Sociedade Esportiva Palmeiras

Sociedade Esportiva Palmeiras (Brazilian Portuguese: [sosiedˈadʒi ispoɾtʃˈivə pawmˈejɾəs] (About this soundlisten)), commonly known as Palmeiras, is a Brazilian professional football club based in the city of São Paulo, in the district of Perdizes. Palmeiras is one of the most popular clubs, with the most trophies and the most success in Brazil, with around 18 million supporters and 126,000 affiliated fans,[2] including many Brazilians of Italian ancestry. Despite being primarily an association football team, Palmeiras competes in a number of different sports. The football team plays in the Campeonato Paulista, the state of São Paulo's premier state league, as well as in the Brasileirão Série A, the top tier of the Brazilian football league system.

Palmeiras logo.svg
Full nameSociedade Esportiva Palmeiras
Alviverde (White-Green)
Verdão (Big Green)
Porco (Pig)
Campeão do Século (Champion of the Century)
Periquito (Parakeet, used in the club's early stages)
FoundedAugust 26, 1914; 107 years ago (1914-08-26), as Palestra Itália
GroundAllianz Parque
PresidentMauricio Galiotte (until 15 December 2021)
Leila Pereira (as of 15 December 2021)
Head coachAbel Ferreira
LeagueCampeonato Brasileiro Série A
Campeonato Paulista
Série A, 3rd of 20
Paulista, 2nd of 16
WebsiteClub website
Current season

Palmeiras was founded by Italian immigrants on August 26, 1914, as "Palestra Itália" (pronounced [paˌlɛstɾiˈtaliɐ]). However, the club changed its name on September 14, 1942, as a result of Brazil joining the Allies in the Second World War against Italy (in Portuguese "Itália") and the Axis power. Since then, Palmeiras has won 15 national competitions, including a record 10 Campeonato Brasileiro Série A, 4 Copa do Brasil, and 1 Copa dos Campeões, making it the most successful club in domestic competitions inside Brazil.[3] In international club football, the Brazilian giant has won the 1951 Copa Rio, the 1999, 2020 and 2021 Copa Libertadores, and the 1998 Copa Mercosul. The club has also been successful at a regional level as they have won 5 Interstate titles (Torneio Rio – São Paulo), and 23 State Championship titles (Campeonato Paulista).[4] Palmeiras currently occupies the second position on the CBF ranking.

The club has a long-standing rivalry with Corinthians, and matches between the two teams are referred to as Derby Paulista. Palmeiras also holds rivalries with São Paulo and Santos.


First crest in 1915
Photo of Palestra Italia in 1916
Photo of Palestra Italia State Champion in 1920

Palestra is born – opening gameEdit

At the beginning of the 20th century, several young Italians decided to start a club whose main goal was to form a football team that would be representative of the Italian community, and face the big names of São Paulo's football elite. Just over three decades earlier, Italy had been unified – a fact that was not known to some Italian-Brazilians and to some non-Italian Brazilians.

There were numerous Italian clubs, but each one represented an Italian Province or was geared to activities other than football. At the time, the game was starting to take hold and drew many players and fans.

The founders of the club sought out the Fanfulla newspaper, which was the media mouthpiece that defended the interests of Italians in Brazil, and entrusted young Vincenzo Ragognetti – another supporter of the idea – to draft an invitation to those interested in forming a sports club.

After several meetings, 46 interested individuals (led by Luigi Marzo and Luigi Cervo) gathered at the Alhambra Room on what is now Rua do Riachuelo, and founded a sports club for all Italian-Brazilians named "Palestra Italia". Ezequiel Simone was named club president. The Italian Consulate in São Paulo became interested in the new club because it would help spread the word among Italians that their country now had one flag and one anthem.

