competitions in a single season.

ChampionsEdit

Seventeen clubs are officially recognized to have been the Brazilian football champions.

Club Won Runner-up Years won Years Runner-up
  Palmeiras 10 4 1960*, 1967*, 1967^, 1969^, 1972, 1973, 1993, 1994, 2016, 2018 1970^, 1978, 1997, 2017
  Santos 8 7 1961*, 1962*, 1963*, 1964*, 1965*, 1968^, 2002, 2004 1959*, 1966*, 1983, 1995, 2003, 2007, 2016
  Corinthians 7 3 1990, 1998, 1999, 2005, 2011, 2015, 2017 1976, 1994, 2002
  São Paulo 6 6 1977, 1986, 1991, 2006, 2007, 2008 1971, 1973, 1981, 1989, 1990, 2014
  Flamengo 5 2 1980, 1982, 1983, 1992, 2009 1964*, 2018
  Cruzeiro 4 5 1966*, 2003, 2013, 2014 1969^, 1974, 1975, 1998, 2010
  Vasco 4 4 1974, 1989, 1997, 2000 1965*, 1979, 1984, 2011
  Fluminense 4 0 1970^, 1984, 2010, 2012
  Internacional 3 6 1975, 1976, 1979 1967^, 1968^, 1988, 2005, 2006, 2009
  Botafogo 2 3 1968*, 1995 1962*, 1972, 1992
  Grêmio 2 3 1981, 1996 1982, 2008, 2013
  Bahia 2 2 1959*, 1988 1961*, 1963*
  Atlético Mineiro 1 5 1971 1977, 1980, 1999, 2012, 2015
  Guarani 1 2 1978 1986, 1987
  Atlético Paranaense 1 1 2001 2004
  Sport Recife 1 0 1987
  Coritiba 1 0 1985
  Fortaleza 0 2 1960*, 1968*
  São Caetano 0 2 2000, 2001
  Náutico 0 1 1967*
  Bangu 0 1 1985
  Bragantino 0 1 1991
  Vitória 0 1 1993
  Portuguesa 0 1 1996

Nomenclature and sponsorshipEdit

The Campeonato Brasileiro had its official name changed often before settling on Campeonato Brasileiro in 1989.[14]

Identity English name Years Official Sponsor
Taça Brasil Brazil Cup
1959–1968
None
Torneio Roberto Gomes Pedrosa Roberto Gomes Pedrosa Tournament
1967–1970
Campeonato Nacional National Championship
1971–1973
Copa Brasil Brazil Cup
1974–1979, 1984, 1986
Taça de Ouro Golden Cup
1980–1983, 1985
"Copa União" Union Cup*
1987–88
Copa João Havelange João Havelange Cup
2000
Campeonato Brasileiro Brazilian Championship
1989–1999, 2001-

2001: LATAM (Brasileirão TAM)
2002: Visa (Troféu VISA Electron)
2005: Nestlé (Taça Nestlé Brasileirão)[15]
2009–2012: Petrobrás (Brasileirão Petrobrás)[16][17]
2014–2017: Chevrolet (Brasileirão Chevrolet)[18][19]
2018–2019: Assaí Atacadista (Brasileirão Assaí)[20]

  • The official name was Brazil Cup, but it became known as Union Cup.

FinancesEdit

The Brasileirão had total club revenues of US $1.17 billion in 2012. This makes the Brasileirão the highest revenue football league in the Americas, and the highest outside of Europe's "big five."[21]

The Brasileirão is also one of the world's most valuable football leagues, having a marketing value and worth over US $1.24 billion in 2013.[22] The total worth of every club in the 2013 Brasileirão is US $1.07 billion.[23]

The Brasileirão's television rights were worth over US $610 million in 2012; that accounts for over 57% of Latin America as a whole.[24]

Corinthians is the 16th most valuable club in the world in 2013, worth over US $358 million.[25]

ClubsEdit

The following 20 clubs are competing in the Série A during the 2019 season.

