Fluminense FC

Fluminense Football Club (Brazilian Portuguese: [flumiˈnẽsi futʃiˈbɔw ˈklubi]), known as Fluminense, is a Brazilian sports club best known for its professional football team that competes in the Campeonato Brasileiro Série A, the first tier of Brazilian football and the Campeonato Carioca, the state league of Rio de Janeiro. The club is based in the neighbourhood of Laranjeiras since its foundation, in 1902. Fluminense is the oldest football club of Rio de Janeiro.

Fluminense fc logo.svg
Full nameFluminense Football Club
Fluzão (Big Flu)
Pó de Arroz (Rice Powder)
Time de Guerreiros (Team of Warriors)
Founded21 July 1902; 120 years ago (1902-07-21)
PresidentMário Bittencourt
Head coachFernando Diniz
LeagueCampeonato Brasileiro Série A
Campeonato Carioca
Série A, 3rd of 20
Carioca, 1st of 12 (champions)
WebsiteClub website
Current season

The club was founded on 21 July 1902 and Oscar Cox was its first elected president.[citation needed] Fluminense have since been crowned national champions four times, most recently in the 2012 Campeonato Brasileiro Série A, the team have also won the 2007 Copa do Brasil, the 1999 Campeonato Brasileiro Série C and the 1952 Intercontinental Cup. In 1949, Fluminense became the first football club in the world to receive the Olympic Cup, awarded annually by the International Olympic Committee to an institution or association with a record of merit and integrity in actively developing the Olympic Movement. Its best international performances are finishing runner-up in the 2008 Copa Libertadores and 2009 Copa Sudamericana.

Fluminense is a demonym for people indigenous to the state of Rio de Janeiro, in Brazil. Although football was its original endeavour, the club is today an umbrella organisation for several teams in more than 16 different sport activities.[citation needed]

Fluminense's traditional home kit consists of an iconic combination of three colors: garnet, white and green, disposal in vertical stripes, since its adoption, in 1904. Along with white shorts and white socks, an outfit which has been in use since 1920, that's the typical home kit for the Tricolor.

The club holds several long-standing rivalries with other clubs, most notably with Flamengo (Clássico Fla-Flu), as well as with Botafogo (Clássico Vovô) and Vasco da Gama (Clássico dos Gigantes). The Clássico Fla-Flu is widely considered the greatest football derby of Brazil, and host several attendance records, as the two highest attended matches in any football club tier, with almost 200.000 supporters in Maracanã.

The club is the birthplace of the Brazil national football team, which played its first game midst the celebrations of the 12th anniversary of the Club. In Fluminense's ground, the Stadium of Laranjeiras, the Canarinhos held their first ever match, scored their first ever goal and lifted their first ever trophy. Until today, the Club has contributed the fifth-most players to the national team among all Brazilian clubs.[2]


Fluminense Football Club was founded on 21 July 1902 in the neighbourhood of Laranjeiras in the city of Rio de Janeiro by a group of young football enthusiasts led by Oscar Cox, a Brazilian of English descent who had come into contact with the sport whilst studying in Europe.[3]

Oscar Cox, founder of Fluminense

The first official match was played against now defunct Rio Football Club, and Fluminense won 8–0.[4] The club's first title came in 1906, when Fluminense won the Campeonato Carioca.[4]

In 1911, disagreement between Fluminense players led to the formation of Flamengo's football team.[4] The so-called Fla-Flu derby is considered one of the biggest in the history of Brazilian football.[5] Three years later, in Fluminense's stadium, the Brazil national football team debuted, against touring English club Exeter City.[4] It was also there that they won their debut title, in 1919.[6]

By 1922, Fluminense had 4,000 members, a stadium for 25,000 people, and facilities that impressed clubs in Europe.[7]

The team that won its first Campeonato Carioca, in 1906
Preguinho, a Fluminense notable player

The following years saw an expansion of the club's hegemony in Rio. Fluminense would remain unsurpassed in terms of state championships until 2009.[8] International acclaim came in 1949 with the awarding of the Olympic Cup, and was further fostered in 1952 with Fluminense's World-wide honour, the Copa Rio. The club established itself regionally with victory in two Torneio Rio-São Paulo cups in 1957 and 1960.[4] National honors followed in 1970, 1984, 2010 and 2012 with Taça de Prata and Série A cups, respectively,[4] also taking the Cup in Brazil in 2007 and the Brasileirão Série C in 1999.

