Estadio Nacional Julio Martínez Prádanos

Estadio Nacional Julio Martínez Prádanos (originally known as Estadio Nacional) is the national stadium of Chile, and is located in the Ñuñoa district of Santiago. It is the largest stadium in Chile with an official capacity of 48,665. It is part of a 62 hectare sporting complex which also features tennis courts, an aquatics center, a modern gymnasium, a velodrome, a BMX circuit, and an assistant ground/warmup athletics track.

Estadio Nacional Julio Martínez Prádanos
El Nacional, El Coloso de Ñuñoa
Former namesEstadio Nacional (1938–2008)
LocationAv. Grecia 2001, Ñuñoa, Santiago, Chile
Coordinates33°27′52″S 70°36′38″W / 33.46444°S 70.61056°W / -33.46444; -70.61056
Public transit at Estadio Nacional
OwnerMunicipality of Ñuñoa
Capacity48,665[1] (60,000+ in concerts)
Record attendance85,268 (Universidad de ChileUniversidad Católica, 29 December 1962)
Field size105 m x 68 m
Broke ground1937; 86 years ago (1937)
OpenedDecember 3, 1938; 84 years ago (1938-12-03)
ReopenedSeptember 12, 2010; 13 years ago (2010-09-12)
Construction cost$18,000,000
ArchitectFrancisco Romero
Chile national football team
Universidad de Chile
Santiago Morning
Deportes Recoleta
Deportes Melipilla
Real Juventud San Joaquín
Municipal Santiago
Gremio de Santiago
Selknam (rugby club)

Construction began in February 1937 and the stadium was inaugurated on December 3, 1938. The architecture was based on the Olympiastadion in Berlin, Germany. The stadium was one of the venues for the FIFA World Cup in 1962, and hosted the final where Brazil defeated Czechoslovakia 3–1. In 1948, the stadium hosted the matches of the South American Championship of Champions, the competition that inspired the creation of the UEFA Champions League[2] and of the Copa Libertadores.[3] The stadium was notoriously used as a mass imprisonment, torture, and extrajudicial execution facility by the Pinochet dictatorship following the 1973 military coup.

In 2009, a complete modernization plan was unveiled for the stadium and surrounding facilities. President Michelle Bachelet said it would become the most modern stadium in South America.[4] The stadium was the opening and closing ceremonies, athletics, and football venue for the 2014 South American Games, and will repeat the honors for the 2023 Pan American Games.

History Edit

The stadium was built on former farmland, donated in 1918 by farmer Jose Domingo Cañas. The first sporting event in the new stadium took place on 3 December 1938, with a friendly game between the Chilean club Colo-Colo and Brazilian club São Cristóvão. Colo-Colo won 6–3.

It has hosted all matches of the 1941, 1945 and 1955 South American Football Championships, and several matches of the 1991 and 2015 Copa América.

The stadium hosted the final stages of the 1959 World Basketball Championship. It was held outdoors because the intended venue, the Metropolitan Indoor Stadium, was not ready in time.

In the early 1960s, under the government of Jorge Alessandri, the stadium was expanded to host the 1962 FIFA World Cup. The main change was that the velodrome that surrounded the stadium was replaced by galleries, thereby increasing its original capacity to around 95,000.

The stadium hosted group stage games between Italy, West Germany, Switzerland and Chile, including a notoriously ill-tempered and violent clash between Italy and Chile which became known as the Battle of Santiago. Also held at the ground were a quarter-final, a semi-final, the third place play-off, and the final, in which Brazil was crowned world champions for the second time. In the third-place play-off, Chile defeated Yugoslavia 1–0, marking the team's greatest success in international football.

Today, the ground serves as the home field for both the national team and the first-division club Universidad de Chile. It also hosts non-sporting events, such as political celebrations, charity events and concerts.

The stadium has been used since 1995 as the final leg of the Telethon with Don Francisco, a 28-hour telecast. The stadium holds up to 100,000 people for this annual event with the Jumbotron showing the required amount to reach the goal and its current donation. Exceptions were in 2014 and 2020; the first one was canceled due to bad weather conditions and the second due to the protection after the social outbreak.

