The Sound+Vision Tour was a 1990 concert tour by English musician David Bowie that was billed as a greatest hits tour in which Bowie would retire his back catalogue of hit songs from live performance. The tour opened at the Colisée de Québec in Quebec City, Canada on 4 March 1990 before reaching its conclusion at the River Plate Stadium in Buenos Aires, Argentina on 29 September 1990, spanning five continents in seven months. The concert tour surpassed Bowie's previous Serious Moonlight (1983) and Glass Spider (1987) tours' statistics by visiting 27 countries with 108 performances.
|Tour by David Bowie|
A Sound+Vision Tour Promotional Image
David Bowie in silhouette
|Start date||4 March 1990|
|End date||29 September 1990|
|No. of shows||7 in North America|
23 in Europe
7 in North America
2 in Asia
40 in North America
24 in Europe
6 in South America
|David Bowie concert chronology|
Bowie's previous Glass Spider Tour and two most recent albums (Tonight (1984) and Never Let Me Down (1987)) had all been critically dismissed, and Bowie was looking for a way to rejuvenate himself artistically. To this end, Bowie wanted to avoid having to play his old hits live forever, and used the release of the Sound + Vision box set as the impetus for a tour, despite having no new material recorded. Bowie took a break from his band Tin Machine for "Sound+Vision", telling the band he was contractually obligated to do the tour. He invited fellow Tin Machine guitarist Reeves Gabrels to tour with him, but Gabrels declined, and instead suggested Adrian Belew, with whom both Gabrels and Bowie had worked previously. Gabrels called Belew and said “'I have this friend who is going on tour, and he needs a guitar player. He asked me and I can’t do it, but I thought you might want to do it,' and I put David on the phone."
It was stated that Bowie would never perform these greatest hits on tour again. Bowie said "knowing I won't ever have those songs to rely on again spurs me to keep doing new things, which is good for an artist."
Bowie looked forward to retiring his old hits, saying "It's time to put about 30 or 40 songs to bed and it's my intention that this will be the last time I'll ever do those songs completely, because if I want to make a break from what I've done up until now, I've got to make it concise and not have it as a habit to drop back into. It's so easy to kind of keep going on and saying, well, you can rely on those songs, you can rely on that to have a career or something, and I'm not sure I want that."
He would state in another contemporary interview that "I want to finish off that old phase and start again. By the time I'm in my later forties, I will have built up a whole new repertoire."
It has been noted that Bowie is "famous" for claiming retirement in the past, so many critics and observers did not fully believe Bowie when he said he would not play these songs again.
Bowie spent the early few months of 1990 preparing for the tour in a rehearsal hall on Manhattan's west side.
It was announced that the set-list for any given performance of the tour would be partially determined by the most popular titles logged in a telephone poll by calling the number 1-900-2-BOWIE-90. Money earned from phone calls to the 1-900 number were donated to two charities, Save the Children and a Brixton charity. Mail-in ballots were made available to vote by in territories where telephone technology was not available.
Bowie did in fact build the tour's setlist from calls to the phone number from all over the world, saying "What I ended up doing was taking about seven or eight [songs] from [the calls in] England, another seven or eight from the rest of Europe and the rest I made up from America so it's a good sampling of what everybody wanted in all the continents." The first shows of the tour held in March 1990 in Canada were performed before any telephone polls were completed, leading Bowie to guess at the list of songs the audience wanted to hear.
In the US, the songs "Fame", "Let's Dance" and "Changes" topped the list of songs requested by fans, while in Europe the songs "Heroes" and "Blue Jean" were the leaders.
The NME, in response to the telephone poll, ran a spoof campaign, Just Say Gnome, in an effort to have "The Laughing Gnome" included in the set-lists. Bowie had considered playing "The Laughing Gnome" "in the style of The Velvets or something" until he found out the voting had been perpetrated by the music magazine.
Édouard Lock (of La La La Human Steps) co-conceived and was artistic director for this tour. Bowie had originally wanted La La La Human Steps to be involved in his previous Glass Spider Tour, but was unable to secure them due to scheduling conflicts. Given the unfavorable attention that his previous solo tour drew, Bowie was keen to make sure the Sound+Vision Tour did things differently. He said, "It will be staged; there is no way I could ever consider really putting something on the stage that doesn't owe something to theatah (pronouncing 'theatre' in a thick British accent), but it won't be overtly theatre in as much as it won't be propped the same way. Going back to the way we worked towards the Station to Station show, which was basically a question of using a kind of Brechtian lighting pad and working areas and atmospheres of light, is very much the kind of feel it will have." Bowie recruited Willie Williams to design the lighting for the tour, having worked with him on the preceding year's Tin Machine tour.
