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The Maracanã Stadium (Portuguese: Estádio do Maracanã, standard Brazilian Portuguese: [esˈtadʒi.u du maɾakɐˈnɐ̃], local pronunciation: [iʃˈtadʒu du mɐˌɾakɐˈnɐ̃]), officially Estádio Jornalista Mário Filho (IPA: [iʃˈtadʒ(i)u ʒoʁnaˈliʃtɐ ˈmaɾi.u ˈfiʎu]), is a football stadium in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The stadium is part of a complex that includes an arena known by the name of Maracanãzinho, which means "The Little Maracanã" in Portuguese. Owned by the Rio de Janeiro state government, it is, as is the Maracanã neighborhood where it is located, named after the Rio Maracanã, a now canalized river in Rio de Janeiro.

Estádio Jornalista Mário Filho
Maracanã Stadium
Maracanã 2014 e.jpg
Aerial view of the Maracanã complex in 2014, with the stadium visible at top and the Maracanãzinho at left
Former names Estádio do Maracanã (1950-1966)[1]
Location Maracanã, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Coordinates 22°54′43.80″S 43°13′48.59″W / 22.9121667°S 43.2301639°W / -22.9121667; -43.2301639Coordinates: 22°54′43.80″S 43°13′48.59″W / 22.9121667°S 43.2301639°W / -22.9121667; -43.2301639
Public transit Maracanã Station: SuperVia/Rio de Janeiro Metro
Owner State of Rio de Janeiro
Operator Complexo Maracanã Entretenimento S.A. (Odebrecht, IMX, AEG)
Capacity 78,838[2]
Record attendance 199,854 (16 July 1950)
Field size 105 m × 68 m (344 ft × 223 ft)
Surface Grass
Construction
Broke ground 2 August 1948
Opened 16 June 1950
Renovated 2000, 2006, 2013
Architect Waldir Ramos, Raphael Galvão, Miguel Feldman, Oscar Valdetaro, Pedro Paulo B. Bastos, Orlando Azevedo, Antônio Dias Carneiro
Tenants
Brazil national football team (1950–present)
Fluminense (1950–present)

The stadium was opened in 1950 to host the FIFA World Cup, in which Brazil was beaten 2–1 by Uruguay in the deciding game. Since then, it has mainly been used for football matches between the major football clubs in Rio de Janeiro, including Flamengo, Fluminense, Botafogo and Vasco da Gama. It has also hosted a number of concerts and other sporting events.

The total attendance at the last (and indeed decisive game, but not a Final) game of the 1950 FIFA World Cup was 199,854, making it the world's largest stadium by capacity (when it was inaugurated). After its 2010–13 renovation, the rebuilt stadium currently seats 78,838 spectators, making it the largest stadium in Brazil and the second in South America after Estadio Monumental in Peru.[3] It was the main venue of the 2007 Pan American Games, hosting the football tournament and the opening and closing ceremonies. The Maracanã was partially rebuilt in preparation for the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup, and the 2014 World Cup, for which it hosted several matches, including the final. It also served as the venue for the opening and closing ceremonies of the 2016 Summer Olympics and Paralympics, with the main track and field events taking place at the Estádio Olímpico João Havelange.

Contents

NameEdit

The official name of the stadium, Mário Filho, was given in honor of an old Pernambucan journalist, (the brother of Nelson Rodrigues), who was a strong vocal supporter of the construction of the Maracanã.

The stadium's popular name is derived from the Maracanã River, whose point of origin is in the jungle-covered hills to the west, crossing various bairros (neighborhoods) of Rio's Zona Norte (North Zone), such as Tijuca and São Cristóvão, via a drainage canal which features sloping sides constructed of concrete. Upon flowing into the Canal do Mangue, it empties into Guanabara Bay. The name "Maracanã" derives from the indigenous Tupi–Guarani word for a type of parrot which inhabited the region. The stadium construction was prior to the formation of the later Maracanã neighborhood, that was once part of Tijuca.

