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Peru national football team

The Peru national football team is organised, since 1927, by the Peruvian Football Federation (FPF)[A] to represent Peru in international association football. The FPF constitutes one of the 10 members of FIFA's South American Football Confederation (CONMEBOL). Peru has won the Copa América twice and qualified for FIFA World Cup finals five times (last appearing in 2018); it also participated in the 1936 Olympic football competition and has reached the semifinals of the CONCACAF Gold Cup. The team plays most of its home matches at the Estadio Nacional in Lima, the country's capital.

Peru
Shirt badge/Association crest
Nickname(s)La Blanquirroja
(The White and Red)
Los Incas
(The Incas)
AssociationPeruvian Football Federation (FPF)
ConfederationCONMEBOL
(South America)
Head coachRicardo Gareca
CaptainPaolo Guerrero[1]
Most capsRoberto Palacios (128)
Top scorerPaolo Guerrero (38)
Home stadiumEstadio Nacional
FIFA codePER
First colours
Second colours
FIFA ranking
Current 19 Steady (24 October 2019)[2]
Highest10 (October 2017)
Lowest91 (September 2009)
Elo ranking
Current 17 Decrease 3 (18 October 2019)[3]
Highest10 (March–June 2018)
Lowest76 (2009)
First international
 Peru 0–4 Uruguay 
(Lima, Peru; 1 November 1927)
Biggest win
 Peru 9–1 Ecuador 
(Bogotá, Colombia; 11 August 1938)
Biggest defeat
 Brazil 7–0 Peru 
(Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia; 26 June 1997)
World Cup
Appearances5 (first in 1930)
Best resultTop 8, 1970 (Quarterfinals) & 1978 (Round 2)
Copa América
Appearances29 (first in 1927)
Best resultChampions, 1939 and 1975
CONCACAF Gold Cup
Appearances1 (first in 2000)
Best resultSemifinals, 2000

The team is well-known for its white shirts adorned with a diagonal red stripe, which combine Peru's national colours. This basic design has been used continuously since 1936, and gives rise to the team's common Spanish nickname, la Blanquirroja ("the white-and-red").[4] Peruvian football fans are known for their distinctive cheer ¡Arriba Perú! ("Onward Peru!").[5] Peru has longstanding rivalries with Chile and Ecuador.[6]

The Peru national team enjoyed its most successful periods in the 1930s and the 1970s.[7] In the 1930s, Peru took part in the inaugural FIFA World Cup in 1930 and enjoyed victories in the 1938 Bolivarian Games and the 1939 Copa América, with goalkeeper Juan Valdivieso and forwards Teodoro Fernández and Alejandro Villanueva playing important roles. In the 1970s, Peru qualified for three World Cups and won the Copa América in 1975, attaining worldwide recognition; the team then notably included defender Héctor Chumpitaz and the forward partnership of Hugo Sotil and Teófilo Cubillas, often regarded as Peru's greatest player.

The national team's all-time top goalscorer is Paolo Guerrero, with 38 goals, and its most-capped player is Roberto Palacios, with 128 appearances.[8] Under manager Ricardo Gareca, Peru placed third at the 2015 Copa América, reached the quarterfinals of the Copa América Centenario, participated in the group stage of the 2018 FIFA World Cup finals, and earned second at the 2019 Copa América.

HistoryEdit

During the 19th century, British immigrants and Peruvians returning from England introduced football to Peru.[9] In 1859, members of the British community in the country's capital founded the Lima Cricket Club, Peru's first organization dedicated to the practice of cricket, rugby, and football.[B][11][12] These new sports became popular among the local upper-class over the following decades, but early developments stopped due to the War of the Pacific that Peru fought against Chile from 1879 to 1883. After the war, Peru's coastal society embraced football as a modern innovation.[13] In Lima's barrios, football became a popular daily activity, encouraged by bosses who wanted it to inspire solidarity and productivity among their workers.[14] In the adjacent port of Callao and other commercial areas, British civilian workers and sailors played the sport among themselves and with locals.[15][C] Sports rivalries between locals and foreigners arose in Callao, and between elites and workers in Lima—as foreigners departed, this became a rivalry between Callao and Lima.[9][17] These factors, coupled with the sport's rapid growth among the urban poor of Lima's La Victoria district (where, in 1901, the Alianza Lima club formed), led to Peru developing the Andean region's strongest footballing culture,[18] and, according to historian Andreas Campomar, "some of the most elegant and accomplished football on the continent".[19]

 
Peru's debut at the 1927 South American Championship in Lima.

The Peruvian Football League, founded in 1912, held annual competitions until it disbanded in 1921 amid disputes amongst its clubs.[20] The Peruvian Football Federation (FPF), formed in 1922, reorganised the annual tournament in 1926.[21] The FPF joined the South American Football Confederation (CONMEBOL) in 1925 and, after restructuring its finances, formed the Peru national football team in 1927.[22] The team debuted in the 1927 South American Championship, hosted by the FPF at Lima's Estadio Nacional.[15] Peru lost 0–4 against Uruguay in its first match, and won 3–2 over Bolivia in its second.[23] Peru did not advance beyond the first stage of the inaugural FIFA World Cup in 1930.[24]

The 1930s were the team's first golden era,[7] when they improved their game through play with more experienced teams.[19] The Combinado del Pacífico (a squad composed of Chilean and Peruvian footballers) toured Europe from 1933 to 1934.[D][19] Starting with Ciclista Lima in 1926, Peru's football clubs toured Latin America with much success.[25][26] During one of these tours—Alianza Lima's undefeated journey through Chile in 1935—emerged the Rodillo Negro ("Black Roller"), a skillful group led by forwards Alejandro Villanueva, Teodoro Fernández and goalkeeper Juan Valdivieso.[27] Sports historian Richard Witzig described these three as "a soccer triumvirate unsurpassed in the world at that time", citing their combined innovation and effectiveness at both ends of the field.[7] Peru and the Rodillo Negro impressed at the 1936 Summer Olympics, won the inaugural Bolivarian Games in 1938, and finished the decade as South American champions.[28][29]