Club Position
in 2018
First season in
top division
Top
division
titles
Last top
division title
Athletico Paranaense 7th 1959 1 2001
Atlético Mineiro 6th 1959 1 1971
Avaí 3rd in Série B 1974 0 N/A
Bahia 11th 1959 2 1988
Botafogo 9th 1962 2 1995
Ceará 15th 1962 0 N/A
Chapecoensea 14th 1978 0 N/A
Corinthians 13th 1967 7 2017
Cruzeiroa, b 8th 1960 4 2014
CSA 2nd in Série B 1959 0 N/A
Fortaleza 1st in Série B 1959 0 N/A
Flamengoa, b 2nd 1964 6 2009
Fluminense 12th 1960 4 2012
Grêmio 4th 1959 2 1996
Goiás 4th in Série B 1973 0 N/A
Internacional 3rd 1962 3 1979
Palmeiras 1st 1960 10 2018
Santosa, b 10th 1959 8 2004
São Pauloa, b 5th 1967 6 2008
Vasco da Gama 16th 1960 4 2000

a: Unrelegated clubs
b: Clubs that never played outside the top division

All-time Campeonato Brasileiro table (1959-2018)Edit

The All-time Campeonato Brasileiro table is an overall record of all match results, points, and goals of every team that has played in the Brazilian League since its inception in 1959. The table is accurate as of the end of the 2018 season. Teams in bold are part of the 2019 season.[26][27]

Team Pts GP W D L GF GA GD
1 São Paulo 2303 1424 630 413 381 2130 1516 +614
2 Cruzeiro 2283 1448 631 390 428 2114 1642 +472
3 Santos 2237 1441 611 406 424 2142 1622 +520
4 Grêmio 2235 1437 613 396 428 1909 1510 +391
5 Internacional 2230 1405 612 394 388 1903 1441 +462
6 Corinthians 2224 1406 605 409 392 1866 1475 +391
7 Palmeiras 2197 1352 608 373 371 1981 1466 +515
8 Atlético Mineiro 2195 1420 599 398 423 2055 1666 +389
9 Flamengo 2155 1432 581 412 439 1928 1630 +298
10 Fluminense 1947 1369 527 381 461 1829 1646 +183
11 Vasco da Gama 1930 1333 509 403 421 1850 1611 +239
12 Botafogo 1824 1310 480 384 446 1680 1599 +81
13 Atlético Paranaense 1550 1117 417 299 401 1462 1383 +79
14 Coritiba 1398 1039 371 285 383 1228 1233 –5
15 Goiás 1356 1014 357 285 372 1313 1288 +25
16 Bahia 1338 1016 339 321 356 1134 1216 –82
17 Sport 1264 967 334 268 367 1135 1195 –60
18 Vitória 1209 986 324 317 294 1198 1386 –189
19 Guarani 1055 725 279 218 228 918 812 +106
20 Portuguesa 1044 795 264 252 279 961 965 –4
All-time Campeonato Brasileiro table from 2006-2018 (38 games)
Pos Team GP W D L Pts
1 São Paulo 494 231 132 132 825
2 Grêmio 494 228 125 141 809
3 Flamengo 494 181 133 142 788
4 Cruzeiro 494 222 112 160 778
5 Santos 494 201 131 162 734
6 Corinthians 456 202 140 138 716
7 Fluminense 494 190 134 170 704
8 Internacional 456 193 122 141 701
9 Atletico Mineiro 456 190 114 151 684
10 Palmeiras 456 188 115 153 679

Media coverageEdit

Value of television rights
Season(s) Price TV
1987–89 $3.4 million Globo
1990–94 not available Globo
1994–96 $31.4 million Globo
1997–2003 $50 million Globo
2003–05 $390 million Globo
2005–08 $900 million Globo
2009–11 R$1.9 billion Globo
2012–15 R$2.96 billion[28] Globo
2016–19 R$4.11 billion[29] Globo