HistoryEdit

ConstructionEdit

After winning the right to host the 1950 FIFA World Cup, the Brazilian government sought to build a new stadium for the tournament. The construction of Maracanã was criticized by Carlos Lacerda, then Congressman and political enemy of the mayor of the city, general Ângelo Mendes de Morais, for the expense and for the chosen location of the stadium, arguing that it should be built in the West Zone neighborhood of Jacarepaguá. At the time, a tennis stadium stood in the chosen area. Still it was supported by journalist Mário Filho, and Mendes de Morais was able to move the project forward. The competition for the design and construction was opened by the municipality of Rio de Janeiro in 1947, with the construction contract awarded to engineer Humberto Menescal, and the architectural contract awarded to seven Brazilian architects, Michael Feldman, Waldir Ramos, Raphael Galvão, Oscar Valdetaro, Orlando Azevedo, Pedro Paulo Bernardes Bastos, and Antônio Dias Carneiro.[4]

The first cornerstone was laid at the site of the stadium on 2 August 1948.[5] With the first World Cup game scheduled to be played on 24 June 1950, this left a little under two years to finish construction. However, work quickly fell behind schedule, prompting FIFA to send Dr. Ottorino Barassi, the head of the Italian FA, who had organized the 1934 World Cup, to help in Rio de Janeiro. A work force of 1,500 constructed the stadium, with an additional 2,000 working in the final months. Despite the stadium having come into use in 1950, the construction was only fully completed in 1965.

Opening and 1950 FIFA World CupEdit

 
Postage stamp featuring the Maracanã, commemorating the 1950 FIFA World Cup.

The opening match of the stadium took place on 16 June 1950. Rio de Janeiro All-Stars beat São Paulo All-Stars 3–1; Didi became the player to score the first ever goal at the stadium. While the major part of the stadium was finished, it still looked like a construction site; it lacked toilet facilities and a press box. Brazilian officials claimed it could seat over 200,000 people, while the Guinness Book of World Records estimated it could seat 180,000 and other sources pegged capacity at 155,000. What is beyond dispute is that Maracanã overtook Hampden Park as the largest stadium in the world.[6] Despite the stadium's unfinished state, FIFA allowed matches to be played at the venue, and on 24 June 1950, the first World Cup match took place, with 81,000 spectators in attendance.

In that first match for which Maracanã had been built, Brazil beat Mexico with a final score 4–0, with Ademir becoming the first scorer of a competitive goal at the stadium with his 30th-minute strike. Ademir had two goals in total, plus one each from Baltasar and Jair. The match was refereed by Englishman George Reader. Five of Brazil's six games at the tournament were played at Maracanã (the exception being their 2–2 draw with Switzerland in São Paulo). Eventually, Brazil progressed to the final round, facing Uruguay in the match (part of a round-robin final phase) that turned out to be the tournament-deciding match on 16 July 1950. Brazil only needed a draw to finish as champion, but Uruguay won the game 2–1, shocking and silencing the massive crowd. This defeat on home soil instantly became a significant event in Brazilian history, being known popularly as the Maracanazo. The official attendance of the final game was 199,854, with the actual attendance estimated to be about 210,000.[7][8] In any case, it was the largest crowd ever to see a football game—a record that is highly unlikely to be threatened in an era when most international matches are played in all-seater stadiums. At the time of the World Cup, the stadium was mostly grandstands with no individual seats.

Stadium completion and post-World Cup yearsEdit

Original configuration of the Maracanã from 1950 to 2010, featuring a two-tier bowl and solid-colour seating. (left: Exterior view, 2009. right: interior view looking towards the southern end, 2007.)

Since the World Cup in 1950, Maracanã Stadium has mainly been used for club games involving four major football clubs in RioVasco, Botafogo, Flamengo and Fluminense. The stadium has also hosted numerous domestic football cup finals, most notably the Copa do Brasil and the Campeonato Carioca. On 21 March 1954, a new official attendance record was set in the game between Brazil and Paraguay, after 183,513 spectators entered the stadium with a ticket and 194,603 (177,656 p.) in Fla-Flu (1963). In 1963, stadium authorities replaced the square goal posts with round ones, but it was still two years before the stadium would be fully completed. In 1965, 17 years after construction began, the stadium was finally finished. In September 1966, upon the death of Mário Rodrigues Filho, the Brazilian journalist, columnist, sports figure, and prominent campaigner who was largely responsible for the stadium originally being built, the administrators of the stadium renamed the stadium after him: Estádio Jornalista Mário Rodrigues Filho. However, the nickname of Maracanã has continued to be used as the common referent. In 1969, Pelé scored the 1,000th goal of his career at Maracanã, against CR Vasco da Gama in front of 65,157 spectators.[9]

In 1989 the stadium hosted the games of the final round of the Copa America; in the same year, Zico scored his final goal for Flamengo at the Maracanã, taking his goal tally at the stadium to 333, a record that still stood as of 2011. An upper stand in the stadium collapsed on 19 July 1992, in the second game of the finals of 1992 Campeonato Brasileiro Série A, between Botafogo vs. Flamengo, leading to the death of three spectators and injuring 50 others.[10] Following the disaster, the stadium's capacity was greatly reduced as it was converted to an all-seater stadium in the late 1990s. Despite this, the ground was classified as a national landmark in 1998, meaning that it could not be demolished.[citation needed] The stadium hosted the first ever FIFA Club World Cup final match between CR Vasco da Gama and Corinthians Paulista, which Corinthians won on penalties.