He added that this tour is "nowhere near as ambitious as Glass Spider in size, but qualitatively, in essence, I think it's as theatrical."
In addition to the stark lighting and the backing 4-piece rock band, Bowie employed a new tool for this tour: a giant sixty-by-forty foot transparent gauze scrim. The scrim would occasionally be lowered in front of or behind Bowie, onto which images of Bowie and videos were projected. Bowie described it as being "like a giant Javanese shadow puppet show at times." Two large, round screens at each side of the stage also displayed the videos projected on the scrim.
The set was constructed by 80 workers who traveled with the tour, with the help of local workers who were hired in each city. A single set took 8 trucks to move (with an additional 4 buses for the workers), and required 9 hours to set up and 4 hours to load out each night.
Video recordings of La La La Human Steps' Louise Lecavalier performing dances in time to the music and images of Bowie singing, playing instruments, miming or otherwise performing to certain songs were projected on the scrim & screens during the show. For some dates, such as the performance in Montreal on 6 March 1990, some of the dancers from La La La Human Steps danced live on stage to some of the songs. Bowie was enthusiastic about the inclusion of the dancers on the tour: "You've never seen anything like them before. They're probably the leading avant-garde dance troupe in North America. Louise Lecavalier, their star, is like nothing else you've ever seen on stage. She's absolutely phenomenal. ... The dance troupe is unbelievable. It's where punk and ballet clash with each other."
Bowie wanted to record the concert, something he hadn't always done before, saying "We're intending to film it for posterity; I should hope so. I've always regretted not having filmed things like the 'Diamond Dogs' show. We never filmed the 'Station to Station' show. Or the 'soul' show with Dave Sanborn and those guys. I have absolutely no footage of those things. It's terrible. ... It's infuriating."
Despite this, no official recording of the show has been made available to the public in either audio or video form. A number of performances were filmed and recorded for television and radio broadcasts:
|Recording date||Location||Broadcast by|
|16 May 1990||Tokyo Dome|
|5 August 1990||Milton Keynes Bowl||BBC Radio 1|
|14 September 1990||Estádio José Alvalade||RTP1|
|20 September 1990||Sambodromo de Rio – Rio de Janeiro||Rede Globo|
|23 September 1990||Estadio de Palmeiras – São Paulo||Radio Transamérica|
|27 September 1990||Rock in Chile Festival – Estadio Nacional de Chile|
Contemporary reception and reviewsEdit
Rolling Stone described the 1990 summer concert season "a concert season to remember", and included the Sound+Vision Tour as one of its highlights. They said "Louise Lecavalier of Montreal's La La La Human Steps dance troupe provides avant-garde acrobatics, and several [musical] numbers are graced by stunning short films, including a clip for "Ashes to Ashes" that has to be seen to be believed. Otherwise, there are no pyrotechnics, no laser beams and, best of all, no glass spiders," the last a reference to Bowie's previous world tour. A review of an early show by Rolling Stone was positive, saying "Bowie proved able to reclaim virtually his entire diverse oeuvre – even those songs that now seem furthest from him – through sheer vocal power and charisma" and complaining only that "the band wasn't always equal to the challenge, demonstrating too much respect for the songs' recorded arrangements." A review of the show's stop in Vancouver, BC said "Bowie hasn't sounded this good in years", praising the tour's focus on not only the songs, but on Bowie himself, and a review of the show in Seattle called the visuals "a knockout" and praised Bowie as an innovator, only complaining that the music itself seemed "mechanical."
While some shows on the North American tour did not sell out, such as in Seattle and some dates in Florida, overall the tour was well-attended. It sold out, often over multiple nights, in cities such as San Francisco, Sacramento, Philadelphia and Detroit.
A month later in Philadelphia, Bowie stopped his performance in the middle of the song "Young Americans" to speak out against music censorship, specifically due to the controversy over 2 Live Crew's album As Nasty As They Wanna Be, saying "I've been listening to the album by 2 Live Crew. It's not the best album that's ever been made, but when I heard they banned it, I went out and bought it. Freedom of thought, freedom of speech – it's one of the most important things we have."