Currently, the money of television represent a significant share in the finances of clubs in Brazil. The league broadcasting rights are total exclusivity of Grupo Globo, which distributes the live matches for its television stations: Rede Globo (terrestrial an satellite), SporTV (pay), and the Premiere FC (through the system pay-per-view), where subscribers have the privilege to follow all 380 annual league matches. Globo, first cited, displays the League first time in 1987, when was created the Clube dos 13, trading tool of clubs with the television. The first television contract was negotiated in 1987, with only conveying the Green Module of the Copa União, organized by the Clube dos 13, the television rights were sold for $3.4 million to Rede Globo.[30][31] And only with the conveying of the championship final, SBT broadcast the game instead,[32] a blow to the Rede Globo, who says today that the Green Module would be the league itself, and then was prevented from entering the Ilha do Retiro.[33][34][35] In 1990, only Rede Bandeirantes acquired the broadcast rights. This edition marked the first national title of Corinthians, second most popular team in the country. Both the final transmission, as the other games, attracted the attention of the public, causing the network to acquired an Ibope Rating of 53 points in the deciding game.[36] This led to the Rede Globo prioritize the League from the next edition, in 1991.[36]

In 1997, began to be restricted games live in cities where the matches are held (except finals). The Clube dos 13 closed the contract with Rede Globo's television rights as the holder of the Brasileirão for $50 million (including editions of 1998 and 1999), and resolves itself split the rights with Rede Bandeirantes during this period. It was the first edition to be shown on pay-per-view (via Premiere).[37] In addition, the first games shown on pay television were courtesy of SporTV, after a controversial signing contract of Clube dos 13 with Globosat. Previously, in 1993, the Club of the 13 an CBF had signed a contract with TVA, a company in which ESPN Brazil was part. However, that decision was declined.[38]

In 2000, the broadcasting rights of the Copa João Havelange, organized by the Clube dos 13, were sold to Rede Globo for $50 million. However, the final of this competition in 2001, was marked by an unusual situation. Vasco da Gama, a finalist against São Caetano, graced the logo of SBT, the second largest television station of Brazil, a direct rival to Globo. This situation was somewhat embarrassing for Globo, which transmitted the final exclusively, and which was seen by an estimated audience of 60 million people.[39] Despite the large number of spectators in the final match, this edition was marked by low ratings, what did the Rede Globo to cancel the broadcast of a few matches.[40]

In 2001, Clube dos 13 defines four divisions of transmission quota, with Corinthians, São Paulo, Palmeiras, Flamengo and Vasco in group 1, Santos in group 2, Fluminense, Botafogo, Atlético Mineiro, Cruzeiro, Internacional and Grêmio in group 3, and Bahia, Goiás, Sport Recife, Portuguesa, Coritiba, Atlético Paranaense, and Vitória in group 4.[41] In 2003, the value was expanded by a considerable amount, for the first time surpassing the three digits, after the adoption of the new format of accrued points. The contract of $130 million per year was signed again by TV Globo.[42] In 2005, C13 renews with Globo for the 2006–09 period in a deal worth $300 million.[43]

In 2009, for the first time, the sale of broadcasting rights of the Brazilian Championship were made via open bidding. Media organisations were invited to bid for TV packages open, closed, PPV, internet and broadcast abroad.[44] Rede Globo subsequently won the largest TV contract in the history of Brazilian football ;$1.4 billion for 2009–2011.[45]

In the early part of 2011, the majority of Clube dos 13 indicated they would be negotiating the 2012–2014 league rights independently.[46][47][48][49][50]

In 2012, the final league rights amounts are uncertain. However, I t is known that the clubs were divided into four groups: Group 1: Flamengo and Corinthians receiving 84 to 120 million reals; Group 2: São Paulo, Palmeiras, Santos and Vasco receiving 70 to 80 million reais; Group 3: Gremio, Cruzeiro, Atlético Mineiro, Fluminense and Botafogo (45 to 55 million reais); Group 4: other first division clubs (18 to 30 million reais).[51]

In 2013, SporTV made a deal with Fox Sports, giving up the rights of Campeonato Brasileiro in exchange for live coverage of the Copa Libertadores.[52]

In 2016, Bandeirantes ended the partnership with Globo and ceased showing league matches, leaving Globo with exclusive rights.[53] However, the channel of Turner Group, Esporte Interativo made a deal with Atlético-PR, Bahia, Ceará, Coritiba, Internacional, Joinville, Paysandu, Sampaio Corrêa, Santos, Criciúma, Fortaleza, Paraná, Ponte Preta and Santa Cruz for the broadcasting rights on cable television between 2019 and 2024, opposing Globo's SporTV channel. A decision on whether Palmeiras will be joining these teams is awaited.[54]

Flamengo and Corinthians, the two most supported teams in Brazil, receive approximately 25% (1/4) of all revenue from television.[55] Flamengo has the biggest budget, (R$115.1 million), and Figueirense the smallest (R$18.5 million).[56]

AttendanceEdit

The audience of the Campeonato Brasileiro Série A is low if put into consideration the popularity of football in the country. Since the first data record, in 1967, each year the average attendance has fluctuated, more down than up, having the season of 1983 as the largest, averaging 22,953, and 2004 as the smallest, with a very low average of 7,556.[57] The league is the second largest in attendance in South America, behind Argentina, with 18,817.