Historian David Goldblatt assessed the decline of its previous success: "despite all the apparent preconditions for footballing growth and success, Peruvian football disappeared".[30] He attributes this sudden decline to Peruvian authorities' repression of "social, sporting and political organisations among the urban and rural poor" during the 1940s and 1950s.[30] Nevertheless, Peru performed creditably at the South American Championships, placing third in Brazil 1949 and Chile 1955, and missed qualification for the Sweden 1958 World Cup finals, over two legs to eventual champions Brazil.[31]

 
Oswaldo Ramírez scored the goals against Argentina that secured Peru's 1970 World Cup qualification.

Successes during the late 1960s, including qualification for the Mexico 1970 World Cup finals, ushered in a second golden period for Peruvian football.[7][32] The formidable forward partnership between Teófilo Cubillas and Hugo Sotil was a key factor in Peru's triumphs during the 1970s.[33] Peru reached the quarter-finals in 1970, losing to the tournament winners Brazil, and earned the first FIFA Fair Play Trophy;[34][35] historian Richard Henshaw describes Peru as "the surprise of the 1970 competition, showing flair and a high level of skill".[31] Five years later, Peru became South American champions for the second time when it won the 1975 Copa América (the then-rechristened South American Championship). The team next qualified for two consecutive World Cup finals, reaching the second round in Argentina 1978 and the first group stage in Spain 1982. Peru's early elimination in 1982 marked the end of the side's globally-admired "flowing football".[36] In spite of this, Peru barely missed the Mexico 1986 World Cup finals after placing second in a qualification group to eventual champions Argentina.[37]

Renewed expectations for Peru were centred on a young generation of Alianza Lima players known colloquially as Los Potrillos ("The Colts"). Sociologists Aldo Panfichi and Victor Vich write that Los Potrillos "became the hope of the entire country"—fans expected them to qualify for the Italy 1990 World Cup finals.[38] The national team entered a hiatus after its manager and several of its players died in a plane crash carrying most of Alianza's team and staff in 1987.[39] Peru subsequently only came close to reaching the France 1998 World Cup finals, missing qualification only on goal difference,[37] but would go on to win the 1999 Kirin Cup tournament in Japan (sharing the title with Belgium)[40] and reached the semifinals at the 2000 CONCACAF Gold Cup (contested as an invitee).[41]

Qualification for the FIFA World Cup finals continued being an elusive objective for Peru during the early 21st century.[37] According to historian Charles F. Walker, player indiscipline problems marred Peru's national team and football league.[42] Troubles in the FPF, particularly with its then-president Manuel Burga, deepened the crisis in Peruvian football—FIFA temporarily suspended the country from international competition, in late 2008, because the Peruvian government investigated alleged corruption within the FPF.[43][E] Nonetheless, Peru succeeded in winning the 2005 and 2011 Kirin Cup tournaments,[40] and earned third place in the 2011 Copa América.[45] In early 2015, businessman Edwin Oviedo became FPF president, succeeding Burga, whom two years later faced charges of racketeering, wire fraud, and money laundering in a football corruption trial in the United States.[46][47] The FPF's new leadership appointed Juan Carlos Oblitas as the federation's new director,[48] and Ricardo Gareca as Peru's manager in March 2015.[49] Under Gareca, Peru achieved third place in the 2015 Copa América, reached the quarterfinals of the Copa América Centenario, participated in the group stage of the Russia 2018 World Cup finals, and finished runners-up at the 2019 Copa América.[50][51]

KitEdit

The Peru national football team plays in red and white, Peru's national colours.[52] Its first-choice kit has been, since 1936, white shorts, white socks, and white shirts with a distinctive red "sash" crossing their front diagonally from the proper left shoulder to the right hip and returning on the back from the right hip to the proper left shoulder. This basic scheme has been only slightly altered over the years.[4]

 
Peru in 1968, wearing their traditional kit. The distinctive red "sash" has been emblazoned across Peru's white shirts continuously since 1936.

Peru's kit has won praise as one of world football's most attractive designs. Christopher Turpin, the executive producer of NPR's All Things Considered news show, lauded the 1970 iteration as "the beautiful game's most beautiful shirt", also describing it as "retro even in 1970".[53] Miles Kohrman, football reporter for The New Republic, commended Peru's kit as "one of soccer's best-kept secrets".[54] Rory Smith, Chief Soccer Correspondent for The New York Times, referred to Peru's 2018 version of the jersey as "a classic" with a nostalgic, fan-pleasing "blood-red sash".[55] The version worn in 1978 came first in a 2010 ESPN list of the "Best World Cup jerseys of all time", described therein as "simple yet strikingly effective".[56]

Peru's first kit, made for the 1927 South American Championship, comprised a white-and-red striped shirt, white shorts and black socks.[57] At the 1930 World Cup, Peru used an alternate design because Paraguay had already registered a similar kit with white-and-red striped shirts. The Peruvians instead wore white shirts with a red collar, white shorts and black socks.[57] The team added a horizontal red stripe to the shirt for the 1935 South American Championship. The following year, at the 1936 Berlin Olympics, the team adopted the iconic diagonal red sash design it has retained ever since.[4] According to historian Jaime Pulgar-Vidal Otálora, the idea for the design came from school football matches in which coloured sashes worn over the shoulder would allow two teams wearing white shirts to play against each other.[58]