21st Century, renovations and 2014 FIFA World CupEdit

 
Panorama from inside the stadium during the closing ceremony of the 2014 FIFA World Cup

Following its 50th anniversary in 2000, the stadium underwent renovations which would increase its full capacity to around 103,000. After years of planning and nine months of closure between 2005 and 2006, the stadium was reopened in January 2007 with an all-seated capacity of 87,000.

For the 2014 World Cup and 2016 Olympics and Paralympics, a major reconstruction project was initiated in 2010. The original seating bowl, with a two-tier configuration, was demolished, giving way to a new one-tier seating bowl.[11] The original stadium's roof in concrete was removed and replaced with a fiberglass tensioned membrane coated with polytetra-fluoroethylene. The new roof covers 95% of the seats inside the stadium, unlike the former design, where protection was only afforded to some seats in the upper ring and the bleachers above the gate access of each sector. The old boxes, which were installed at a level above the stands for the 2000 FIFA Club World Cup, were dismantled in the reconstruction process. The new seats are colored yellow, blue and white, which combined with the green of the match field, form the Brazilian national colors. In addition, the grayish tone has returned as the main façade color of the stadium.

On 30 May 2013, a friendly game between Brazil and England scheduled for 2 June was called off by a local judge because of safety concerns related to the stadium. The government of Rio de Janeiro appealed the decision[12] and the game went ahead as originally planned, the final score being a 2–2 draw.[12][13] This match marked the reopening of the new Maracanã.[11]

On 12 June 2014, the 2014 FIFA World Cup opened with Brazil defeating Croatia 3–1, but that match was held in São Paulo. The first game of the World Cup to be held in Maracanã was a 2–1 victory by Argentina over Bosnia-Herzegovina on Sunday, 15 June 2014. Host Brazil ended up never playing a match in the Maracanã during the tournament, as they failed to reach the final after being eliminated in the semi-finals 7-1 by Germany. In the final, Germany defeated Argentina 1–0 in extra time.[14]

DisrepairEdit

 
Aerial photograph of Maracana's playing field in February 2017

The stadium laid dormant in the months after the 2016 Olympics and Paralympics, with photos surfacing in early 2017 of a dried up playing field covered in brown spots and missing turf, ripped-out seats, and damage to windows and doors. A debt of 3 million reals ($939,937 USD) to the local energy company led to power being shut off in Maracana. At heart of the issue is legal wrangling between the stadium's owner, operator and the organizing committee for the Rio Olympics over responsibility for maintaining the grounds. Maracana SA, the operator, charges that the Olympic committee did not return the venue in an acceptable condition, while the committee says the things they need to fix shouldn't keep Maracana from operating.[15]

Within six months of the games, daily tours of the stadium were halted due to vandalism at the stadium and violent robberies in the area. Items of value have been looted from the stadium including fire extinguishers, televisions and a bronze bust of journalist Mario Filho, for whom the stadium was named.[16][17]

New ManagersEdit

On 5 April 2017, the French group Lagardère signed an agreement to administer the Maracanã. In total, Lagardère will invest more than R$500 million by the end of the concession, won by Odebrecht in 2013 and valid until 2048.The Folha de São Paulo newspaper informed that the group estimates that it will need to spend about R$15 million on emergency reforms at the stadium. In 2013, the former managers Odebrecht together with AEG and IMX, a company owned by Brazilian billionaire Eike Batista, won the bid to manage the stadium for 35 years. The company was associated with Brazilian building company, OAS, and the Amsterdam Arena. At the time, Lagardère was in second place in the bidding.[18]

Non-football eventsEdit

International sports competitionsEdit

 
A scene from the opening ceremony of the 2007 Pan American Games.
 
The "Pindorama" segment during the 2016 Summer Olympics opening ceremony.