In a most obtrusive comparison, with other leagues of football, the Campeonato Brasileiro Série A figure only in fourteenth position, being overcome by the lower divisions in England and Germany. The smallest attendance ever was a game between Juventude and Portuguesa in 1997 with 55 fans, the largest was Flamengo and Santos in 1983 with 155,523.[58]

The attendance of 2014 season was 16,337 with average occupation of 40%.[59] In this same year, the average price of the ticket was $12.82, taking the games with an average income of $204,799.[60]

The spectator figures for league for the last nine seasons:

Season Overall Average Best supported club Average Highest attendance
2009 6,764,380 17,801 Flamengo 41,553[61] 78,639 (Flamengo 2-1 Grêmio)
2010 5,638,806 14,839 Corinthians 27,446 76,205 (Vasco da Gama 2–2 Fluminense)
2011 5,572,673 14,664 29,328 63,871 (São Paulo 1-2 Flamengo)
2012 4,928,827 13,148 25,222 62,207 (São Paulo 2-1 Náutico)
2013 5,681,551 14,951 Cruzeiro 28,911 63,501 (Santos 0-0 Flamengo)
2014 6,208,190 16,337 29,678 58,627 (São Paulo 2−0 Cruzeiro)
2015 6,376,693 17,050 Corinthians 34,150 67,011 (Flamengo 0−2 Coritiba)
2016 5,975,926 15,809 Palmeiras 32,684 54,996 (São Paulo 2−2 Chapecoense)
2017 6,238,797 16,418 Corinthians 40,043 50,116 (Grêmio 0−1 Corinthians)
2018 7,584,444 19,959 Flamengo 50,965 62,994 (Flamengo 1−2 Atlético Paranaense)

PlayersEdit

Player recordsEdit

Notes:

  • All players are Brazilian unless otherwise noted,
  • Italics denotes players still playing professional football, and bold denotes players still playing in the Brazilian Série A.[64]
  • Sources: Placar magazine - Guia do Brasileirão 2010[65] and GloboEsporte.com Website.[66]