Peru wears as its badge the emblem of the Peruvian Football Federation. The first badge, presented in 1927, had a heater shield design with the country's name and the federation's acronym (FPF). Eight different emblems followed, with the longest-lasting design being the modern French escutcheon form emblazoned in the team's jersey from 1953 until 2014. This design had the Peruvian flag at its base, and either the country's name or the federation's acronym at its chief. Since 2014, the badge has a retro-inspired heater shield design, with the entire field comprised by Peru's flag and the federation's acronym, surrounded by a gold-colored frame.[59]

Eight sportswear manufacturers have supplied Peru's national team. The first, the German company Adidas, supplied the team's kit in 1978 and 1983-1985. The FPF has signed contracts with manufacturers from Brazil (Penalty, 1981–82), Canada (Power, 1989-1991), Italy (Diadora, 1991-1992), England (Umbro, 1996-1997, 2010-2018), and another from Germany (Puma, 1987-1989). The team has also been supplied by three local firms: Calvo Sporwear (1986-1987), Polmer (1993-1995), and Walon Sport (1998-2010).[60][61] Since August 2018, the Ecuadorian Marathon Sports produce Peru's kit.[62]

StadiumEdit

Exterior of the Estadio Nacional in 2013.
Interior of the Estadio Nacional in 2011.

The traditional home of Peruvian football is the country's national stadium, the Estadio Nacional in Lima, which seats 45,000 spectators.[15] The present ground is the Estadio Nacional's third incarnation, renovated under the Alan García administration. Its official re-inauguration, 24 July 2011,[63] marked 88 years to the day after the original ground opened on the same site in 1923.[64]

To celebrate the centenary of Peru's independence from Spain, Lima's British community donated the original Estadio Nacional, a wooden structure with a capacity of 6,000.[64] Construction began on 28 July 1921, overseen by President Augusto B. Leguía.[65] The stadium's re-inauguration on 27 October 1952, under the Manuel A. Odría administration, followed an onerous campaign for its renovation led by Miguel Dasso, president of the Sociedad de Beneficencia de Lima.[66][67] The renovated stadium boasted a cement structure and larger spectator capacity of 53,000.[65] Its last redevelopment, in 2011, included the construction of a plaque-covered exterior, an internal multicoloured illumination system, two giant LED screens, and 375 private suites.[68][69]

A distinctive feature of the ground is the Miguel Dasso Tower on its north side, which contains luxury boxes (renovated in 2004).[66] The Estadio Nacional currently has a natural bermudagrass pitch, reinstalled as part of redevelopments completed in 2011. Previously, the FPF had installed artificial turf in the stadium for the 2005 FIFA U-17 World Championship, making it the only national stadium in CONMEBOL with such a turf.[70] Despite the synthetic ground's rating of "FIFA Star II", the highest certification granted to artificial pitches, players accused the turf of causing them injuries, such as burns and bruises.[71]

Peru sometimes play home matches at other venues. Outside the desert-like coast region of Lima, the thin atmosphere at the high-altitude Estadio Garcilaso de la Vega in Cusco has been described as providing strategic advantages for Peru against certain visiting teams.[72] Other common alternate venues for the national team include two other grounds in the Peruvian capital—Alianza's Estadio Alejandro Villanueva and Universitario's Estadio Monumental.[73][74]

The national team's training grounds are located within the Villa Deportiva Nacional (VIDENA) sports complex in Lima's San Luis district. Since 1981, the complex is managed by the Peruvian Institute of Sport (IPD).[75] In 2017, following Peru's qualification for the Russia 2018 World Cup finals, the Peruvian Football Federation announced the creation of a new complex, the Center of National Teams, in Lima's Chaclacayo district. The new complex will contain six training grounds for both the male and the female squads, including the senior and the youth sides.[76]

SupportersEdit

 
Giant poster in the town below Machu Picchu, featuring Edison Flores and the chant ¡Arriba Perú!

Football has been the most popular sport in Peru since the early 20th century.[77] Originally largely exclusive to Lima's Anglophile elite and expatriates, and secluded from the rest of the city,[78] football became an integral part of wider popular culture during the 1900s and 1910s. Over the following decades, Augusto Leguía's government institutionalised the sport into a national pastime by promoting and organising its development.[79] Consequently, the national football team became an important element of Peru's national identity.[80] According to the historian Carlos Aguirre, nationalist fervor spiked during the qualification phase for the 1970 World Cup finals, because the revolutionary government of General Juan Velasco Alvarado tied the national team's success with the alleged cultural, social, and psychological changes spurred by the country's new political project.[81]

Peruvian football fans are known for their distinctive cheer ¡Arriba Perú! ("Onward Peru!"),[5] unabating popular chant ¡Vamos peruanos! (Let's go Peruvians!),[82] as well as for their use of traditional Peruvian música criolla to express support, both at national team games and at club matches. Música criolla attained national and international recognition with the advent of mass media during the 1930s, becoming a recognised symbol of Peru and its culture.[83] The national team's most popular anthems are Peru Campeón, a polca criolla (Peruvian polka) glorifying Peru's qualification for the Mexico 1970 World Cup,[83] and Contigo Perú, a vals criollo (Peruvian waltz) that newspaper El Comercio calls "the hymn of Peruvian national football teams".[84][F] In 2018, a FIFA-sanctioned worldwide online poll honoured the "fervent and dedicated group" of Peruvian supporters at that year's World Cup tournament with the FIFA Fan Award.[86]