After some initial difficulties, Palestra Italia played its first game in the town of Votorantim (São Paulo State) – beating Savoy 2–0 with goals from Bianco and Alegretti to win the Savoy Cup.[5]

Photo of Palestra Italia in 1932

1920–1945 – First title and purchase of the stadiumEdit

Oscar Francisco Nascimento (1930)

In 1916, the team joined the city's main sports league and held its first official championship match. The following year it would be runner-up in the São Paulo State Championship, facing Corinthians for the first time. Palestra won that initial game 3–0 with three goals from Caetano; it also won the rematch 3–1 of what would become the team's chief rivalry. In 1920, Palestra Italia captured the São Paulo State championship with a victory over the rugged Paulistano squad in the deciding match.

Palestra continued to grow as a sports club and also began acquiring more assets. Estádio Palestra Itália, purchased in 1920, was remodeled and expanded in 1933 – when it became the first Brazilian stadium with concrete grandstands and barbed-wire fences. Starting in 1964, the playing field would be suspended, which gave fans a complete, broad view and also created space in the lower levels.

The club continued to grow and won more championships, and at the outset of the 1930s became the three-time São Paulo State football and basketball champion – a feat which prompted Palestra fans to chant in celebration: "With the feet or with the hands, Palestra is the best in the land."[5]

A Leader Dies, A Champion is BornEdit

Oberdan Cattani
Photo of Palestra Italia State Champion in 1940
Palmeiras in 1942

In 1942 during World War II, the government of President Getúlio Vargas made a decree banning any organization from using names related to the Axis Powers (Germany, Italy, and Japan). Palestra Italia was compelled to change its name, and became Palestra São Paulo. "Palestra" is a Greek word, loosely translated as "gymnasium", that did not violate the government measure. However, the change still did not soothe political and sporting pressures to alter the name completely. Under penalty of forfeiting all its assets to another club and facing ejection from the championship that it currently led, Palestra was forced to change its name a second time. The night before the last game of the State championship, scheduled for 20 September 1942, the Palestra board of directors held a heated meeting and changed the club's name. When the debate reached its peak, Dr. Mario Minervino took the floor and asked club Secretary, Dr. Pascoal W. Byron Giuliano, to note in the minutes:

– "They don't want us to be Palestra, so then we shall be Palmeiras – born to be champions."

Tensions flared during the final league match, where Palmeiras' opponent was São Paulo Futebol Clube (SPFC) which was laying claim to the assets of the former Palestra Italia.

Palmeiras took the field carrying the Brazilian flag under the leadership of army Captain Adalberto Mendes. Palmeiras was leading the match by 3–1 when a penalty was called in its favor. At that moment, the SPFC ordered its players to consider the Palmeiras squad an enemy of the homeland and pulled its side off the field amid jeers from even the club's own fans. The celebrations began on the spot. The next day, newspapers contained a photograph of Palmeiras entering the field with the headline: "A Leader Dies, A Champion is Born."[5]

World Champion - Copa RioEdit

Copa Rio 1951 Trofee

In January 1951, the Brazilian sports newspaper O Globo Sportivo ran a lead story reporting that FIFA President Jules Rimet would grant unconditional support (then unofficial) to holding a world club championship in Rio de Janeiro.

The first Copa Rio was held in 1951, with the participation of eight squads, divided into two brackets of four teams apiece: Vasco da Gama (Brazil), Austria Vienna (Austria), Nacional (Uruguay), and Sporting Lisbon (Portugal), playing in Rio; and Palmeiras (Brazil), Juventus (Italy), Red Star (Yugoslavia), and Olympique (France) playing in São Paulo. Clubs such as Malmo, Rapid Vienna, Tottenham, Newcastle, Barcelona, Lousanne were invited to participate in the tournament but not interested as Milan and Atletico de Madrid who preferred to participate in the Latin Cup. The importance of the 1951 Copa Rio is linked to the fact that it was the first competition football interclubs with worldwide coverage, having been created even before the Intercontinental Cup. The competition was organised by the Brazilian Sports Confederation, with aid and authorisation from FIFA, and was named for being sponsored by the Rio de Janeiro City Hall. FIFA states that the Palmeiras is de facto the holder of the title of the first World competition between clubs in history.[6] Two editions of Copa Rio took place in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, Brazil in 1951, Palmeiras, from Brazil, was the winner of the tournament, while Fluminense, also from Brazil and coorganizer of the 1952 event, won this title in 1952. However, according to the FIFA statute, there are official competitions organized by FIFA or at least one of the continental confederations,[7][8][9] so this is not the case of the Copa Rio, officially organized by the Brazilian Federation.[10][11] Palmeiras has requested several times to FIFA an official recognition as club world cup.[12][13]