Awards and trophiesEdit

Prêmio Craque do Brasileirão is the league's official award. Placar magazine's Bola de Ouro is the oldest award, while the Troféu Osmar Santos and the Troféu João Saldanha are awards given by the newspaper Lance!.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Brazil 1959 Championship - Taça Brasil "tabela - brasileirão série a - GloboEsporte.com". globoesporte.com. Retrieved October 16, 2017.
  2. ^ a b Abril, Editora (October 16, 1970). "Exclusivo: Vai Mudar Tudo em Nosso Futebol". Placar (1094): 47, 60.
  3. ^ a b "Campeões brasileiros em cenário do tri" (in Portuguese). CBF. December 22, 2010. Retrieved July 23, 2014.
  4. ^ Assessoria CBF (November 27, 2016). "Palmeiras: nove vezes campeão brasileiro". cbf.com.br (in Portuguese).
  5. ^ "The strongest Leagues of the World of the 21st Century", Iffhs.de, retrieved August 12, 2013 Archived March 3, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ [1] Archived February 3, 2017, at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ Julio Bovi Diogo (December 27, 2015). "Brazil - List of Champions". RSSSF. Retrieved March 17, 2018.
  8. ^ Abril, Editora (October 1994). "História dos 100 Anos". Placar (1094): 47, 60.
  9. ^ Abril, Editora (December 11, 2001). "Placar Magazine". Editora Abril. Retrieved October 16, 2017 – via Google Books.
  10. ^ "CBF volta a reconhecer Sport como único campeão brasileiro de 1987". Globoesporte (in Portuguese). June 15, 2011. Retrieved April 28, 2019.
  11. ^ "Sport celebra 113 anos neste domingo". CBF (in Portuguese). Acessoria CBF. May 13, 2018. Retrieved April 28, 2019.
  12. ^ "Após derrota no STF, Flamengo estuda ir à Fifa por título de 1987". Folha de S.Paulo (in Portuguese). March 17, 2018. Retrieved April 28, 2019.
  13. ^ "Campeonato Brasileiro da Série A de 2013 - Regulamento Específico da Competicão" [2013 Serie A of Brazilian Championship - Specific Regulations of the Competition]. Confederação Brasileira de Futebol (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on July 9, 2013. Retrieved August 3, 2013.
  14. ^ Abril, Editora (June 2000). "30 Anos de Pura Confusão". Placar: 17.
  15. ^ "Petrobrás Brasileirão 2009". Culturafutebolistica.wordpress.com. August 30, 2009. Retrieved October 16, 2017.
  16. ^ "Documentários Brasileirão Petrobras virarão filme". Amambai Notícias. Retrieved October 16, 2017.
  17. ^ Lance!NET - Petrobrás pagará R$ 18 milhões ao ano até 2013 por Brasileirão Archived December 17, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  18. ^ "CBF divulga novo logotipo da Série A do Brasileirão com detalhes do troféu". Globoesporte.globo.com. Retrieved October 16, 2017.
  19. ^ "CBF apresenta logomarca do Brasileirão 2015 - Confederação Brasileira de Futebol". Cbf.com.br. Retrieved October 16, 2017.
  20. ^ "Brasileirão tem novo title sponsor: Assaí Atacadista". Cbf.com.br. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  21. ^ "European football market grows by 11% to €19.4 billion in 2011/12". Mynewsdesk.com. Retrieved October 16, 2017.
  22. ^ "O Valor de mercado dos 20 Clubes que disputam o Brasileirão – Série A 2013" [The marketing value of the 20 clubs disputing the 2013 Brasileirão]. Advanced Television (in Portuguese). May 21, 2013. Retrieved August 3, 2013.
  23. ^ "Coxa tem 13° elenco mais valioso da Série A; Furacão é o 14°" [Coxa has the 13th most valued club in Serie A; Furacão is 14th]. Banda B (in Portuguese). May 21, 2013. Archived from the original on September 21, 2013. Retrieved August 3, 2013.
  24. ^ "Football rights make record prices in LatAm". Advanced Television. February 26, 2013. Retrieved May 6, 2016.
  25. ^ Mike Ozanian (April 17, 2013). "Soccer's Most Valuable Teams: At $3.3 Billion, Real Madrid Knocks Manchester United From Top Spot". Forbes. Forbes. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
  26. ^ "Roberto Gomes Pedrosa Tournament All-Time Ranking". RSSSF Brasil (in Portuguese). January 20, 2011. Retrieved August 3, 2018.
  27. ^ "RANKING HISTÓRICO 1971 - 2015". Bola Na Área (in Portuguese). January 20, 2016. Retrieved August 3, 2018.
  28. ^ phttp://torcedores.com/noticias/2015/09/brasileirao-saiba-quanto-seu-clube-ganha-de-dinheiro-da-tv-globo][dead link]
  29. ^ phttp://torcedores.com/noticias/2016/05/brasileirao-2016-veja-quanto-o-seu-clube-ira-receber-em-dinheiro-da-tv-globo][dead link]
  30. ^ "Octávio diz que CBF está 'quebrada', Brasileiro 87 pode ser regionalizado – Página 17". Acervo.folha.com.br.
  31. ^ "Campeonato começa sob o signo da confusão – página: 27".
  32. ^ "Baú da TV: Relembre como era o futebol no SBT". Torcedores.com. September 3, 2014. Retrieved October 16, 2017.
  33. ^ "Nabi na presidência desafia Clube dos 13 – Página 32". July 15, 1987.
  34. ^ "Clube dos 13. A UDR do futebol. – Página 28". July 16, 1987.
  35. ^ "Brazilian Championship 1987". Rsssfbrasil.com.
  36. ^ a b O Curioso do Futebol - Corinthians 1 x 0 São Paulo, final do Campeonato Brasileiro de 1990 (Rede Bandeirantes)
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