From the 1950s, with the creation of the Rio-São Paulo Tournament, the forerunner of what eventually would become the national championship, Fluminense established itself regionally by winning the tournament title in the years of 1957 and 1960.

Fluminense FC – team in 1960.

From the 1960s, the first national championships began to be played in Brazil. Fluminense's first national title came in 1970; at that time, Brazil had the best players in world football, and all of them played in Brazilian clubs. Although its squad was not counted among the main contenders of the season in Brazil, Fluminense won the Brazilian championship and surpassed the great strengths of the time in Santos, Palmeiras and Cruzeiro.

Stained glass windows in Fluminense's headquarters

In the 1970s, Fluminense signed several famous players like Roberto Rivellino. This time, called "Maquina Tricolor", they won the state championship in the years of 1975 and 1976. In the national championship, Fluminense lost in the semifinal matches to Internacional in 1975 and Corinthians in 1976.

Fluminense again became Brazilian champions in 1984. This time, they won the State Championship in the years of 1983, 1984, and 1985 with players like Romerito, Ricardo Gomes, Deley, and the "Casal Vinte": Assis and Washington.

At the end of the 1980s, Copa do Brasil was created, inspired by the Cup tournaments played in European countries. Fluminense reached the final of the Copa do Brasil for the first time in 1992, but lost to Internacional de Porto Alegre.

A disastrous campaign led to the club's relegation from Brasileirão Série A in 1996. A set of off-field political manoeuvres, however, not performed by Fluminense, allowed Fluminense to remain in Brazil's top domestic league,[9] only to be relegated the next year.[10] Completely out of control the club was relegated from Série B to Série C in 1998.[11] In 1999, Fluminense won the Série C championship and were to be promoted to Série B when they were invited to take part in Copa João Havelange,[12] a championship that replaced the traditional Série A in 2000. In 2001, it was decided that all clubs which took part in Copa João Havelange's so-called Blue Group should be kept in Série A.[13]

In 2002, 2005 and 2012, Fluminense won the Campeonato Carioca again. In 2005 Fluminense reached the final of the Copa do Brasil again, but lost to Paulista Futebol Clube.

In 2007, Fluminense won the Copa do Brasil, after beating Figueirense in the final, and was admitted to the Copa Libertadores again after 23 years.[4][14] The club's campaign saw them reach the final and included remarkable matches against Arsenal de Sarandí, São Paulo and Boca Juniors.[15][16][17] Fluminense lost the final to LDU Quito in a penalty shootout.[18]

After signing 27 players and going through 5 different managers in 2009, Fluminense found themselves struggling to avoid another relegation from Série A.[19] With less than one-third of the championship left, the mathematical probability of the club's relegation was 98%.[20] At this point, manager Cuca decided to dispense with some of the more experienced players and gave Fluminense's youngsters a chance.[21] That, along with Fred's recovery from a serious injury and substantial support from the fans, allowed not only a sensational escape from relegation, but also placed Fluminense in the final of the Copa Sudamericana.[22][23] For the second year in a row, the club contested a continental cup. In a repeat of the previous year's Copa Libertadores, Fluminense lost the final to LDU Quito.[24]

Washington Cerqueira before playing the 2008 Copa Libertadores final match

In 2010, Fluminense won the Brazilian championship for the third time in their history, marking their third national championship after 1970 and 1984. It was also the fourth title for coach Muricy Ramalho in a decade: Ramalho had won the title three times in a row with São Paulo from 2006 to 2008. Darío Conca was named the Brazilian Championship's Player of the Season, while Fred and Washington were decisive players in Fluminense's winning campaign.