The Estadio Nacional disaster of 24 May 1964, involving Peruvian supporters, is cited as one of the worst tragedies in football history.[87] During a qualifying match for the 1964 Olympics between Peru's under-20 team and its counterpart from Argentina, the Uruguayan referee Angel Payos disallowed a would-be Peruvian equaliser, alleging rough play. Spectators threw missiles from the stands while two fans invaded the pitch and attacked the referee. Police threw tear gas into the crowd, causing a stampede; trying to escape, fans were crushed against the stadium's locked gates. A total of 315 people died in the chaos, with more than 500 others injured.[88]

RivalriesEdit

The Peru national football team maintains prominent rivalries with its counterparts from neighbouring Chile and Ecuador. The Peruvians have a favourable record against Ecuador and a negative record against Chile.[89][90] Peru faced both rivals in the 1939 South American Championship in Lima, which also marked the first time that Peru faced Ecuador in an official tournament; Peru won both games.[91] Peru also defeated its rivals during qualifying for the Argentina 1978 World Cup, directly eliminating both teams.[89][90]

The Chile–Peru football rivalry is known in Spanish as the Clásico del Pacífico ("Pacific Derby").[6] CNN World Sport editor Greg Duke ranks it among the top ten football rivalries in the world.[92] Peru first faced Chile in the 1935 South American Championship, defeating it 1–0.[90] The football rivalry between Peru and Chile, partly a reflection of the geopolitical conflict between both neighboring states, is primarily a result of both football squads vying for recognition as the better team in South America's Pacific coast—as their football confederation is historically dominated by countries in South America's Atlantic coast.[93] The two countries traditionally compete with each other over the rank of fourth-best national team in South America (after Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay).[94] They also both claim to have invented the bicycle kick; Peruvians call it the chalaca, while it is the chilena in Chile.[95]

The rivalry between the Ecuador and Peru football teams is rooted in the historical border conflict between the two nations dating back to the 19th century. In 1995, after the brief Cenepa War, CONMEBOL contemplated altering that year's Copa América group stage to prevent a match between the two sides, but ultimately did not.[96] According to cultural historian Michael Handelsman, Ecuadorian fans consider losses to Colombia or Peru "an excuse to lament Ecuador's inability to establish itself as an international soccer power".[97] Handelsman adds that "[t]he rivalries are intense, and the games always carry an element of national pride and honor".[97]

PlayersEdit

CurrentEdit

The following 23 players were called up for the friendly match against Colombia on 15 November.
Caps and goals are correct as of 15 October 2019, after the match against Uruguay.

No. Pos. Player Date of birth (age) Caps Goals Club
1 1GK Pedro Gallese (1990-02-23) 23 February 1990 (age 29) 59 0   Alianza Lima
12 1GK Carlos Cáceda (1991-09-27) 27 September 1991 (age 28) 6 0   Melgar
21 1GK Patricio Álvarez (1994-01-24) 24 January 1994 (age 25) 0 0   Sporting Cristal

17 2DF Luis Advíncula (1990-03-02) 2 March 1990 (age 29) 89 1   Rayo Vallecano
5 2DF Carlos Zambrano (1989-07-10) 10 July 1989 (age 30) 51 4   Dynamo Kyiv
6 2DF Miguel Trauco (1992-08-25) 25 August 1992 (age 27) 46 0   Saint-Étienne
3 2DF Aldo Corzo (1989-05-20) 20 May 1989 (age 30) 29 0   Universitario
2 2DF Luis Abram (1996-02-27) 27 February 1996 (age 23) 19 1   Vélez Sarsfield
4 2DF Anderson Santamaría (1992-01-10) 10 January 1992 (age 27) 15 0   Atlas
22 2DF Alexander Callens (1992-05-04) 4 May 1992 (age 27) 13 1   New York City
15 2DF Marcos López (1999-11-20) 20 November 1999 (age 19) 2 0   San Jose Earthquakes

19 3MF Yoshimar Yotún (1990-04-07) 7 April 1990 (age 29) 92 3   Cruz Azul
13 3MF Renato Tapia (1995-07-28) 28 July 1995 (age 24) 52 3   Feyenoord
23 3MF Pedro Aquino (1995-04-13) 13 April 1995 (age 24) 23 3   León
14 3MF Carlos Ascues (1992-06-19) 19 June 1992 (age 27) 21 5   Orlando City
24 3MF Cristian Benavente (1994-05-19) 19 May 1994 (age 25) 18 2   Nantes
10 3MF Sergio Peña (1995-09-28) 28 September 1995 (age 24) 8 0   Emmen
16 3MF Alexis Arias (1995-12-13) 13 December 1995 (age 23) 1 0   Melgar

9 4FW Paolo Guerrero (captain) (1984-01-01) 1 January 1984 (age 35) 101 38   Internacional
20 4FW Edison Flores (1994-05-15) 15 May 1994 (age 25) 50 13   Morelia
11 4FW Raúl Ruidíaz (1990-07-25) 25 July 1990 (age 29) 42 4   Seattle Sounders
7 4FW Andy Polo (1994-09-29) 29 September 1994 (age 25) 29 1   Portland Timbers
8 4FW Gabriel Costa (1990-04-02) 2 April 1990 (age 29) 4 0   Colo-Colo

RecentEdit

The players listed below were not included in the current squad, but have been called up by Peru in the last 12 months.