During the show in Modena, Bowie stopped his performance while in the middle of "Station to Station" and said onstage "Ok, I'm gonna have to pick some easier songs, or I'm never gonna get through half of these... Let's try Fame." then Bowie proceeded to take his guitar and throw it at the other side of the stage. It is said that Bowie had a cold and he became frustrated that it was affecting his vocals.
The tour opened at the Colisée de Québec – Quebec City on 4 March 1990 before reaching its conclusion in Buenos Aires, Argentina on 29 September 1990, spanning five continents in seven months. The concert tour surpassed the previous Serious Moonlight and Glass Spider Tour's statistics by visiting 27 countries with 108 performances. For the ten performances in the United Kingdom alone it was estimated the audience figure was 250,000 in total. The tour was estimated to have grossed $20M (or roughly $38M today, adjusted for inflation).
Bowie felt that a burden had been lifted by retiring the old hits he felt he was forced to perform, and said "[Retiring my old hits on tour] was a very selfish thing to do, but it gave me an immense sense of freedom, to feel that I couldn't rely on any of those things. It's like I'm approaching it all from the ground up now, starting with 'Okay, we know what songs we needn't do anymore. What, of my past, did I really like?' You pick things that were really good songs, and you try to recontextualize them, by giving them current, contemporary rhythms. And we've been knocking around ideas like 'Shopping for Girls' from Tin Machine, 'Repetition' and 'Quicksand' from Hunky Dory. Certain songs that I probably haven't ever performed onstage. They're working shoulder to shoulder with the new material, and I'm starting to see continuity in the way that I work."
Generally, most songs that Bowie performed on the tour were played live in years to come, with only a small number of songs from the Sound+Vision Tour set list truly being retired forever; the most notable songs never to be played live again were "Young Americans" and "Rock 'n' Roll Suicide". Bowie only played "Space Oddity" on tour a single time live afterwards, although Bowie did perform the song three times on other occasions. In future tours Bowie would in fact begin to play lesser-known songs, only occasionally punctuated by his well known older "hits", and bias towards playing material written after 1990.
Bowie specifically chose a smaller band for the tour, saying in a contemporary interview that "It's a much smaller sound. It's not quite as orchestrated as any of the other tours. The plus of that is that there is a certain kind of drive and tightness that you get with that embryonic line-up, where everybody is totally reliant on the other two or three guys, so everybody gives a lot more." There was some tension in the band during the tour, remembered musician Kızılçay, who recalled that Bowie "wasn't very happy," and that "[Bowie] was very stressed, especially in South America. He didn’t even come to the sound checks. Keyboardist Rick Fox wasn't invested in the tour; he would occasionally eat dinner on stage, and on at least one occasion turned off his own keyboards and played his own songs while sampled parts of Bowie's songs were playing.
- "Space Oddity"
- "Rebel Rebel"
- "Ashes to Ashes"
- "Life on Mars?"
- "Pretty Pink Rose"
- "Sound and Vision"
- "Blue Jean"
- "Let's Dance"
- "Ziggy Stardust"
- "China Girl"
- "Station to Station"
- "Young Americans"
- "Suffragette City"
- "The Jean Genie"
- "White Light/White Heat"
- "Modern Love"
|Date||City||Country||Venue||Tickets sold / available||Revenue|
|4 March 1990||Quebec City||Canada||Colisée de Québec||15,000 / 15,756||$397,500|