On 23 May 2012, Fluminense lost the semifinal qualification match to Boca Juniors from Argentina, for the continental club football cup, Copa Libertadores.[25] Later that year, on 11 November, they won their fourth Brazilian championship after defeating the near-relegated Palmeiras 3–2.[26] Fluminense won the Série A for the fourth time on 11 November 2012.[27]

In December 2013, a draw with Bahia in the last round of the 2013 Campeonato Brasileiro Série A had Fluminense mathematically relegated to Série B. However, irregular lineups by Portuguesa and Fluminense's main rivals Flamengo in their matches against Grêmio and Cruzeiro respectively caused both teams to lose 4 points after a trial in STJD (Brazil's governing football jury). That allowed Fluminense to stay in Série A, with Portuguesa being relegated instead and Flamengo ending the championship as the last non-relegated club.

Seasons in league since 2003






















Rio-São Paulo Tournament in the Fluminense Trophy Room
Ball used in the first ever match of the Brazi national team at Fluminense
Fluminense shirt (2017-19)

Fluminense have taken part in 47 of the 49 official Serie A championships organized in Brazil since 1971.[28]

Year Position Participants Year Position Participants
1971 16 20 1981 11 44
1972 14 26 1982 5 44
1973 23 40 1983 18 44
1974 24 40 1984 1 41
1975 3 42 1985 22 44
1976 4 54 1986 6 48
1977 26 62 1987 7 16
1978 22 74 1988 3 24
1979 52 94 1989 15 22
1980 11 44 1990 15 20
Year Position Participants Year Position Participants
1991 4 20 2001 3 28
1992 14 20 2002 4 26
1993 28 32 2003 19 24
1994 15 24 2004 9 24
1995 4 24 2005 5 22
1996 23 24 2006 15 20
1997 25  26 2007 4 20
1998 19  (Série B) 24 2008 14 20
1999 1  (Série C) 36 2009 16 20
2000 3 25 2010 1 20
Year Position Participants Year Position Participants
2011 3 20 2018 12 20
2012 1 20 2019 14 20
2013 15 20 2020 5 20
2014 6 20 2021 7 20
2015 13 20 2022 3 20
2016 13 20
2017 14 20


Fluminense fans display a luminous mosaic in Maracanã.
Fans of Fluminense at the Maracanã

Highest attendances – Maracanã[29]Edit

  • 1. Fluminense 0-0 Flamengo, 1963 194,603 ¹
  • 2. Fluminense 3–2 Flamengo, 1969 171,599
  • 3. Fluminense 1–0 Botafogo, 1971 160,000
  • 4. Fluminense 0–0 Flamengo, 1976 155,116
  • 5. Fluminense 1–0 Flamengo, 1984 153,520
  • 6. Fluminense 1–1 Corinthians, 1976 146,043

¹: 177,656 paying, a record for persons present at Maracanã stadium.

Highest average attendance at public competition for FluminenseEdit

  • Largest average attendance in the Copa Libertadores (RJ): 52,801 (49,011 paying, 2008)
  • Largest average attendance in the Copa Sudamericana (RJ): 29,357 (27,318 paying, 2009)
  • Largest average attendance in international tournaments (RJ): 48,797 (37,541 paying, Copa Rio, 1952)
  • Largest average attendance in national championships (RJ): 43,541 paying (1976)
  • Largest average attendance in the Tournament Roberto Gomes Pedrosa (RJ): 40,408 paying (1970)
  • Largest average attendance in the Brazil Cup (RJ): 27,123 paying (2007)
  • Largest average attendance in the Rio-São Paulo Tournament (RJ): 33,018 paying (1960)
  • Largest average attendance in the state championship: 47,814 paying (1969, all stages)
  • Largest average attendance in the state championship in the Maracana Stadium: 93,560 paying (1969, 10 matches)


Fluminense supporters in 2017

The supporters of Fluminense Football Club are usually related to the upper classes of Rio de Janeiro.[30] However, the popularity of the club reaches beyond the city limits. Recent polls have estimated the number of supporters to be between 1.3% and 3.7% of the Brazilian population.[31] Considering a population of 185 million people,[32] that would account for numbers between 2.73 and 6.84 million.