Palmeiras team profiled before the final against Juventus in 1951 at Maracanã Stadium

In 2006, Palmeiras prepared a document for FIFA, detailedly describing the 1951 Copa Rio, in order to request official confirmation of their conquest as the first ever club football world championship.[14][15][16][17] The document sustained that the participation of FIFA officials Stanley Rous and Ottorino Barassi in the organisation of the 1951 competition was a clear indication of FIFA's blessing to it in 1951, sustaining that FIFA had assigned Barassi to represent FIFA in the organisation of the tournament (in reality, in a 1951 interview, the FIFA president Jules Rimet, while praising the Brazilian initiative, denied any FIFA involvement or responsibility for it). Rous and Barassi were primarily involved in negotiations with European clubs, while Barassi also helped organize the framework of the competition.

In May 2007, Palmeiras received a letter from FIFA, signed by then Secretary-General Urs Linsi, recognizing Palmeiras as club world champions of 1951.[16] However, this decision was later withdrawn by FIFA president Sepp Blatter, who declared that the matter was still being evaluated.

In April 2013, in communication to then Brazilian Minister of Sports, Aldo Rebelo, then FIFA General-Secretary, Jérôme Valcke, again recognised Palmeiras as champions of the "first Club World Cup ever held" (as written in the document). In 2014, the FIFA Executive Committee recognized Palmeiras as champions of the "first worldwide club competition" (as written in the document). Also in 2014, FIFA president Joseph Blatter stated to the Brazilian press that Palmeiras was effectively recognised by FIFA and thus should be regarded as club world champions.[18]

On July 22, 2016, FIFA celebrated the 65-year anniversary of the 1951 Copa Rio title won by Palmeiras. On instagram, FIFA posted: "Green is the color of envy. 'The Big Green' were the envy of the wide world # On this day 65 years ago. A Liminha-inspired Palmeiras edged a Juventus team including Giampiero Boniperti & a Danish triumvirate to become the sport's first intercontinental world club champions. 100,000 watched that at the Maracanã. One million flooded the streets of São Paulo to welcome their heroes home". (as written in the post).[19]

A distinction between a "worldwide competition" (worldwide in reach but that does not necessarily indicate the world champion) and a "competition awarding the label of world champion" rose in January 2017, when FIFA issued the following statement, whereby FIFA mentioned both Copa Rio and the Intercontinental Cup as examples (by using the expression such as) of competitions whose existence FIFA hailed as positive: "At its meeting in Sao Paulo on 7 June 2014 the FIFA Executive Committee agreed to the request presented by CBF to acknowledge the 1951 tournament between European and South American clubs as the first worldwide club competition, and Palmeiras as its winner. FIFA acknowledges and values the initiatives to establish worldwide club competitions throughout history. This is the case of tournaments involving European and South American clubs, such as the pioneering Copa Rio, played in 1951 and 1952, and the Intercontinental Cup. However, it was not until 2000 that FIFA organised the maiden FIFA Club World Cup, with representatives from all six confederations. The winners of this competition, which went on to be staged annually from 2005 onwards, are the ones officially considered by FIFA as club world champions.[20][21]

On 27 October 2017, the FIFA Council changed its position: while not promoting statistical unification between the Intercontinental Cup and the Club World Cup, in respect to the history of the two tournaments[22] (which merged in 2005),[23] has officilised the world title of the Intercontinental Cup, recognising all the winners as club world champions, with the same title of the FIFA Club World Cup winners, or "FIFA Club World Champions".[24][25]

FIFA recognises the Intercontinental Cup as the sole direct predecessor of the Club World Cup.