|6 March 1990||Montreal||Montreal Forum||16,235 / 19,000||$535,755|
|7 March 1990||Toronto||Skydome||55,000 / 55,000||$1,229,008|
|10 March 1990||Winnipeg||Winnipeg Arena||18,460 / 18,460||$486,328|
|12 March 1990||Edmonton||Northlands Coliseum||13,000 / 13,000||$264,000|
|13 March 1990||Calgary||Olympic Saddledome||18,000 / 22,000||$360,000|
|15 March 1990||Vancouver||Pacific Coliseum||17,500 / 17,500||$420,000|
|19 March 1990||Birmingham||England||National Exhibition Centre||34,560 / 38,000||$978,589|
|20 March 1990|
|23 March 1990||Edinburgh||Scotland||Royal Highland Exhibition Centre||42,000 / 42,000||$924,000|
|24 March 1990|
|26 March 1990||London||England||Docklands Arena||43,560 / 45,000||$1,089,000|
|27 March 1990|
|28 March 1990|
|30 March 1990||Rotterdam||Netherlands||Rotterdam Ahoy||13,000 / 13,000|
|1 April 1990||Dortmund||Germany||(Rescheduled) Westfalenhalle||N/A||N/A|
|2 April 1990||Paris||France||Palais Omnisports de Paris-Bercy||40,000 / 40,000|
|3 April 1990|
|5 April 1990||Frankfurt||Germany||Festhalle Frankfurt||N/A||N/A|
|7 April 1990||Hamburg||Alsterdorfer Sporthalle||7,000 / 7,000|
|8 April 1990||Berlin||Deutschlandhalle||10,000 / 10,000|
|10 April 1990||Munich||Olympiahalle||12,000 / 12,000|
|11 April 1990||Stuttgart||Hanns-Martin-Schleyer-Halle||Unknown||Unknown|
|13 April 1990||Milan||Italy||Palatrussardi|
|14 April 1990|
|17 April 1990||Rome||Palaeur|
|20 April 1990||Brussels||Belgium||Forest National||16,000 / 16,000|
|21 April 1990|
|22 April 1990||Dortmund||Germany||Westfalenhalle||Unknown||Unknown|
|27 April 1990||Miami||United States||Miami Arena||13,121 / 13,121||$338,388|
|29 April 1990||Pensacola||Pensacola Civic Center||10,000 / 10,000||$210,000|
|1 May 1990||Orlando||Orlando Arena||18,000 / 18,000||$378,000|
|4 May 1990||St. Petersburg||Florida Suncoast Dome||40,000 / 50,000||$840,000|
|5 May 1990||Jacksonville||Jacksonville Memorial Coliseum||8,760 / 10,125||$183,960|
|7 May 1990||Atlanta||Omni Coliseum||10,912 / 12,781||$257,500|
|9 May 1990||Chapel Hill||Dean Smith Center||17,500 / 21,750||$367,500|
|15 May 1990||Tokyo||Japan||Tokyo Dome||110,000 / 110,000||$2,310,000|
|16 May 1990|
|20 May 1990||Vancouver||Canada||BC Place Stadium||46,560 / 55,000||$976,500|
|21 May 1990||Tacoma||United States||Tacoma Dome||23,000 / 23,000||$483,000|
|23 May 1990||Los Angeles||Los Angeles Memorial Sports Arena||12,756 / 12,756||$356,991|
|24 May 1990||Sacramento||Cal Expo||13,961 / 13,961||$384,165|
|26 May 1990||Los Angeles||Dodger Stadium||40,877 / 47,000||$1,117,086|
|28 May 1990||Mountain View||Shoreline Amphitheatre||35,207 / 40,000||$862,515|
|29 May 1990|
|1 June 1990||Denver||McNichols Sports Arena||35,800 / 35,800||$823,400|
|2 June 1990|
|4 June 1990||Dallas||Starplex Amphitheater||11,538 / 20,000||$276,167|
|6 June 1990||Austin, Texas||Frank Erwin Center||17,678 / 17,900||$618,730|
|7 June 1990||Houston||Woodlands Pavilion||9,481 / 10,000||$215,877|
|9 June 1990||Kansas City||Sandstone Amphitheater||18,000 / 18,000||$378,000|
|10 June 1990||St. Louis||St. Louis Arena||8,975 / 18,000||$235,175|
|12 June 1990||Noblesville||Deer Creek Music Center||10,100 / 18,000||$237,350|
|13 June 1990||Milwaukee||Marcus Amphitheater||25,000 / 25,000||$600,000|
|15 June 1990||Chicago||World Music Theatre||55,130 / 56,000||$1,543,640|
|16 June 1990|
|19 June 1990||Cleveland||Richfield Coliseum||26,319 / 26,319||$657,975|
|20 June 1990|
|22 June 1990||Auburn Hills||The Palace of Auburn Hills||39,225 / 39,900||$980,625|
|24 June 1990|
|25 June 1990|
|27 June 1990||Burgettstown||Coca-Cola Star Lake Amphitheater||12,521 / 22,917||$375,630|
|30 June 1990||St. John's||Canada||Memorial Stadium||6,000 / 6,000||$126,000|