The best attendance ever observed in a match of Fluminense was registered on 15 December 1963 in a rally against Flamengo. On that day, an impressive number of 194,000 people showed up at Maracanã stadium.[33] This occasion remains as the stadium's record for a match between clubs.[34]

Notable supporters of Fluminense include composers Cartola and Chico Buarque,[35][36] FIFA president of honor João Havelange,[5] musician Ivan Lins,[37] poet and actor Mário Lago,[38] journalist and songwriter Nelson Motta,[39] dramatist, journalist and writer Nelson Rodrigues,[39] 1970 FIFA World Cup winner Gérson, Chelsea central defender Thiago Silva, Left-back legend Marcelo, former Minister of Culture Gilberto Gil, Silvio Santos, the owner of SBT, the second largest Brazilian television network,[40] and the Academy Award nominee Fernanda Montenegro.[41]


Trophies room on Fluminense HQ
Competitions Titles Seasons
Copa Rio International 1 1952
Competitions Titles Seasons
Campeonato Brasileiro Série A[42] 4 1970, 1984, 2010, 2012
Copa do Brasil 1 2007
Campeonato Brasileiro Série C 1 1999
Competitions Titles Seasons
Torneio Rio – São Paulo[43] 2 1957, 1960
Primeira Liga do Brasil 1 2016
Competitions Titles Seasons
Campeonato Carioca 32 1906, 1907, 1908, 1909, 1911, 1917, 1918, 1919, 1924, 1936, 1937, 1938, 1940, 1941, 1946, 1951, 1959, 1964, 1969, 1971, 1973, 1975, 1976, 1980, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1995, 2002, 2005, 2012, 2022
Copa Rio State 1 1998

Chronology of Main TitlesEdit

Competition Season N.º
Campeonato Carioca 1906
Campeonato Carioca 1907
Campeonato Carioca 1908
Campeonato Carioca 1909
Campeonato Carioca 1911
Campeonato Carioca 1917
Campeonato Carioca 1918
Campeonato Carioca 1919
Campeonato Carioca 1924
Campeonato Carioca 1936 10º
Campeonato Carioca 1937 11º
Campeonato Carioca 1938 12º
Campeonato Carioca 1940 13º
Campeonato Carioca 1941 14º
Campeonato Carioca 1946 15º
Campeonato Carioca 1951 16º
Copa Rio International 1952 17º
Torneio Rio – São Paulo 1957 18º
Campeonato Carioca 1959 19º
Torneio Rio – São Paulo 1960 20º
Campeonato Carioca 1964 21º
Campeonato Carioca 1969 22º
Campeonato Brasileiro 1970 23º
Campeonato Carioca 1971 24º
Campeonato Carioca 1973 25º
Campeonato Carioca 1975 26º
Campeonato Carioca 1976 27º
Campeonato Carioca 1980 28º
Campeonato Carioca 1983 29º
Campeonato Brasileiro 1984 30º
Campeonato Carioca 1984 31º
Campeonato Carioca 1985 32º
Campeonato Carioca 1995 33º
Campeonato Carioca 2002 34º
Campeonato Carioca 2005 35º
Copa do Brasil 2007 36º
Campeonato Brasileiro 2010 37º
Campeonato Carioca 2012 38º
Campeonato Brasileiro 2012 39º
Primeira Liga do Brasil 2016 40º
Campeonato Carioca 2022 41º

Source: Official website of the club [1].

Fluminense main derbiesEdit

  • Fla-Flu Derby, also called Derby of Crowds ('Clássico das Multidões'),[44] played with Flamengo;
  • Giants' Derby ('Clássico dos Gigantes'); played with Vasco da Gama;
  • Grandpa Derby ('Clássico Vovô'), played with Botafogo. The name comes from being the two oldest practicing football clubs among the great clubs of Rio de Janeiro, and this is also the oldest classic in Brazil, because its first game was on October 22, 1905, friendly that the Fluminense won by 6–0.