On July 5, 2008, the stadium was officially renamed Estadio Nacional Julio Martínez Prádanos, in honor of a recently deceased sports journalist.[5]

Use as a detention center Edit

Estadio Nacional de Chile after the 1973 Chilean coup d'état

After the coup d'état of September 11, 1973, that ousted President Salvador Allende, the stadium began to be used as a detention facility. An article in the Harvard Review of Latin America reported that "there were over 80 detention centers in Santiago alone" and gave details of the National Stadium and others.[6]

Over 40,000 people spent time in the compound during the junta regime. Twelve thousand detainees were interned between September 11 and November 7.[7] The field and gallery were used to hold men, while women were held in the swimming pool changing rooms and associated buildings. Locker rooms and corridors were all used as prison facilities while interrogations were carried out in the velodrome.[8] The Red Cross estimated that 7,000 prisoners occupied the stadium at one point, of whom about 300 were foreigners. According to the testimonies of survivors collected by the humanitarian group, detainees were tortured and threatened with death by shooting. Some were actually shot or taken to unknown locations for execution. Pinochet and other members of the junta would often take turns hollering and swearing at the detainees over the stadium's public address system.

FIFA President Sir Stanley Rous insisted the USSR team play a World Cup qualifier at the time. They however refused to do so and Chile qualified automatically for the 1974 World Cup, where they failed to advance from a group containing both West and East Germany and Australia.

The use of the stadium during the coup d'état is depicted in the 2002 documentary film Estadio Nacional, directed and produced by Carmen Luz Parot, and in the 2007 Swedish film The Black Pimpernel, which is based on the story of Swedish ambassador in Chile Harald Edelstam and his heroic actions to protect the lives of over 1,200 people during and after the military coup. The Black Pimpernel was shot on location in Santiago. The 1982 film Missing by Greek filmmaker Costa-Gavras depicts the September 11, 1973 coup d'état and execution of American journalists Charles Horman and Frank Teruggi at the Estadio Nacional.

In 2011, Chile set aside a section of the stadium, a section of old wooden bleachers called "Escotilla 8", to honor the prisoners who were detained there. It is surrounded by a barbed wire fence.[9]

2009–2010 renovation Edit

Marcelo Salas farewell match, June 2, 2009

On June 15, 2009, President Michelle Bachelet announced several infrastructure improvements in order to modernize the stadium and its immediate facilities. Out of the total 24 billion pesos (US$42.3 million) contemplated in the plan, 20 billion pesos (US$35.3 million) are destined to bring the stadium up to modern standards. The changes include, a roof covering all the seats, which will also provide illumination; installation of seats around the entire stadium, lowering the current capacity to 47,000; a new state-of-the-art scoreboard; a 2.5 m deep 2 m wide pit will separate the track and the spectators to replace the fence; and several other changes. Because the stadium is a national monument the façade will remain the same, with the roof structure placed on top, without modifying the exterior. The stadium was closed on August 15, 2009. The stadium was scheduled to be reinaugurated in March 2010 to stage a double friendly match between Chile and North Korea and Panama, but the works were not finished on time. The construction of the roof has since been postponed by the government of President Sebastián Piñera due to financial constraints brought about by the February 27, 2010 earthquake. Although the stadium suffered minor damage from the earthquake, it partially opened to host the match between C.F. Universidad de Chile and C.D. Guadalajara for Copa Libertadores 2010. It was officially re-inaugurated on September 12, 2010, during Chile's bicentennial festivities.

2014 South American Games renovation Edit

On September 12, 2010, during the Chilean bicentennial festivities, President Sebastián Piñera announced that the capacity of the stadium will be increased so as to reach 70,000 seats for the 2014 South American Games that will take place in Santiago.[10] The works are expected to begin in 2012.[11]

On June 3, 2011, further renovation plans were announced by the government. The complete area surrounding the stadium will be turned into a park to be called "Citizenry Park" (Parque de la Ciudadanía). Over 70% of the new 64-hectare park will consist of green areas, and the rest will include new infrastructure such as a lagoon or restaurants. The new park is expected to be ready for the 2014 games. New sporting venues will be built for the 2014 games, such as two modern gymnasiums, a new heated pool for synchronized swimming, a renovated velodrome and an expanded CAR, which will also serve as residence of the future Ministry of Sports. The only venues that will remain are the stadium, the main tennis court, the velodrome, the CAR, the athletics track, the skating track, the hockey field and the caracolas.[12]

Attendances Edit

The highest attendance for a match at Estadio Nacional to date is 85,268, for a Primera Division match played on December 29, 1962; Universidad de Chile defeated Universidad Catolica 4–1.[citation needed] In the 2016–17 season, Universidad de Chile drew an average home league attendance of 30,041 for the Apertura and 33,466 for the Clausura.[13]

1962 FIFA World Cup Edit

Estadio Nacional hosted ten games of the 1962 FIFA World Cup, including the final matches.