In April 2019, indeed, FIFA president Gianni Infantino, interviewed by the Brazilian media, reiterated FIFA's perspective that only the winners of the Intercontinental Cup and the Club World Cup are officially world champions:

"We have already decided to give the title of world champion to everyone who has won the Cup between Europe and South America since 1960. 1951 is a little further back".

— Gianni Infantino, FIFA President. Brasilia, 9 April 2019.[26]

"The world title of Palmeiras... For miracles, you have ask another, not me..."

— Gianni Infantino, president of FIFA. Brasilia, 9 April 2019.[27]

Also in April 2019, former FIFA president Joseph Blatter (who held office until December 2015) stated to the Brazilian press that Palmeiras was effectively recognised by FIFA in 2014 and thus should be regarded as club world champions.[28]

In February 2021, FIFA website exalted the conquest of Copa Rio by Palmeiras. In their site, FIFA highlighted the tournament:

"A world championship had been dreamed of and discussed for years by some of football’s foremost shot-callers – Jules Rimet, Ottorino Barassi and Stanley Rous among them – and was finally scheduled for 1951 in Brazil, which had recently hosted the FIFA World Cup™. The eight-team competition involved some of Europe’s top teams, Uruguayan behemoths Nacional and Brazilian duo Vasco da Gama and Palmeiras, who qualified as Rio-Sao Paulo Tournament winners".[29]


The Academy, The Brazilian giantEdit

Ademir da Guia
Luís Pereira (right) at the 1974 FIFA World Cup

In the 1960s, the standard of quality of Palmeiras play – led by the one who would come to symbolize this period of football excellence, Ademir da Guia – led the Palestra Italia team to be called the "Academy" of Brazilian football.

Headed by Filpo Nunes, Palmeiras players won the most important national competition in 1965, the Rio – São Paulo championship, with stand-out performances. Blow-outs against top rivals included seven goals scored against Santos, five against Botafogo in their home stadium of Maracanã, five against São Paulo, and another four scored against Vasco. The title came to Palmeiras in another lopsided victory against Botafogo at Pacaembú Stadium in São Paulo.

That same year, the Brazilian Sports Federation (CBD) used the entire Palmeiras roster to launch Minerão Stadium and represent Brazil in an official national team match against Uruguay for the Inconfidência Cup. The day that it donned the green and white, Palmeiras as Brazil was victorious 3–0 over the Uruguayan blue.

In the previous year, Palmeiras had won the Rio de Janeiro Quadricentennial Cup by beating the Paraguayan national team 5–2 and besting Peñarol of Uruguay in the final.

By the end of the 1960s, Palmeiras won the Copa do Brasil and the Roberto Gomes Pedrosa tournament – the Brazilian Championship equivalent at the time. These victories laid the groundwork for the second Palmeiras Academy, with players like Luís Pereira, Leivinha, Emerson Leão, Dudu and César.

Led by Oswaldo Brandão, the team captured several titles in the 1970s. It was three-time São Paulo State champion – emerging undefeated in one of those tournaments – two-time Brazilian Champion, three-time winner of Spain's Ramón de Carranza Trophy, and winner of Argentina's Mar del Plata Trophy – considered the South American Club Championship.[5]

1980s: The lost decadeEdit

Palmeiras' supporters

Accustomed to victories at the "Academy" in the 1960s and 1970s, Palmeiras fans saw the 1980s come and go without championships or titles. In 1986, Palmeiras fielded a good team – routing Corinthians 5–1 and playing an historic game in the semifinals of the São Paulo State Championship against that same rival, prevailing 3–0. The team had arrived at the final of the State Championship – 10 years after winning its last State title – but lost to Inter de Limeira.

On October 29, 1986, Palmeiras fans adopted the "Pig" as their mascot. At a game against Santos, the rival fans were chanting "pig"; the Palmeiras crowd responded with "Come On Pig!! Come On Pig!! Olé Olé Olé..." and "Go Piiiig...." A few days later, Placar sports magazine popularised the new nickname when it published an issue with Jorginho Putinatti – the symbol of that generation – holding a pig in his lap.