Pos. Player Date of birth (age) Caps Goals Club Latest call-up
GK José Carvallo (1986-03-01) 1 March 1986 (age 33) 6 0   Universitario 2019 Copa América PRE

DF Miguel Araujo (1994-10-24) 24 October 1994 (age 25) 17 0   Emmen 2019 Copa América
DF Christian Ramos (1988-11-04) 4 November 1988 (age 31) 72 3   Universitario 2019 Copa América PRE
DF Gianfranco Chávez (1998-08-10) 10 August 1998 (age 21) 0 0   Sporting Cristal 2019 Copa América PRE
DF Leonardo Mifflin (2000-01-04) 4 January 2000 (age 19) 0 0   Melgar 2019 Copa América PRE
DF Nilson Loyola (1994-10-26) 26 October 1994 (age 25) 6 0   Sporting Cristal v.   Costa Rica, 20 November 2018

MF Christofer Gonzáles INJ (1992-10-12) 12 October 1992 (age 27) 22 2   Sporting Cristal v.   Colombia, 15 November 2019
MF Christian Cueva (1991-11-23) 23 November 1991 (age 27) 63 10   Santos v.   Uruguay, 15 October 2019
MF Josepmir Ballón (1988-03-21) 21 March 1988 (age 31) 54 0   Universidad de Concepción v.   Uruguay, 15 October 2019
MF Alejandro Hohberg (1991-09-20) 20 September 1991 (age 28) 4 0   Universitario v.   Uruguay, 15 October 2019
MF Armando Alfageme (1990-11-03) 3 November 1990 (age 29) 2 0   Universitario v.   Uruguay, 15 October 2019
MF Jesús Pretell (1999-03-26) 26 March 1999 (age 20) 1 0   Sporting Cristal 2019 Copa América
MF Paolo Hurtado INJ (1990-07-27) 27 July 1990 (age 29) 37 3   Konyaspor v.   Colombia, 9 June 2019
MF Joel Sánchez (1989-06-11) 11 June 1989 (age 30) 11 0   Melgar 2019 Copa América PRE
MF Wilder Cartagena (1994-09-23) 23 September 1994 (age 25) 5 0   Alianza Lima 2019 Copa América PRE
MF Horacio Calcaterra (1989-02-22) 22 February 1989 (age 30) 3 0   Sporting Cristal 2019 Copa América PRE

FW André Carrillo (1991-06-14) 14 June 1991 (age 28) 64 6   Al-Hilal v.   Uruguay, 15 October 2019
FW Yordy Reyna (1993-09-17) 17 September 1993 (age 26) 27 2   Vancouver Whitecaps v.   Uruguay, 15 October 2019
FW Kevin Quevedo (1997-02-22) 22 February 1997 (age 22) 1 0   Alianza Lima v.   Ecuador, 5 September 2019
FW Jefferson Farfán INJ (1984-10-26) 26 October 1984 (age 35) 95 27   Lokomotiv Moscow 2019 Copa América
FW Beto da Silva (1996-12-28) 28 December 1996 (age 22) 8 1   Deportivo La Coruña 2019 Copa América PRE

INJ Withdrew due to injury
PRE Preliminary squad
SUS Suspended
WD Withdrew from the squad

NotableEdit

 
Hugo Sotil, Teófilo Cubillas, and Roberto Challe (left to right) at the Estadio Nacional in 1973.

A report published by CONMEBOL in 2008 described Peru as traditionally exhibiting an "elegant, technical and fine football style", and praised it as "one of the most loyal exponents of South American football talent".[98] In 2017, Argentine manager Ricardo Gareca described Peruvian footballers as "technically sound, [physically] strong and adaptable", adding that their adaptability resulted from Peru's diverse geography.[99]

Peruvian players noted in the CONMEBOL report as "true artists of the ball" include forwards Teófilo Cubillas, Pedro Pablo León and Hugo Sotil, defender Héctor Chumpitaz and midfielders Roberto Challe, César Cueto, José del Solar, and Roberto Palacios.[98] Cubillas, an attacking midfielder and forward popularly known as El Nene ("The Kid"), is widely regarded as Peru's greatest ever player.[100] Chumpitaz is often cited as the team's best defender; Witzig lists him among his "Best Players of the Modern Era", and praises him as "a strong reader of the game with excellent ball skills and distribution, [who] marshalled a capable defence to support Peru's attack".[101] El Gráfico, an Argentine sports journal, described Cueto, Cubillas, and José Velásquez as, collectively, "the best [midfield] in the world" in 1978.[102]

Before Cubillas' appearance, Teodoro "Lolo" Fernández, a forward nicknamed El Cañonero ("The Cannoneer"), held the status of Peru's greatest player—due to his powerful shots, marksmanship, and club loyalty to Universitario.[103] Fernández participated as a key member of the Rodillo Negro team of the 1930s, along with Alejandro Villanueva and Juan Valdivieso.[104] Fernández scored most of the team's goals; his partner in attack, the gifted playmaker Villanueva, awed audiences with his acrobatic skills. Goalkeeper Valdivieso had a reputation as a penalty stopper with exceptional athleticism.[105]

In 1972, teams representing Europe and South America played a commemorative match in Basel, Switzerland, for the benefit of homeless children. Cubillas, Chumpitaz, Sotil, and Julio Baylón played in the South American team, which won the game 2–0; Cubillas scored the first goal.[106] The teams held another match the following year, at Barcelona's Camp Nou, with the declared intent of fighting global poverty. Cubillas, Chumpitaz, and Sotil again participated, with Chumpitaz named South America's captain. Each of the Peruvians scored in a 4–4 draw, which South America won 7–6 on penalties.[107]

ManagersEdit

 
Didi managed Peru at the Mexico 1970 World Cup.