|2 July 1990||Moncton||Moncton Coliseum||7,200 / 7,200||$187,200|
|4 July 1990||Toronto||Canadian National Exhibition Stadium||73,000 / 74,500||$1,825,000|
|6 July 1990||Ottawa||Ottawa Civic Centre||9,500 / 9,750||$199,500|
|7 July 1990||Saratoga Springs||United States||Saratoga Performing Arts Center||25,000 / 25,000||$700,000|
|9 July 1990||Philadelphia||The Spectrum||74,000 / 74,000||$1,554,000|
|10 July 1990|
|12 July 1990|
|13 July 1990|
|16 July 1990||Uniondale||Nassau Veterans Memorial Coliseum||14,500 / 14,500||$435,000|
|18 July 1990||Columbia||Merriweather Post Pavilion||36,460 / 38,000||$984,420|
|19 July 1990|
|21 July 1990||Foxborough||Sullivan Stadium||57,000 / 60,000||$1,197,000|
|23 July 1990||Hartford||Hartford Civic Center||12,760 / 12,760||$273,063|
|25 July 1990||Niagara Falls||Niagara Falls Convention and Civic Center||10,000 / 10,000||$230,000|
|29 July 1990||East Rutherford||Giants Stadium||80,000 / 80,000||$1,711,993|
|4 August 1990||Milton Keynes||England||National Bowl||120,000 / 120,000||$2,520,000|
|5 August 1990|
|7 August 1990||Manchester||Maine Road Football Ground||80,000 / 83,000||$2,640,000|
|9 August 1990||Dublin||Ireland||Point Depot||24,150 / 26,000||$507,150|
|10 August 1990|
|13 August 1990||Fréjus||France||Arènes de Fréjus||13,500 / 13,500||$364,500|
|16 August 1990||Ghent||Belgium||Flanders Expo||5,000 / 5,000||$130,000|
|18 August 1990||Nijmegen||Netherlands||Stadion de Goffert||14,500 / 14,500||$304,500|
|19 August 1990||Maastricht||Maastricht Exhibition & Congress Centre||3,700 / 3,700||$111,000|
|22 August 1990||Oslo||Norway||Jordal Stadion||18,000 / 20,000||130,000|
|24 August 1990||Stockholm||Sweden||Olympiastadion||30,000 / 33,000||$602,540|
|25 August 1990||Copenhagen||Denmark||Idraetsparken||95,000 / 97,000||$3,230,000|
|26 August 1990|
|29 August 1990||Linz||Austria||Linzer Stadion||28,400 / 28,400||$596,400|
|31 August 1990||Berlin||Germany||Weißensee Sportplatz||6,750 / 6,750||$162,000|
|1 September 1990||Schüttorf||Festival Site||8,500 / 9,000||$178,500|
|2 September 1990||Ulm||Open Air Festival||Unknown||Unknown|
|4 September 1990||Budapest||Hungary||MTK Stadium||5,675 / 5,675||$124,850|
|5 September 1990||Zagreb||Yugoslavia||Stadion Maksimir||54,740 / 60,000||$1,204,280|
|8 September 1990||Modena||Italy||Festa de l'Unità||45,000 / 45,000||-|
|11 September 1990||Gijón||Spain||Hipódromo de las Mestas||10,000 / 10,000||$250,000|
|12 September 1990||Madrid||Rockodromo Arena||9,850 / 12,000||$285,650|
|14 September 1990||Lisbon||Portugal||Alvalade Stadium||57,850 / 60,000||$1,909,050|
|16 September 1990||Barcelona||Spain||Estadio Olímpico de Montjuic||55,000 / 55,000||$1,650,000|
|20 September 1990||Rio de Janeiro||Brazil||Apoteose Square Hall||38,975 / 40,000||$1,052,325|
|22 September 1990||São Paulo||Estádio Palestra Itália||70,000 / 70,000||1,750,000|
|23 September 1990|
|25 September 1990||Olímpia Theatre||-||-|
|27 September 1990||Santiago||Chile||Rock in Chile Festival -
Estadio Nacional de Chile
|60,456 / 60,456||-|
|29 September 1990||Buenos Aires||Argentina||River Plate Stadium||60,356 / 61,000||$1,267,476|
From David Bowie
From Hunky Dory
From Aladdin Sane
From Diamond Dogs
From Young Americans
From Station to Station
From Let's Dance
- Barton, David (8 June 1989), "David Bowie puts career on the line", Journal-American, p. D5
- "Bowie: Boys Keep Swinging", Melody Maker, 66 (12): 24–26, 24 March 1990
- Clarke, Tina (March 1990), "Watch That Man", Music Express Magazine: 12
- Bromberg, Craig (June 1990), "David Bowie (Interview)", Smart: 50–57
- Ives, Brian (20 February 2017). "David Bowie: A Look Back at His '90s Era – When He Got Weird Again". Retrieved 27 March 2018.