There were two noteworthy events during this decade. In the 1983 State Championship against Santos, referee José de Assis Aragão scored a goal for Palmeiras in the 47th minute of the second half. Striker Jorginho kicked inside the penalty area, the ball was on its way out but it hit Aragão – who was on the goal line about a meter from the goal and went into the Santos net. The game ended in a 2–2 tie – much to the chagrin of Santos.

The second unexpected event occurred on November 11, 1988, when striker Gaúcho defended two penalties against Flamengo in a game for the Brazilian Championship at Maracanã. Gaúcho was put in goal after keeper Zetti broke a leg in the final minutes of the match. The game ended in a tie, and advanced to the penalty shootout phase. During the shootout, Gaúcho stopped two shots, from Aldair and Zinho. To cap off the evening, he scored a penalty himself while wearing the goalkeeper's jersey.

César Sampaio

In 1989, Palmeiras had another chance to celebrate a title. Undefeated until the second last match, the team was eliminated when it lost to Bragantino in the semifinals of the São Paulo State Championship. The 1980s ended without significant victories, but the 1990s would make up for that.[5]

The end of the 20th century – The Greatest in BrazilEdit

Palmeiras found itself in a sixteen-year hiatus without any significant trophies until 1992, when the club signed a sponsorship deal with Italian dairy giant Parmalat. The deal lasted for eight years and quickly turned Palmeiras into Brazil's richest club.

In the 1990s, Palmeiras enjoyed countless achievements, winning numerous important titles. In the first full year of the relationship with Parmalat, the team won em 1993 the Campeonato Paulista in 1993, beating its biggest rival Corinthians in the final, under the command of coach Vanderlei Luxemburgo and with high quality players. Evair, Zinho, Edmundo, César Sampaio, Mazinho, Antônio Carlos and Edílson were the main names of the team.

That same year, it also captured the Rio-São Paulo Championship as well as the Campeonato Brasileiro. The next year, it achieved the unprecedented feat of becoming two-time State Champion and two-time Brazilian Champion.


In 1996 it handily won the Campeonato Paulista, scoring more than 100 goals. Rivaldo, Muller, Djalminha and Luizão were highlights of the historic team. Palmeiras also won the Mercosur Cup and the Copa do Brasil, both in 1998.

Luiz Felipe Scolari

1999 – Libertadores Cup WinnersEdit

Famous coach Luiz Felipe Scolari led the team to one of the club's most important titles: The 1999 Libertadores Cup. The final match was against Deportivo Cali from Colombia. Important players from that team were World Cup winners Marcos, Zinho and Roque Júnior, as well as Alex, Evair, Paulo Nunes and César Sampaio. In the first leg, in Cali, Deportivo beat Palmeiras 1–0. In the second leg, at Estádio Palestra Itália, Palmeiras beat Deportivo 2–1 and won the competition in the penalty shootout.

In the same year, in Tokyo, Palmeiras disputed Intercontinental Cup, but were defeated in the final by Manchester United of England in what was described as a heartbreaking loss because they played better against the Red Devils.[30] Therefore, the Palmeiras fans still dream of their greatest glory, a Club World Cup by FIFA.


2000 – 4 Finals disputedEdit

In 2000, Palmeiras disputed 4 Final Championship Matches. At first, the team won the Rio-São Paulo Tournament after beating Vasco da Gama in the final. In the first leg, in Rio de Janeiro, Palmeiras beat Vasco 2–1. In the second leg, at Morumbi Stadium, the club from São Paulo beat Vasco 4–0.

The club again reached the Libertadores Cup final, this time against Boca Juniors from Argentina. In the first leg, in Buenos Aires, the game ended 2–2. In the second leg, at Morumbi Stadium, in São Paulo, the game ended 0–0 and Boca won the competition in the penalty shootout.

In the same year, Palmeiras won the Brazilian Champions' Cup after beating Sport Recife in the final. By the end of the year, the club again reached the Mercosur Cup final, losing to Vasco da Gama.