A total of 59 managers have led the Peru national football team since 1927 (including multiple spells separately); of these, 36 have been from Peru and 23 have been from abroad.[108] Sports analysts and historians generally consider Peru's most successful managers to have been the Englishman Jack Greenwell and the Peruvian Marcos Calderón. The former managed Peru to triumph in the 1938 Bolivarian Games and the 1939 South American Championship, and the latter led Peru to victory in the 1975 Copa América tournament and coached it at the 1978 FIFA World Cup.[109][110] Three other managers have led Peru to tournament victories—Juan Carlos Oblitas, Freddy Ternero, and Sergio Markarián each oversaw Peru's victory in the Kirin Cup in Japan, in 1999, 2005 and 2011, respectively.[111]

Soon after forming Peru's national football team, the FPF invited Uruguayan coaches Pedro Olivieri and Julio Borelli to manage the squad. Olivieri received the FPF's first appointment, for the 1927 South American Championship, due to his prior experience managing Uruguay. Borelli became the national team's second manager, for the 1929 South American Championship, after some years of refereeing football matches in Peru.[112] The Spaniard Francisco Bru, Peru's third manager and first World Cup coach at the inaugural tournament in 1930, previously had been Spain's first manager.[109] The FPF next appointed the national team's first Peruvian coach, Telmo Carbajo, for the 1935 South American Championship.[108] The team's manager since 2015 is the Argentine Ricardo Gareca.[49]

Managers that brought outstanding changes to the Peru national team's style of play include the Hungarian György Orth and the Brazilians Didi and Tim. Orth coached Peru from 1957 to 1959; sports historian Andreas Campomar cites Peru's "4–1 thrashing of England in Lima" as evidence of Orth's positive influence over the national team's offensive game.[113] Víctor Benítez, Peru's defensive midfielder under Orth, attributes the Hungarian with maximizing the team's potential by accurately placing each player in their optimal positions.[114] Didi coached Peru from 1968 to 1970 and managed it at the 1970 FIFA World Cup; Campomar attributes Didi's tactics as the reason for Peru's development of a "free-flowing football" style.[113] Placar, a Brazilian sports journal, attributed Tim, who managed Peru at the 1982 FIFA World Cup, with making Peru "a team that plays beautiful, combining efficiency with that swagger that people thought only existed in Brazil".[115]

Competitive recordsEdit

FIFA World CupEdit

 
Peru's match against Romania at the 1930 World Cup.

Peru has taken part in the World Cup finals five times. The Peruvian team competed at the first World Cup in 1930 by invitation, and has entered each tournament at the qualifying stage since 1958, qualifying for the finals four times: in 1970, 1978, 1982 and 2018. Its all-time record in World Cup qualifying matches, as of 2017, stands at 42 wins, 36 draws and 69 losses. In the finals, the team has won five matches, drawn three and lost ten, with 19 goals in favour and 32 against.[23] Peru won the inaugural FIFA Fair Play Trophy, awarded at the 1970 World Cup, having been the only team not to receive any yellow or red cards during the competition.[34] Peru has the peculiar distinction of facing the future FIFA World Cup champions during the tournament's finals phase.[116]

Luis de Souza Ferreira scored Peru's first World Cup goal on 14 July 1930, in a match against Romania.[117] José Velásquez scored Peru's fastest World Cup finals goal—that is, that scored soonest after kick-off—two minutes into the match against Iran on 11 June 1978.[118] Jefferson Farfán is Peru's top scorer and fifth-overall top scorer in CONMEBOL World Cup qualification, with 16 goals.[119] Teófilo Cubillas is the team's top scorer in the World Cup finals, with 10 goals in 13 games.[120] During the 1930 competition, a Peruvian became the first player sent off in a World Cup—his identity is disputed between sources.[G] Peru's Ramón Quiroga holds the unusual record of being the only goalkeeper to commit a foul in the opponent's side of the pitch in a match at the World Cup finals.[123]

Copa AméricaEdit

 
Peru's match against Chile at the 1975 Copa América.

Peru's national team has taken part in 31 editions of the Copa América since 1927, and has won the competition twice (in 1939 and 1975). The country has hosted the tournament six times (in 1927, 1935, 1939, 1953, 1957 and 2004). Peru's overall record in the competition is 52 victories, 33 draws, and 57 losses.[23] Peru won the Fair Play award in the 2015 edition.[124]

Demetrio Neyra scored Peru's first goal in the competition on 13 November 1927, in a match against Bolivia.[57] Christian Cueva scored Peru's fastest Copa América goal, two minutes into the match against Brazil on 14 June 2015.[125] Four tournaments have featured a Peruvian top scorer—Teodoro Fernández in 1939 and Paolo Guerrero in 2011, 2015, and 2019.[126][127] Fernández, the Copa América's third-overall scorer, was named best player of the 1939 tournament; Teófilo Cubillas, voted the best player in the 1975 competition, is the only other Peruvian to win this award.[128]

Peru earned its first continental title in 1939, when it won the South American Championship with successive victories over Ecuador, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay. This marked the first time that the competition had been won by a team other than Uruguay, Brazil, or Argentina.[129] Peru became South American champions for the second time in 1975, when it won that year's Copa América, the first to feature all ten CONMEBOL members.[130] Peru came top of their group in the first round, eliminating Chile and Bolivia, and in the semifinals drew with Brazil over two legs, winning 3–1 in Brazil but losing 2–0 at home. Peru was declared the winner by drawing of lots. In the two-legged final between Colombia and Peru, both teams won their respective home games (1–0 in Bogota and 2–0 in Lima), forcing a play-off in Caracas that Peru won 1–0.[131]

CONCACAF Gold CupEdit

Peru competed in the CONCACAF Gold Cup's fifth edition in 2000. Peru participated, along with Colombia and South Korea, as that year's invitees. The Peruvian team's overall record in the tournament is 1 victory, 1 draw, and 2 losses.[23]

Ysrael Zúñiga scored Peru's first goal in the competition on 14 February 2000, in a match against Haiti. Roberto Palacios, the team's top scorer with two goals in four matches, received a spot in that year's "team of the tournament", comprising the competition's eleven best players.[132]

Peru progressed past the North American tournament's first stage, despite not winning any of its matches, as the second-best ranked team in Group B behind the United States.[132] Peru next defeated Honduras 5–3 in a heated quarterfinals match that ended a minute early due to a pitch invasion by irate Honduran fans.[133] Colombia defeated Peru 2–1 in the semifinals, in a match that included an own goal from Peru's Marcial Salazar.[132]

Olympic GamesEdit

 
Peru playing against Austria in the 1936 Olympic football tournament.