According to the fluzao.info site, the average paying public at the principal classics of Fluminense played in the Estádio do Maracanã is 60,107 against Flamengo, 43,735 against Vasco, 34,359 against Botafogo, 25,127 against America and 22,527 against Bangu (1950-2010). These statistics could be about 20% higher, given the issues of the distribution of gratuities at Maracanã.[45]

Corinthians vs Fluminense, interstate derby

The derby against Corinthians is perhaps the most representative among the various confrontations with big Brazilian clubs played by Fluminense, given the fact that these clubs often intersect at decisive moments in their seasons.[46]


Fluminense idols honored by the club (1902-2002)

Players with most appearancesEdit

Name Matches
1st   Castilho 699
2nd   Pinheiro 603
3rd   Telê Santana 556
4th   Altair 549
5th   Escurinho (footballer, born 1930) 490
6th   Rubens Galaxe 462
7th   Denílson 433
8th   Gum 414
9th   Assis (footballer, born 1943) 424
10th   Waldo 403

Top goalscorersEdit

Waldo in Maracanã.
Name Goals Years
1st   Waldo 319 1954–61
2nd   Fred 199 2009-16 / 2020-22
3rd   Orlando Pingo de Ouro 184 1945-55
4th   Hércules 165 1935–42
5th   Telê Santana 164 1950–61
6th   Henry Welfare 163 1913–23
7th   Russo 149 1933–44
8th   Preguinho 128 1925–39
9th   Washington César 124 1983–89
10th   Magno Alves 121 1998–2002 / 2015-2016

Coaches with most gamesEdit

Coaches featured in the Club Trophy Room
Name Matches
1st   Zezé Moreira 467
2nd   Abel Braga 354
3rd   Ondino Viera 300
4th   Renato Gaúcho 202
5th   Tim 166
6th   Nelsinho Rosa 156
7th   Carlos Alberto Parreira 146
8th   Sylvio Pirillo 138
9th   Luís Vinhaes 137
10th   Paulo Emílio 126

Correct as of April 6, 2022


Companies that Fluminense Football Club currently has sponsorship deals with include:


Current squadEdit

As of 9 August 2022[48]

Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Pos. Nation Player
1 GK   BRA Marcos Felipe
2 DF   BRA Samuel Xavier
3 DF   BRA Matheus Ferraz
5 MF   BRA Wellington
6 DF   ECU Mario Pineida (on loan from Barcelona SC)
7 MF   BRA André
8 MF   BRA Nonato (on loan from Internacional)
10 MF   BRA Paulo Henrique Ganso
11 MF   URU Michel Araújo
12 GK   BRA Fábio
13 MF   BRA Nathan (on loan from Atlético Mineiro)
14 FW   ARG Germán Cano
15 DF   BRA Cris Silva
16 FW   BRA Marrony (on loan from Midtjylland)
17 FW   BRA Willian
No. Pos. Nation Player
18 FW   CHN Alan
20 MF   BRA Yago Felipe
21 MF   COL Jhon Arias
22 GK   BRA Pedro Rangel
23 FW   BRA John Kennedy
26 DF   BRA Manoel
29 DF   BRA David Duarte
31 DF   BRA Calegari
33 DF   BRA Nino (captain)
37 FW   BRA Matheus Martins
38 MF   BRA Martinelli
40 DF   BRA Luan Freitas
44 DF   BRA David Braz
52 MF   BRA Felipe Melo
70 FW   BRA Caio Paulista

Reserve teamEdit

Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Pos. Nation Player
19 FW   BRA Alexandre Jesus
24 GK   BRA Gustavo Ramalho
35 MF   BRA Alexsander
No. Pos. Nation Player
42 DF   BRA Wisney
FW   BRA João Neto
FW   BRA Samuel Granada