Date Time (UTC−04) Team No. 1 Res. Team No. 2 Round Attendance
30 May 1962 15:00   Chile 3–1    Switzerland Group 3 65,006
31 May 1962 15:00   West Germany 0–0   Italy Group 3 65,440
2 June 1962 15:00   Chile 2–0   Italy Group 3 66,057
3 June 1962 15:00   West Germany 2–1    Switzerland Group 3 64,922
6 June 1962 15:00   West Germany 2–0   Chile Group 3 67,224
7 June 1962 15:00   Italy 3–0    Switzerland Group 3 59,828
10 June 1962 14:30   Yugoslavia 1–0   West Germany Quarter-finals 63,324
13 June 1962 14:30   Brazil 4–2   Chile Semi-finals 76,594
16 June 1962 14:30   Chile 1–0   Yugoslavia Third place play-off 66,697
17 June 1962 14:30   Brazil 3–1   Czechoslovakia Final 68,679

Concerts Edit

The stadium hosts many international and national concerts during the year. In 1977, Spanish singer Julio Iglesias performed in the stadium. Years later, in 1989, Rod Stewart performed what is considered the first proper rock concert by an international artist in the venue, drawing more than 80,000 fans. The show was broadcast throughout the country. After that, the city started being included in many tours from international artists, using several facilities from the Stadium park. In 2001, Chilean band Los Prisioneros became the first act to perform two consecutive days in the stadium, while Madonna is considered the first international artist to achieve the same in 2008. In 2022, Puerto Rican star Daddy Yankee became the first act to sell out three concerts in the venue on a single day, while British band Coldplay became the first act to schedule three and four consecutive concerts as part of the same tour.[14][15] In 2023, Chilean band Los Bunkers became the second local act to book two consecutive concerts in the venue, after Los Prisioneros achieved the same in 2001.[16]

Recordings of concerts at the stadium have been commercially released. The show of Cuban folk singer Silvio Rodríguez in March 1990 was released on a 2CD set titled Silvio Rodríguez en Chile, while both concerts of Los Prisioneros in late 2001 were released on cassette and CD as Estadio Nacional, and on VHS and DVD as Lo Estamos Pasando Muy Bien. English heavy metal band Iron Maiden recorded their show in the venue during The Final Frontier World Tour in April 2011. The show was released on CD, LP, DVD and Blu-ray as En Vivo! in March 2012.[17][18]

The following is a list of concerts, showing date, artist or band, tour, opening acts and attendance.