MusicEdit

  • To celebrate the 30th anniversary of the stadium, on 16 January 1980, Frank Sinatra performed to a crowd of 180,000.[20]
  • Both Tina Turner and Paul McCartney made the Guinness Book of World Records with performances at the stadium. Both concerts, in January 1988 (Break Every Rule Tour) and April 1990 (The Paul McCartney World Tour), respectively, attracted crowds of over 182,000 people.[21][22]
  • On 18 June 1983, KISS performed for 137,000 fans at the stadium, which marks the record attendance for the band. This and two other stadium shows in Brazil would be the last time KISS would perform in their signature makeup until the reunion of the original lineup at their Alive/Worldwide Tour in 1996. Kiss' concert was the first major performance by an international rock band at Maracanã.
  • From 18–27 January 1991, the stadium hosted the second edition of Rock in Rio, with Prince, Guns N' Roses, George Michael, INXS, a-ha and New Kids on the Block as headliners.
  • Sting, Madonna and the Rolling Stones are the only international pop stars to have played dates at Maracanã on different occasions. Sting opened his ...Nothing Like the Sun world tour at the stadium on 20 November 1987. Approximately 20 years later, on 8 December 2007, he performed there again with The Police. Madonna played the venue on 6 November 1993, with the Girlie Show in front of 120,000 people, and then again 15 years later on 14 and 15 December 2008, as part of the Sticky & Sweet Tour, selling over 107,000 tickets. The 1995 edition of the Hollywood Rock festival consisted of two concerts by The Rolling Stones at the stadium, on February 2 and 4. The band performed at Maracanã again on February 20, 2016.
  • On 25 January 2015, Foo Fighters played a concert at Maracanã Stadium during their Sonic Highways World Tour in front of 45,000 people. It was the first music concert held at the stadium since it was rebuilt.

A new show is scheduled to 25 february 2017

MiscellaneousEdit

Tournament resultsEdit

1950 FIFA World CupEdit

Date Time (UTC-03) Team #1 Res. Team #2 Round Attendance
24 June 1950 15:00   Brazil 4–0   Mexico Group 1 82,000
25 June 1950 15:00   England 2–0   Chile Group 2 30,000
29 June 1950 15:00   Spain 2–0   Chile Group 2 16,000
1 July 1950 15:00   Brazil 2–0   Yugoslavia Group 1 142,000
2 July 1950 15:00   Spain 1–0   England Group 2 74,000
9 July 1950 15:00   Brazil 7–1   Sweden Final Round 139,000
13 July 1950 15:00   Brazil 6–1   Spain Final Round 153,000
16 July 1950 15:00   Uruguay 2–1   Brazil Final Round 199,854

1989 Copa AméricaEdit

Date Time (UTC-03) Team #1 Res. Team #2 Round Attendance
12 July 1989   Uruguay 3–0   Paraguay 1989 Copa America - Final Round 100,135
12 July 1989   Brazil 2–0   Argentina 1989 Copa America - Final Round 100,135
14 July 1989   Uruguay 2–0   Argentina 1989 Copa America - Final Round 53,909
14 July 1989   Brazil 3–0   Paraguay 1989 Copa America - Final Round 53,909
16 July 1989   Argentina 0–0   Paraguay 1989 Copa America - Final Round 148,068
16 July 1989   Brazil 1–0   Uruguay 1989 Copa America - Final Round 148,068

2013 FIFA Confederations CupEdit

Date Time (UTC-03) Team #1 Res. Team #2 Round Attendance
16 June 2013 16:00   Mexico 1–2   Italy Group A 73,123
20 June 2013 16:00   Spain 10–0   Tahiti Group B 71,806
30 June 2013 19:00   Brazil 3–0   Spain Final 73,531

2014 FIFA World CupEdit

Date Time (UTC-03) Team #1 Res. Team #2 Round Attendance
15 June 2014 19:00   Argentina 2–1   Bosnia and Herzegovina Group F 74,393
18 June 2014 16:00   Spain 0–2   Chile Group B 74,101
22 June 2014 13:00   Belgium 1–0   Russia Group H 73,819
25 June 2014 17:00   Ecuador 0–0   France Group E 73,750
28 June 2014 17:00   Colombia 2–0   Uruguay Round of 16 73,804
4 July 2014 13:00   France 0–1   Germany Quarter-finals 73,965
13 July 2014 16:00   Germany 1–0 (a.e.t.)   Argentina Final 74,738