Having won key national and international competitions, Palmeiras was proclaimed Brazilian football's Best Team of the 20th Century of Brazil by the São Paulo State Football Federation (FPF), newspapers Folha and Estado de São Paulo, and Placar magazine rankings.[5]

The new millenniumEdit

Palmeiras against Liga Deportiva Universitaria in 2009

Parmalat sponsorship ended in 2000 and left the club in dire straits. After a mildly irregular season in 2001, with the biggest achievement being a Libertadores Cup semifinal against Boca Juniors, the club faced its worst year ever in 2002 and was relegated to the Campeonato Brasileiro Série B, which it won in the following year, returning to the Série A in 2004.

The 2004 and 2005 seasons were rather successful when the team finished in the 4th position in both years, and qualified for the Libertadores Cup in 2005 and 2006. Palmeiras was eliminated by rivals São Paulo in the Round of 16 in both years.

In 2007, Palmeiras had its legend Edmundo playing his last season for the club, and almost achieving one of the top 4 positions in the Série A, failing to do it in the final round of the tournament.

In 2008, Palmeiras made a sponsorship agreement with Traffic, a Sports Marketing Agency. The club made some big investments on new players and also on coach Vanderlei Luxemburgo. This new strategy paid off with the 22nd Paulista Championship, with a 5–0 victory over Ponte Preta in the final's 2nd leg. Palmeiras finished 4th in the Campeonato Brasileiro, which qualified them to the 2009 edition of the Copa Libertadores.

Allianz ParqueEdit

Allianz Parque

The year of 2008 also marked the beginning of the planning phase for a new stadium for the club, as well as remodeling the social club, to prepare Palmeiras for the club's centenary year in 2014. The planned arena is now Allianz Parque.

In 2009, the club reached the quarterfinals of Copa Libertadores, eventually losing to Uruguayan side Nacional on away goals. In the same season, Palmeiras was close to winning the Brazilian League, but political problems inside the club caused internal turmoil and affected on-field performances, and Palmeiras finished the League in the 5th position.

From 2010 to 2014, Palmeiras played its home matches in the municipal Pacaembu Stadium, as the previous home ground Palestra Itália Stadium was demolished to accommodate the club's new arena, it is now the most technological stadium in Brazil.

Marcos Assunção

2012 Copa do Brasil Undefeated WinnersEdit

In 2012, Palmeiras won the Copa do Brasil for the second time, beating Coritiba in the final.[31] The team, led by coach Luiz Felipe Scolari and captained by midfielder Marcos Assunção, was unbeaten in the championship.

New relegation and new return to eliteEdit

Less than 3 months after winning the Copa do Brasil, Scolari would leave the club that was having poor appearances in the Campeonato Brasileiro. This way, Palmeiras signed with Gilson Kleina,[32] then coach of Ponte Preta, but the team failed to improve its performances in tournament and was relegated to the Campeonato Brasileiro Série B, for the second time since 2002, in its history, after a draw against Flamengo, on November 18, in round 36 of the 2012 Série A.[33]

In 2013, now under the administration of President Paulo Nobre,[34] elected in the end of 2012, and with a campaign with clear superiority in the Série B, Palmeiras was promoted back to the first division with six games to spare, ensuring participation in the Série A of 2014, the year of the club's centenary.

Palmeiras suffered a setback early on in its 2014 centenary season as head coach Kleina was sacked, swiftly followed by the departure of striker Alan Kardec and defender Henrique.[35] Argentinian Ricardo Gareca was signed to coach the team after the break for the World Cup in Brazil, but failed to meet expectations and was sacked after a short spell. Dorival Júnior replaced Gareca until the end of the season, as the club was fighting against relegation. With first goalkeeper Fernando Prass and midfielder Jorge Valdivia both returning from injury, the players led Palmeiras throughout the second turn as the club managed to avoid relegation and finished the League in the 16th position.[36]