In 2008, Madonna was the first international artist to perform two concerts in two consecutive days in the stadium since 1990. Pictured, the second show of her Sticky & Sweet Tour in the venue.
The U2 360° Tour became the biggest stage structure built inside the stadium to date.
List of concerts showing date, headlining artist or band, name of concert or tour, opening acts and attendance
Date Headlining Artist Concert or Tour Opening acts Attendance
11 February 1977 Julio Iglesias 1977 Tour 100,000
7 March 1989 Rod Stewart Out of Order Tour 80,000
10 November 1989 Cyndi Lauper A Night to Remember Tour 45,394
6 February 1990 Bon Jovi New Jersey Syndicate Tour 33,186
31 March 1990 Silvio Rodríguez Retorno a la Democracia 80,000
28 April 1990 Joan Manuel Serrat Por Fin Chile 55,000
29 April 1990
27 September 1990[a] David Bowie Sound+Vision Tour 15,000
28 September 1990[a] Bryan Adams Playing For The Hell of It Tour 70,000
29 September 1990[a] Eric Clapton Journeyman World Tour Mick Taylor 50,000
12 October 1990 New Kids on the Block
Rubén Blades
Jackson Browne
Los Ronaldos
Desde Chile... un abrazo a la esperanza 80,000
13 October 1990 Sting
Peter Gabriel
Sinéad O'Connor
Rubén Blades
Jackson Browne
Wynton Marsalis
Luz Casal
8 December 1990 Xuxa Xuxa 90
2 December 1992 Guns N’ Roses Use Your Illusion Tour Diva 85,535
4 May 1993[b] Metallica Nowhere Else to Roam SpitFire
9 May 1993[b] Duran Duran The Dilate Your Mind Tour
29 September 1993[b] Peter Gabriel Secret World Tour
23 October 1993 Michael Jackson Dangerous World Tour Kris Kross
9 November 1993[b] Bon Jovi I'll Sleep When I'm Dead Tour
1 December 1993 Luis Miguel Aries Tour
16 December 1993 Paul McCartney The New World Tour Eduardo Gatti 45,000
10 April 1994[b] Depeche Mode Exotic Tour Primal Scream 25,000
13 November 1994[c] Aerosmith Get a Grip Tour Gilby Clarke
19 February 1995 The Rolling Stones Voodoo Lounge Tour Ratones Paranoicos
Los Barracos
7 November 1995 Elton John Made in England Tour 40,000
22 October 1996[c] AC/DC Ballbreaker Tour Malón
30 November 1996 Luis Miguel Nada Es Igual Tour 45,200
11 March 1997[b] Kiss Alive/Worldwide Tour Pantera
13 September 1997 Soda Stereo El Último Concierto Sien
5 November 1997[d][e] David Bowie Earthling Tour Bush
6 November 1997[d][e] Erasure The Cowboy Tour No Doubt
11 February 1998 U2 PopMart Tour Santa Locura 67,633
20 November 1999 Luis Miguel Amarte Es Un Placer Tour 60,000[20]
4 October 2001 Eric Clapton Reptile World Tour Miguel Vilanova 50,000
30 November 2001 Los Prisioneros Estadio Nacional 145,000
1 December 2001
2 March 2002 Roger Waters In the Flesh
9 October 2002[c] Red Hot Chili Peppers By the Way Tour Los Tetas
16 November 2002 Luis Miguel Mis Romances Tour 45,155
8 March 2003 Shakira El Tour de la Mangosta Jimmy Fernández
8 November 2003 La Ley Gira Libertad 28,000
14 November 2003[c] Ricardo Arjona Gira Santo Pecado
31 March 2004 Alejandro Sanz No Es Lo Mismo Tour 25,000
9 March 2005 Lenny Kravitz Electric Church Tour: One Night Only
15 November 2005 Luis Miguel México En La Piel Tour 45,680
26 February 2006 U2 Vertigo Tour Franz Ferdinand 77,345
10 October 2006 Robbie Williams Close Encounters Tour
22 November 2006 Shakira Tour Fijación Oral
14 March 2007 Roger Waters The Dark Side of the Moon Live
17 March 2007 Alejandro Sanz El Tren De Los Momentos Tour 30,000
1 April 2007 Don Omar
Wisin & Yandel
La Trilogía del Reggaetón 55,000
18 May 2007[c] High School Musical Cast High School Musical: The Concert Jordan Pruitt 16,570
24 October 2007 Soda Stereo Me Verás Volver 140,000
31 October 2007
22 November 2007[c] Daddy Yankee The Big Boss Tour
5 December 2007 The Police The Police Reunion Tour Beck 48,725
13 November 2008[c] Kylie Minogue KylieX2008
10 December 2008 Madonna Sticky & Sweet Tour Paul Oakenfold 146,242
11 December 2008
26 March 2009[c] Radiohead In Rainbows Tour Kraftwerk 52,000
27 March 2009
1 October 2010 Bon Jovi The Circle Tour Lucybell 46,983
17 October 2010 Rush Time Machine Tour 36,840
11 March 2011[f] Shakira Sale El Sol Tour Ziggy Marley
Francisca Valenzuela
25 March 2011 U2 U2 360° Tour Muse 82,596
10 April 2011 Iron Maiden The Final Frontier World Tour Exodus 55,780
4 May 2011 Miley Cyrus Corazón Gitano Tour 42,805
11 May 2011 Paul McCartney Up and Coming Tour 52,000
15 October 2011 Justin Bieber My World Tour Cobra Starship 41,457
22 November 2011 Britney Spears Femme Fatale Tour Howie Dorough
2 March 2011 Roger Waters The Wall Live 93,926
3 March 2011
20 November 2012 Lady Gaga Born This Way Ball The Darkness
Lady Starlight
19 December 2012 Madonna The MDNA Tour Laidback Luke 47,625
14 April 2013 The Cure LatAm2013 Tour Amöniäco
2 October 2013 Iron Maiden Maiden England World Tour Slayer
12 November 2013 Justin Bieber Believe Tour Carly Rae Jepsen
Owl City
30 April 2014 One Direction Where We Are Tour Abraham Mateo 87,324
1 May 2014