Out on loanEdit

Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Pos. Nation Player
DF   BRA Danilo Barcelos (on loan at Goiás until 31 December 2022)
DF   BRA Frazan (on loan at CRB until 30 November 2022)
DF   BRA Rai (on loan at Confiança until 30 November 2022)
MF   BRA Caio Vinícius (on loan at Goiás until 31 December 2022)
MF   BRA Gabriel Teixeira (on loan at Grêmio until 30 November 2022)
MF   BRA Gustavo Apis (on loan at CRB until 30 November 2022)
No. Pos. Nation Player
MF   BRA Mateus Nascimento (on loan at Náutico until 30 November 2022)
MF   BRA Wallace (on loan at Náutico until 30 November 2022)
MF   BRA Yuri (on loan at Juventude until 30 November 2022)

First-team staffEdit

As of 30 November 2022
Position Name Nationality
Head coach Fernando Diniz   Brazilian
Assistant coaches Marcão   Brazilian
Aílton Ferraz   Brazilian
Edevaldo de Freitas   Brazilian
Technical assistant Marco Salgado   Brazilian
Fitness coaches Marcos Seixas   Brazilian
Marcelo Chirol   Brazilian
Gabriel Pinho   Brazilian
Jefferson Souza   Brazilian
Flávio Vignoli   Brazilian
Goalkeeper coaches André Carvalho   Brazilian
João Carlos Gonçalves   Brazilian
Josmiro de Góes   Brazilian