Peru's senior side has competed in the Olympic football tournament once, at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, Germany. The multiracial 1936 team has been latterly described by historian David Goldblatt as "the jewel of the country's first Olympic delegation".[134] It had a record of two victories, scoring 11 goals and conceding 5.[23]

Teodoro Fernández scored Peru's first goal in the tournament in the match against Finland on 6 August, and finished as the team's top scorer with six goals in two games, including Peru's only hat-trick at the Olympics.[135]

The 1935 South American Championship in Lima acted as the qualifying stage for the 1936 Olympic tournament. Uruguay won undefeated and Argentina came second, but neither took up their Olympic spot because of economic issues. Peru, who had come third, duly represented South America.[7][136] The Peruvian team began the competition with a 7–3 win over Finland,[135] after which it faced Austria, managed by Jimmy Hogan and popularly known as the Wunderteam, in the quarterfinals.[H] After the game ended 2–2, Peru scored twice in extra time to win 4–2.[140] Peru expected to then face Poland in the semifinals, but events off the pitch led to the withdrawal of Peru's Olympic delegation before the match.[I]

Team recordsEdit

 
Paolo Guerrero, during a 2015 Copa América match.

The Peru national football team has played 644 matches since 1927, including friendlies.[23] The largest margin of victory achieved by a Peru side is 9–1 against Ecuador, on 11 August 1938 at the Bolivarian Games in Colombia. The team's record deficit, 7–0, occurred against Brazil at the 1997 Copa América in Bolivia.[23]

The Peruvian player with the most international caps is Roberto Palacios, 128 times from 1992 to 2007. Second is Héctor Chumpitaz, with 105 appearances; Jorge Soto is third with 101. The most capped goalkeeper in national team play is Pedro Gallese with 57 appearances. Second is Óscar Ibáñez with 50 appearances; Miguel Miranda is third with 47.[8]

The team's all-time top goalscorer is Paolo Guerrero, with 38 goals in 101 appearances. He is followed by Jefferson Farfán, with 27 goals in 95 appearances. Third is Teófilo Cubillas, who scored 26 goals in 81 appearances.[8] Teodoro Fernández, with 24 goals in 32 games, holds the top goal-per-appearance record of its top 10 scorers.[8] Claudio Pizarro scored Peru's fastest goal, less than a minute into a match against Mexico on 20 August 2003.[143]

Its current captain is forward Paolo Guerrero.[1] Midfielder Leopoldo Basurto was the team's first captain.[144] Defender Héctor Chumpitaz held the Peruvian team's leadership position for the longest time, between 1965 and 1981.[1] Forward Claudio Pizarro had the second-longest tenure as captain, from 2003 to 2016.[144] Other notable captains include Rubén Díaz (1981–1985), Julio César Uribe (1987–1989), Juan Reynoso (1993–1999), and Nolberto Solano (2000–2003).[1]