15 January 2015[g][c] Foo Fighters Sonic Highways World Tour Kaiser Chiefs 20,939
27 February 2015 Romeo Santos Vol. 2 Tour
29 September 2015 Rihanna Latin America Tour Big Sean 50,200
30 September 2015[c] Queen + Adam Lambert 2015 Tour 30,000
6 October 2015[c] Katy Perry The Prismatic World Tour Tinashe 23,438
4 November 2015 Pearl Jam 2015 Latin America Tour 60,000
20 December 2015 David Gilmour Rattle That Lock Tour 46,509
3 February 2016 The Rolling Stones América Latina Olé Tour 2016 Los Tres 62,412
11 March 2016 Iron Maiden The Book of Souls World Tour Anthrax
The Raven Age
3 April 2016 Coldplay A Head Full of Dreams Tour Lianne La Havas
María Colores
29 October 2016 Guns N’ Roses Not in This Lifetime... Tour Wild Parade 62,375
19 November 2016 Black Sabbath The End Tour Rival Sons 60,121
23 March 2017 Justin Bieber Purpose World Tour 43,000
14 October 2017 U2 The Joshua Tree Tour 2017 Noel Gallagher's High Flying Birds 53,422
28 November 2017 Bruno Mars 24K Magic World Tour DNCE 67,648
14 January 2018 Plácido Domingo Chile en mi Corazón Mon Laferte 43,000
8 March 2018[c] Katy Perry Witness: The Tour Schuster 15,336
15 March 2018 Phil Collins Not Dead Yet Tour The Pretenders 52,460
21 March 2018 Depeche Mode Global Spirit Tour Matías Aguayo & The Desdemonas 60,668
11 April 2018 Radiohead SUE Festival Flying Lotus
10 August 2018[h] Monsta X The Connect World Tour
28 September 2018[i][c] Ricardo Arjona Circo Soledad 50,000
30 October 2018 Shakira El Dorado World Tour Francisca Valenzuela 51,382
14 November 2018 Roger Waters Us + Them Tour 52,624
18 January 2019 BoA
Super Junior
(Key, Tae-min)
Girls' Generation (Yu-ri, Hyo-yeon)
F(x) (Amber, Liu)
Red Velvet
(NCT 127, NCT Dream)
SM Town 40,000
19 January 2019
20 March 2019 Paul McCartney Freshen Up 49,900
13 October 2019[c] Muse Simulation Theory World Tour Kaiser Chiefs 15,701
15 October 2019 Iron Maiden Legacy of the Beast World Tour The Raven Age 61,896
20 September 2022 Coldplay Music of the Spheres World Tour Camila Cabello
Princesa Alba
21 September 2022
23 September 2022
24 September 2022
27 September 2022 Daddy Yankee La Última Vuelta World Tour Polimá Westcoast 196,917
28 September 2022
29 September 2022
5 October 2022 Guns N' Roses We're F'N' Back! Tour Molotov
Frank's White Canvas
28 October 2022 Bad Bunny World's Hottest Tour Young Cister & Pailita
Pablito Pesadilla
29 October 2022 Pailita
Pablito Pesadilla
2 March 2024 Luis Miguel Tour 2024
27 April 2024 Los Bunkers Ven Aquí
28 April 2024
  1. ^ a b c The David Bowie, Bryan Adams and Eric Clapton concerts on 27, 28 and 29 September 1990 were promoted as part of the Rock In Chile Festival, but are considered part of their own tours.
  2. ^ a b c d e f This show took place on the adjacent National Velodrome.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n This show took place on the adjacent Racing Track.
  4. ^ a b The David Bowie and Erasure concerts on 5 and 6 November 1997 were promoted as part of the Santiago Music Rock Festival, but are considered part of their own tours.
  5. ^ a b This show took place on the adjacent Tennis Court.
  6. ^ The Shakira concert on 11 March 2011 was promoted as part of the Pop Fest, but is considered part of its own tour.[21]
  7. ^ The Foo Fighters concert on 15 January 2015 was originally scheduled to take place in the main field, but it was moved to the Athletic track for logistic reasons.[22]
  8. ^ This show took place on the adjacent Sports Complex.
  9. ^ The Ricardo Arjona concert on 28 September 2018 was originally scheduled to take place in the main field, but it was moved to the Athletic track for logistic reasons.[23]
  • A concert by American artist Michael Jackson on October 21, part of his Dangerous World Tour, was cancelled on the same day due to health problems.[24] Another performance on 23 October 1993 went on as scheduled.
  • A concert by American Band Maroon 5, part of their 2020 Tour, was originally scheduled to take place at the Stadium on 28 February 2020, but it was moved to the Estadio Bicentenario de La Florida keeping the same date.[25]
  • A concert by Argentinian band Soda Stereo, part of their Gracias Totales - Soda Stereo concert series, was originally scheduled to take place at the Stadium on 7 March 2020, before being rescheduled several times during the pandemic, being ultimately moved to the Estadio Monumental David Arellano on 3 May 2022.[26]
  • A concert by American heavy metal band Metallica, part of their WorldWired Tour, was originally scheduled to take place at the Stadium on 15 April 2020, before being rescheduled several times during the pandemic, being ultimately moved to the Club Hípico, and made part of their 2022 Tour.[27][28]
  • A concert by Canadian recording artist Justin Bieber, part of his Justice World Tour, was scheduled on 7 September 2022, before being cancelled the day before due to Bieber proritizing his health.[29][30]