Head coachesEdit

See alsoEdit



  1. ^ http://secure.rio2016.com/maracana/o-novo-estadio-do-maracana-tera-capacidade-para-78639-espectadores[permanent dead link]
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  3. ^ "How football conquered Brazil". 18 May 2009. Retrieved 11 June 2009.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g "Fluminense – Forever Flu". Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA). Archived from the original on 11 June 2009. Retrieved 7 June 2009.
  5. ^ a b "Passion, carnival and crazy goals". Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA). 13 July 2001. Archived from the original on 26 February 2008. Retrieved 10 June 2009.
  6. ^ "Southamerican Championship 1919". Rec. Sport. Soccer Statistics Foundation (RSSSF). Retrieved 11 June 2009.
  7. ^ Mason, Tony (1995). Passion of the people? Football in South America. Verso. p. 54. ISBN 978-0-86091-403-7. Retrieved 10 June 2009.
  8. ^ "Fla consolida supremacia com seis títulos na década". Jornal O Dia (in Portuguese). 4 May 2009. Archived from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 11 June 2009.
  9. ^ "Santos and sinners". When Saturday Comes (WSC). February 2003. Archived from the original on 4 November 2011. Retrieved 12 June 2009.
  10. ^ "Brazil 1997 Championship". Rec. Sport. Soccer Statistics Foundation (RSSSF). Retrieved 4 December 2009.
  11. ^ "Brazil 1998 Championship - Second Level (Série B)". Rec. Sport. Soccer Statistics Foundation (RSSSF). Retrieved 4 December 2009.
  12. ^ "Brazil 1999 Third Level (Série C)". Rec. Sport. Soccer Statistics Foundation (RSSSF). Retrieved 4 December 2009.
  13. ^ "Brazil 2001 Championship". Rec. Sport. Soccer Statistics Foundation (RSSSF). Retrieved 4 December 2009.
  14. ^ "Fluminense volta à Libertadores após 23 anos". UOL Esporte (in Portuguese). 6 June 2007. Retrieved 12 June 2009.
  15. ^ "Flu massacra Arsenal em noite de gala". globoesporte.com (in Portuguese). 5 March 2008. Retrieved 12 June 2009.
  16. ^ "Flu leva a melhor no Maraca e está na semifinal da Taça Libertadores". globoesporte.com (in Portuguese). 21 May 2008. Retrieved 12 June 2009.
  17. ^ Leach, Conrad (6 June 2008). "Flu flay Boca as Brazilians fly into final". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 12 June 2009.
  18. ^ Duarte, Fernando (4 July 2008). "Fluminense in mourning after Maracana party turns to tears". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 12 June 2009.
  19. ^ "Balcão de negócios e alta rotatividade ajudam a explicar desespero do Flu". globoesporte.com (in Portuguese). 5 October 2009. Retrieved 14 December 2009.
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  21. ^ "Por xeque-mate contra queda, Cuca celebra troca de peças no Tricolor". globoesporte.com (in Portuguese). 4 November 2009. Retrieved 14 December 2009.
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  25. ^ "Fluminense está eliminado da Libertadores". Bagarai.com (in Portuguese). Retrieved 23 May 2012.
  26. ^ Danilo Lavieri, Danilo; Rodrigues, Renan (11 November 2012). "Fluminense vence com gols de Fred, vira tetra brasileiro e deixa Palmeiras a um jogo da queda". UOL Esportes (in Portuguese). Presidente Prudente. Retrieved 11 November 2012.
  27. ^ "Fluminense crowned champions". Goal.com. 12 November 2012. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
  28. ^ "RECORDS OF FLUMINENSE IN MAJOR COMPETITIONS" (in Portuguese). Rec. Sport. Soccer Statistics Foundation (RSSSF). Retrieved 11 June 2009.
  30. ^ "Perfil dos torcedores do Rio". Jornal O Globo (in Portuguese). Retrieved 7 June 2009.
  31. ^ "Brazilian Clubs with Most Fans". RSSSF Brazil. Retrieved 10 July 2009.
  32. ^ "Contagem da População 2007" (PDF) (in Portuguese). Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE). 21 December 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 February 2009. Retrieved 10 June 2009.
  33. ^ "Best attendances in matches of Fluminense". Rec. Sport. Soccer Statistics Foundation (RSSSF). Retrieved 12 June 2009.
  34. ^ "Best Attendances in Brazil" (in Portuguese). Rec. Sport. Soccer Statistics Foundation (RSSSF). Retrieved 12 June 2009.
  35. ^ "Brasil está em débito com Cartola". O Estado de S. Paulo (in Portuguese). 27 December 2000. Retrieved 12 June 2009.
  36. ^ Hunt, Jemima (18 July 2004). "The lionised king of Rio". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 10 June 2009.
  37. ^ "Tricolor Skylab se desespera com show na mesma hora da final em Quito". globoesporte.com (in Portuguese). 25 June 2008. Retrieved 12 June 2009.
  38. ^ "MST e Fluminense presentes na última homenagem a Mário Lago". Jornal do Brasil Online (in Portuguese). 31 May 2002. Retrieved 12 June 2009.
  39. ^ a b Motta, Nelson; Gueiros, Pedro (2004). Fluminense: a breve e gloriosa história de uma máquina de jogar bola (in Portuguese). Rio de Janeiro: Geração Editorial. pp. 1–9. ISBN 978-85-00-01574-8. Retrieved 10 June 2009.
  40. ^ "Fluminense homenageia grandes torcedores". Terra (in Portuguese). 17 December 2001. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
  41. ^ "Fernanda Montenegro leva os netos ao Engenhão". Extra (in Portuguese). 11 December 2010. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
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  43. ^ "Torneio Rio-São Paulo – List of Champions". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. Archived from the original on 6 March 2010. Retrieved 16 March 2010.
  44. ^ Livro "Fla-Flu... E as Multidões Despertaram", de Nélson Rodrigues e Mário Filho (Edição Europa, 1987).
  45. ^ "Estatísticas Fluminense". Retrieved 21 July 2015.
  46. ^ GloboEsporte.com (10 July 2012). "Corinthians é visto como o maior rival no futebol nacional, diz pesquisa (apontando as principais rivalidades para cada clube, não a importância dos clássicos)". GloboEsporte.com. Retrieved 15 June 2017.
  47. ^ Lance! newspaper - Em meio à críticas e quase barração, Gum chega a 350 jogos pelo Tricolor - in portuguese.
  48. ^ "Elenco". Fluminense's official professional roster. Retrieved 2 February 2018.

External linksEdit