2016 Summer OlympicsEdit

Date Time (UTC-03) Team #1 Res. Team #2 Round Attendance
16 August 2016 13:00   Brazil 0–0 (3–4 pen.)   Sweden Women's Semifinal 70,454
17 August 2016 13:00   Brazil 6–0   Honduras Men's Semifinal 52,457
19 August 2016 17:30   Sweden 1–2   Germany Women's Gold Medal Match 52,432
20 August 2016 17:30   Brazil 1–1 (5–4 pen.)   Germany Men's Gold Medal Match 63,707

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Estádio Jornalista Mário Filho referred to as Maracanã". 
  2. ^ http://secure.rio2016.com/maracana/o-novo-estadio-do-maracana-tera-capacidade-para-78639-espectadores[permanent dead link]
  3. ^ "Maracanã fica mais moderno sem abrir mão de sua história" (in Portuguese). Estado de S. Paulo. Archived from the original on 22 September 2012. Retrieved 22 September 2012. 
  4. ^ "El fútbol vuelve al histórico Maracanã tras nueve meses de espera". El País (in Spanish). 22 January 2006. Retrieved 20 October 2008. 
  5. ^ "Soccer Hall: 1950 FIFA World Cup". soccerhall.org. Archived from the original on 30 March 2009. Retrieved 23 March 2007. 
  6. ^ "Sambafoot.com: Maracanã, the largest stadium of the world". Sambafoot.com. Retrieved 23 March 2007. 
  7. ^ "Futebol; the Brazilian way of life". Archived from the original on 17 March 2007. Retrieved 23 March 2007. 
  8. ^ "Sambafoot.com: Maracanã, the largest stadium of the world (part 2)". sambafoot.com. p. 2. Retrieved 23 March 2007. 
  9. ^ [Book Almanaque do Santos]
  10. ^ "Sports Disasters". Retrieved 23 March 2007. 
  11. ^ a b [1]
  12. ^ a b "Brazil v England suspended over Maracanã safety concerns". BBC Sport. 30 May 2013. Retrieved 30 May 2013. 
  13. ^ "Brazil 2 England 2". Daily Mail. 2 June 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2013. 
  14. ^ 15 Biggest Stories of the 2014 FIFA World Cup
  15. ^ Why the legendary Maracana now looks like a ghost stadium
  16. ^ CNN, Flora Charner and Shasta Darlington. "How the Maracana became a 'ghost' stadium". CNN. 
  17. ^ sport, Guardian (9 February 2017). "Rio Olympic venues already falling into a state of disrepair". The Guardian. 
  18. ^ Grupo francês acerta compra da gestão do Maracanã
  19. ^ http://www.volleyball-movies.net/95000-fans-at-volleyball-match-m968/2
  20. ^ ">Х> FRANK SINATRA – Era uma vez um mito chamado Frank Sinatra >". Duplipensar.Net. 2005. Archived from the original on 27 May 2009. Retrieved 26 May 2009. 
  21. ^ Jet 8 February 1988 – Vol. 73, n. 19, p.60. ISSN 0021-5996
  22. ^ "One Year Ago: Internet Gives McCartney All-Time Largest Album Promo". E-Commerce Times. 14 December 2000. Retrieved 9 March 2010. 

External linksEdit

Events and tenants
Preceded by
Stade Olympique de Colombes
Paris
FIFA World Cup
Final Venue
(This match was the tournament-deciding game of a round-robin phase)

1950
Succeeded by
Wankdorf Stadium
Bern
Preceded by
Estadio Monumental
Buenos Aires
Copa América
Final Round Matches

1989
Succeeded by
Estadio Nacional de Chile
Santiago de Chile
Preceded by
None
FIFA Club World Cup
Final Venue

2000
Succeeded by
International Stadium Yokohama
Yokohama
Preceded by
Estadio Olímpico Juan Pablo Duarte
Santo Domingo
Pan American Games
Opening and Closing Ceremonies

2007
Succeeded by
Estadio Omnilife
Guadalajara
Preceded by
Ellis Park Stadium
Johannesburg
FIFA Confederations Cup
Final Venue

2013
Succeeded by
Piter Arena
Saint Petersburg
Preceded by
Soccer City
Johannesburg
FIFA World Cup
Final Venue

2014
Succeeded by
Luzhniki Stadium
Moscow
Preceded by
Olympic Stadium
London
Summer Olympics
Opening and Closing Ceremonies

2016
Succeeded by
Olympic Stadium
Tokyo
Preceded by
Wembley Stadium
London
Summer Olympics
Football Finals

2016
Succeeded by
Olympic Stadium
Tokyo