Capacity Edit

The stadium was built with an original capacity of 48,000 spectators in 1937. At the time, some considered it a "white elephant" because it was thought that it could never be filled. The term also alluded to the charges of corruption against the administration of Arturo Alessandri, which oversaw the stadium's costly construction.[31]

For the 1962 FIFA World Cup, seating capacity was increased to 74,000 with overflow areas allowing for a total of more than 80,000 people, by eliminating the cycling track that was moved to another location. Over the years, seating capacity was reduced to keep escape routes clear and prevent accidents.

For the 2000 World Junior Championships in Athletics, the installation of individual seats was required, which reduced capacity to 66,000 spectators. This requirement ensured that the stadium could not exceed capacity, as seen with the visit of Pope John Paul II in 1987 (believed to be attended by more than 90,000 people, though no accurate measurement could be taken as attendance was free, with no control), or the closing of the Telethon. The official capacity of the stadium as of 2014 is 48,665.[32]

References Edit

  1. ^ "Copa América 2015". 11 April 2014.
  2. ^ Globo Esporte TV Programme, Brazil, May 10, 2015: Especial: Liga dos Campeões completa 60 anos, e Neymar ajuda a contar essa história. Accessed on December 6th 2015. In this interview to the Brazilian sports TV programme Globo Esporte, Jacques Ferran (the creator of the European Champions Cup) states that the South American Championship of Champions was his inspiration for the creation of the European continental competition. Ferran's speech goes from 5:02 to 6:51 in the video. Archived 2016-03-04 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ "Copa Libertadores. Historia". CONMEBOL. 24 January 2015.
  4. ^ "Estadio Nacional costará US$ 42 millones y la "Roja" se va al Monumental". La Tercera (in Spanish). 2009-06-16. Archived from the original on 2009-06-11. Retrieved 2009-06-16.
  5. ^ "Publicada Ley que denomina Julio Martínez al Estadio Nacional de Santiago – Biblioteca del Congreso Nacional de Chile" (in Spanish). 29 October 2008. Retrieved 2011-06-03.
  6. ^ "Harvard Review of Latin America: Chile's National Stadium, with details on several detention centers". Archived from the original on August 11, 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-03.
  7. ^ "Chile Audio Visual". Archived from the original on 2011-07-07. Retrieved 2011-06-03.
  8. ^ Carmen Luz Parot, 2002, Estadio Nacional. Documental (National Stadium Documentary). Produced by Sello Alerce, Chile, 2002.
  9. ^ "The Soccer Match That Should Have Never Been Played". 20 April 2014. Retrieved 2017-11-29.
  10. ^ "La Tercera Edición Impresa". Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2011-06-03.
  11. ^ "La Tercera Edición Impresa". Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2011-06-03.
  12. ^ "Parque del Estadio Nacional tendrá una laguna, restaurantes y cafés | Santiago | La Tercera Edición Impresa". 1990-01-01. Archived from the original on 2011-07-21. Retrieved 2011-06-03.
  13. ^ "Primera División 2016/2017 Clausura – Attendance". 22 December 2018.
  14. ^ S.A.P, El Mercurio (2022-04-07). "Coldplay anuncia tercer concierto en Chile: Por primera vez una banda realizará tres shows seguidos en el Estadio Nacional |". Emol (in Spanish). Retrieved 2023-01-27.
  15. ^ Retamal, Felipe (2022-05-23). "Coldplay marca récord y suma cuarto show en el Estadio Nacional". La Tercera. Retrieved 2023-01-27.