See alsoEdit

BibliographyEdit

  • Agostino, Gilberto (2002). Vencer Ou Morrer: Futebol, Geopolítica e Identidade Nacional (in Portuguese). Rio de Janeiro: FAPERJ & MAUAD Editora Ltda. ISBN 85-7478-068-5.
  • Aguirre, Carlos (2013). Aguirre, Carlos; Panfichi, Aldo (eds.). <<Perú Campeón>>: Fiebre Futbolística y Nacionalismo en 1970. Lima, Siglo XX: Cultura, Socialización y Cambio. Lima: Fondo Editorial de la Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú. ISBN 978-612-4146-58-9.
  • Basadre, Jorge (1964). Historia de la República del Perú (in Spanish). 10. Lima: Talleres Graficos P.L. Villanueva S.A.
  • Bravo, Gonzalo (2012). "Association Football, Pacific Coast of South America". In Nauright, John; Parrish, Charles (eds.). Sports Around the World: History, Culture, and Practice. 3. Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio. ISBN 978-1-59884-301-9.
  • Campomar, Andreas (2014). Golazo! The Beautiful Game from the Aztecs to the World Cup. New York City: Riverhead Books. ISBN 978-0-698-15253-3.
  • Dunmore, Tom (2011). Historical Dictionary of Soccer. Plymouth: Scarecrow Press, Inc. ISBN 978-0-8108-7188-5.
  • Fiore, Fernando (2012). ¡Vamos al Mundial! (in Spanish). New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-222664-9.
  • Foley Gambetta, Enrique (1983). Léxico del Peru (in Spanish). 3. Lima: Talleres Jahnos.
  • Goldblatt, David (2008). The Ball is Round. New York: Riverhead Trade. ISBN 1-59448-296-9.
  • Handelsman, Michael (2000). Culture and Customs of Ecuador. Westport: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-30244-8.
  • Henshaw, Richard (1979). The Encyclopedia of World Soccer. Washington, D.C.: New Republic Books. ISBN 0-915220-34-2.
  • Higgins, James (2005). Lima: A Cultural and Literary History. Oxford: Signal Books Limited. ISBN 1-902669-98-3.
  • Jacobsen, Nils (2008). Herb, Guntram; Kaplan, David (eds.). Peru. Nations and Nationalism: A Global Historical Overview. 1. Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio. ISBN 978-1-85109-907-8.
  • Leigh Raffo, Denise (2005). Rosas Lauro, Claudia (ed.). El miedo a la multitud. Dos provincianos en el Estadio Nacional, 1950–1970. El Miedo en el Perú: Siglos XVI al XX (in Spanish). Lima: PUCP Fondo Editorial. ISBN 9972-42-690-4.
  • Llopis, Ramón (2009). Fútbol Postnacional: Transformaciones Sociales y Culturales del "Deporte Global" en Europa y América Latina (in Spanish). Barcelona: Anthropos Editorial. ISBN 978-84-7658-937-3.
  • Mandell, Richard (1987). The Nazi Olympics. Champaign: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0-252-01325-5.
  • Miró, César (1958). Los Intimos de La Victoria (in Spanish). Lima: Editorial El Deporte.
  • Murray, William (1994). Football: A History of the World Game. Aldershot: Scolar Press. ISBN 1-85928-091-9.
  • Panfichi, Aldo; Vich, Victor (2005). "Political and Social Fantasies in Peruvian Football: The Tragedy of Alianza Lima in 1987". In Darby, Paul; Johnes, Martin; Mellor, Gavin (eds.). Soccer and Disaster: International Perspectives. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-7146-5352-7.
  • Radnedge, Keir (2001). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Soccer. New York: Universe Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7893-0670-8.
  • Snyder, John (2001). Soccer's Most Wanted. Washington, D.C.: Potomac Books, Inc. ISBN 978-1-57488-365-7.
  • Stein, Steve (2011). "The Case of Soccer in Early Twentieth-Century Lima". In Stavans, Ilan (ed.). Fútbol. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, LLC. ISBN 978-0-313-37515-6.
  • Thorndike, Guillermo (1978). El Revés de Morir (in Spanish). Lima: Mosca Azul Editores.
  • Witzig, Richard (2006). The Global Art of Soccer. Harahan: CusiBoy Publishing. ISBN 0-9776688-0-0.
  • Wood, David (2007). Miller, Rory; Crolley, Liz (eds.). ¡Arriba Perú! The Role of Football in the Formation of a Peruvian National Culture. Football in the Americas. London: Institute for the Study of the Americas. ISBN 978-1-900039-80-2.
  • Soccer: The Ultimate Guide. New York: DK Publishing. 2010. ISBN 0-7566-7321-6.
  • Essential Soccer Skills. New York: DK Publishing. 2011. ISBN 978-0-7566-5902-8.

Notes and referencesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The acronym FPF comes from the organisation's Spanish name, Federación Peruana de Futbol.
  2. ^ The Lima Cricket and Football Club might be the oldest club in the Americas that today plays association football.[10]
  3. ^ During these games in Callao, the Peruvians possibly invented the bicycle kick, which is known in Peru as the chalaca (meaning "from Callao").[16]
  4. ^ The European press also named them the "Peru-Chile XI", the "South American Team", and the "All-Pacific". Most players were from Peru's Universitario de Deportes, with reinforcements from Alianza Lima, Atlético Chalaco, and Chile's Colo-Colo.[19]
  5. ^ In 2008, FIFA suspended the Peru national team and football league—citing political interference—after Peru's government impeded the re-election of FPF president Burga, charging him with not complying FPF statutes according to Peruvian law. In December 2008, FIFA lifted sanctions after the Peruvian Institute of Sport (IPD) agreed to negotiate with the FPF.[44]
  6. ^ Peru's unsuccessful World Cup finals qualification attempts, from Mexico 1986 until Russia 2018, cemented the fans' nostalgia for the 1970s' golden era and increased the popularity of Peru Campeón.[85]
  7. ^ FIFA lists the player as defender Plácido Galindo,[121] but forward Souza Ferreira and other sources list midfielder Mario de las Casas.[122]
  8. ^ Although an amateur side in 1936 with no players from their 1934 World Cup team,[137] Austria's 1936 Olympic side is also considered part of the Wunderteam by sports historians and FIFA. This favours the idea that the Wunderteam was primarily a strategic creation of coaches Jimmy Hogan and Hugo Meisl.[138][139]
  9. ^ Austria disputed the 4–2 result, asserting that Peruvian fans had invaded the pitch.[141] While some spectators did encroach on the field of play, the authorities never confirmed their nationality. Moreover, the Peruvians had no responsibility over crowd control in the German stadium.[142] A FIFA committee headed by Jules Rimet ordered a replay behind closed doors, a suggestion that prompted Peru's President Óscar R. Benavides to withdraw his entire Olympic delegation in protest.[141]

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  138. ^ See:
  139. ^ "Classic Coach: Hugo Meisl – The banker's son who masterminded a Wunderteam". FIFA. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
  140. ^ Murray 1994, p. 66.
  141. ^ a b Mandell 1987, p. 194.
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External linksEdit

Achievements
Preceded by
Inaugural Champions
Bolivarian Champions
1938 (First title)
Succeeded by
U-20 Peru  
Preceded by
1937 Argentina  
South American Champions
1939 (First title)
Succeeded by
1941 Argentina  
Preceded by
1967 Uruguay  
South American Champions
1975 (Second title)
Succeeded by
1979 Paraguay  
Preceded by
1998 Japan  
Kirin Cup Champions
1999 (First title, shared)
Succeeded by
2000 Slovakia  
Preceded by
2004 Japan  
Kirin Cup Champions
2005 (Second title, shared)
Succeeded by
2006 Scotland  
Preceded by
2009 Japan  
Kirin Cup Champions
2011 (Third title, shared)
Succeeded by
2016 Bosnia and Herzegovina