- Gundersen, Edna (27 April 1990), "Bowie, Rebel in Repose", USA Today: D1–D2
- "Rolling Stone Summer Music Guide 1990", Rolling Stone Magazine Insert: 3, 1990
- Nicholas Pegg, The Complete David Bowie, Reynolds & Hearn Ltd, 2004, ISBN 1-903111-73-0
- Du Noyer, Paul (April 1990), "David Bowie (Interview)", Q Magazine: 60–70
- O'Brien, Glenn (May 1990), "Bowie (Interview)", Interview Magazine, 20 (5): 84–91
- White, Dennis R. (May 1990), "The Man Who Showed the World", The Rocket, Seattle (127), pp. 19–20
- Hilburn, Robert (20 May 1990), "Can We Trust Bowie This Time? : Rock's Man of 1,000 Faces reminisces about his key songs--which he vows never to sing again in concert", Los Angeles Times, retrieved 29 October 2013
- The Simon Bates interviews, BBC Radio 1, Jan-Feb 1990
- Robbins, Ira (19 April 1990), "Canadian Opening for Sound+Vision Tour", Rolling Stone magazine: 21 & 23
- David Buckley, Strange Fascination: The Definitive Biography of David Bowie, Virgin Books, 1999, ISBN 1-85227-784-X
- LiveDesign. "Memory Lane". Retrieved 25 March 2016.
- KISW's Lowdown: David Bowie's Sound+Vision Tour by Mike Jones (radio interview). 21 May 1990.
- Clarke, Tina (1990), "David Bowie: Ornament – Oddity – Artist – Survivor", Elle, archived from the original on 16 July 2001
- Flannigan, Erik (April 1990), "David Bowie, PNE Coliseum, 3/15", The Rocket, Seattle (126), p. 10
- MacDonald, Patrick (22 May 1990), "Bowie's Past Lives", The Seattle Times, Seattle, pp. F1 & F3
- Neely, Kim (12–26 July 1990), "Heavy Summer Traffic", Rolling Stone, no. 582/583, pp. 26–27
- Price, Simon (11 August 1990), Station to Station (David Bowie at Milton Keynes Bowl review), retrieved 25 June 2013
- "Buddy & Bowie at NAMM Shure Show", Pro Sound News, 12 (7): SR16, 13 July 1990
- "People in the news", Times News Service, 14 July 1990
- Matt Day (4 February 2009), David Bowie Station To Station – Modena 08.09.90 Bowie Tantrum!!!, retrieved 8 June 2017
- Christopher Sandford, Bowie: Loving the Alien, Warner Books, 1997, ISBN 0-7515-1924-3
- The Man Who Fell to Earth, retrieved 8 January 2013
- Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–". Retrieved 2 January 2019.
- Pond, Steve (March 1997), "Beyond Bowie", Live Magazine: 38–41, 93
- O'Leary, Chris (2012). "Did Bowie really retire his oldies?". Retrieved 31 August 2017.
- "UNDER PRESSURE: Gail Ann Dorsey on playing bass for David Bowie". PleaseKillMe.com. 20 December 2017. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
- "DAVID BOWIE - Space Oddity (live)". Retrieved 5 November 2018.
- "David Bowie Tibet House Benefit Concert 22.02.02 Space Oddity". Retrieved 5 November 2018.
- "David Bowie- Space Oddity (live in Dennmark, 2002)". Retrieved 5 November 2018.
- Gundersen, Edna (14 September 1995), "Cover Story: Bowie, Beyond fame and fashion", USA Today: D1–2
- Strauss, Neil (16 September 1996), "David Bowie, Without All the Gadgetry", New York Times, retrieved 29 October 2013
- Jacobson, Colin (3 November 2004), David Bowie: A Reality Tour (2003), retrieved 20 September 2013
- O'Leary, Chris (2019). Ashes to Ashes The Songs of David Bowie 1976-2016. Repeater Books. ISBN 9781912248308.
- Sinclair, Paul (11 December 2013), Bowie collaborator Erdal Kizilcay on "Glass Spider" and "Never Let Me Down", retrieved 3 September 2019
- Gordon, Arielle (25 September 2017). "David Bowie Collaborators Announce 2018 Celebrating David Bowie Tour". Spin. Retrieved 27 February 2018.
- Sound+Vision Tour
- "The Cincinnati Enquirer from Cincinnati, Ohio on June 14, 1990 · Page 29".
- "Pittsburgh Post-Gazette from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on September 4, 1990 · Page 19".