  16. ^ Vergara, Claudio (2023-09-05). "Los Bunkers fijan segundo show en el Estadio Nacional e igualan la marca de Los Prisioneros" [Los Bunkers set second show at Estadio Nacional and match Los Prisioneros' record]. La Tercera (in Spanish). Retrieved 2023-09-05.
  17. ^ "Iron Maiden En Chile, 60.000 aficionados disfrutaron del espectáculo". YouTube. Retrieved 2012-04-22.
  18. ^ "Iron Maiden To Release 'En Vivo!' Concert Blu-Ray, Two-DVD Set And Double Soundtrack Album". Archived from the original on 2012-09-09. Retrieved 2012-01-17.
  19. ^ "Jet". Johnson Publishing Company. 6 December 1993.
  20. ^ "Luismi suena fuerte". La Nación. 30 November 1999. Retrieved 14 May 2019.
  21. ^ "Pop Fest reveló programación del festival que encabeza Shakira" [Pop Fest unveils lineup for festival headlined by Shakira]. Radio Cooperativa (in Spanish). Compañía Chilena de Comunicaciones. 7 March 2011. Retrieved 3 October 2022.
  22. ^ "Confirman que Foo Fighters se presentará en Pista Atlética del Estadio Nacional" [Foo Fighters Confirmed to Perform at the National Stadium Athletic Track]. Radio Bío-Bío (in Spanish). Bío-Bío Comunicaciones. 9 December 2014. Retrieved 17 September 2022.
  23. ^ "Show de Ricardo Arjona se traslada a la Pista Atlética" [Ricardo Arjona show moves to the Athletic Track]. Radio Cooperativa (in Spanish). Compañía Chilena de Comunicaciones S.A. 6 September 2018. Retrieved 17 September 2022.
  24. ^ Rojas, Felipe (23 October 2018). "El extraño ambiente que marcó el primer recital suspendido de Jackson en Chile" [The strange atmosphere that marked Jackson's first cancelled concert in Chile]. La Tercera (in Spanish). Copesa. Retrieved 17 September 2022.
  25. ^ "Concierto de Maroon 5 se traslada del Estadio Nacional al Bicentenario de La Florida" [Maroon 5 concert moves from the National Stadium to the Bicentenario de La Florida]. La Tercera (in Spanish). December 3, 2019. Retrieved March 13, 2020.
  26. ^ "Definitivo: show Gracias Totales homenaje a Soda Stereo se cambia al Estadio Monumental y en nueva fecha" [Definitive: Gracias Totales - Soda Stereo tribute show moves to Estadio Monumental on a new date]. La Tercera (in Spanish). Copesa. 4 April 2022. Retrieved 4 April 2022.
  27. ^ "Concierto de Metallica en Chile ya tendría lugar tras polémica por cancelación del show en el Estadio Nacional" [Metallica concert in Chile would have a venue after controversy over the cancellation of the show at the National Stadium]. ADN Radio Chile (in Spanish). Ibero Americana Radio Chile. 12 April 2022. Retrieved 2 October 2022.
  28. ^ "Definitivo: Metallica tocará en el Club Hípico y mantiene la fecha de su show" [Definitive: Metallica will play at Club Hipico and keeps the date of their show.]. La Tercera (in Spanish). Copesa. 15 April 2022. Retrieved 2 October 2022.
  29. ^ DeSantis, Rachel (September 6, 2022). "Justin Bieber Postpones Remaining Tour Dates to Make His Health the 'Priority Right Now'". People. Dotdash Meredith. Retrieved September 6, 2022.
  30. ^ @justicetour (September 15, 2022). "Justice World Tour Announcement" – via Instagram.
  31. ^ Brenda Elsey, Citizens and Sportsmen: Futbol and Politics in Twentieth Century Chile (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2011)
  32. ^ "Estadio Nacional de Chile". The Stadium Guide. 10 September 2013. Retrieved 31 July 2015.

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33°27′52″S 70°36′38″W / 33.46444°S 70.61056°W / -33.46444; -70.61056