2015 reformulation and Copa do Brasil titleEdit

In 2015, Palmeiras made a big reformulation in the whole club, with the arrival of a new coach and a new football director. The club signed 25 players in the year, as almost every player from the 2014 squad was negotiated, and also promoted several new talents from the club's youth teams. Palmeiras also improved its program of associated fans, the Avanti, increasing the number to 114 thousand associated fans.[37]

The new season was also Palmeiras' first one playing in the newly built home arena, the Allianz Parque, that seats 43,713 fans and consists of fully covered spectator seating, and was inaugurated on November 19, 2014.[38]

Zé Roberto

Palmeiras reached the Campeonato Paulista finals, which they lost on penalties to rival's Santos.[39]

On June 9, 2015, head coach Oswaldo de Oliveira was sacked by Palmeiras due to a slow start during the Campeonato Brasileiro.[40] On June 10, 2015, Palmeiras reached an agreement with Marcelo Oliveira, recently sacked from Cruzeiro and Brazilian champion of 2013 and 2014.

Palmeiras won the Copa do Brasil for a third time on December 2, 2015. After a 1–0 loss to Santos in the finals first match, the players were received at the stadium by more than forty thousand supporters, as they all watched the second match outside the stadium while thousands were inside the stadium. Palmeiras won the second match 2–1, both goals were scored by Dudu, and secured the trophy on penalties at Allianz Parque, with goalkeeper Fernando Prass saving a penalty and converting the last one. Gabriel Jesus was a great revelation of that team, while the experience of full back Zé Roberto was also fundamental for Palmeiras to win the competition.

Palmeiras' supporters in Allianz Parque

With this title, Palmeiras increased its supremacy as Brazil's greatest champion, with 12 national titles, being 8 League, 1 Brazilian Champions Cup and 3 Copa do Brasil titles.[41] Also, as champions of the 2015 Copa do Brasil, the club secured a place in the 2016 Copa Libertadores group stage.


On 12 March 2016, Palmeiras reached a verbal agreement with Cuca as the head coach.[42] Palmeiras also signed some key players for the 2016 season which included: Edu Dracena (champions in 2015), Moisés, Róger Guedes, Jean (champion in 2008 with São Paulo FC and 2012 with Fluminense), Yerry Mina, and Tchê Tchê.

2016 Campeonato Brasileiro Série A ChampionsEdit

After a dominant year being in first place for 29 rounds, Cuca led Palmeiras to break their 22 years of not winning a national league title. With the help of Gabriel Jesus, the leading goal scorer for Palmeiras, he led the team to win their ninth league title with 12 goals. On 27 November 2016, Palmeiras was guaranteed the title before the 38th round, beating Chapecoense at home 1–0 with a goal from Fabiano in the 26'.[43] With the presence of 40,986 attendees, they broke the old record attendance of 40,035 which was when Palmeiras played against Santos on 12 July 2016.

Deca Campeão of Série A (10th championship)Edit

On 25 November 2018, Palmeiras clinched its 10th Campeonato Brasileiro title after defeating Vasco 1–0 in Rio de Janeiro, making it the club with the most domestic titles in Brazil. On 2 December 2018, Palmeiras played their last season game in front of a record-breaking 41,216 crowd. With the win over Vitória 3–2, Palmeiras set a new Campeonato Brasileiro record for the longest undefeated streak (23 matches).[44]

Historic championship trophy during the pandemicEdit

In 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic, Palmeiras beat arch-rival Corinthians in a historic final of the Campeonato Paulista. In the first decision in the history of the competition and among teams without any spectators at the stadium, Palmeiras won after beating Corinthians in the penalty shootout.[45]

2020 – Copa Libertadores and Copa do Brasil WinnersEdit

On 30 January 2021, Palmeiras won the 2020 Copa Libertadores against FC Santos, with a score of 1–0, in a single match in a decisive confrontation held at Maracanã Stadium. It was Palmeiras' second title in the competition.[46] Breno Lopes scored the only goal of the match, nine minutes into stoppage time.

As champions, Palmeiras qualified for the 2020 FIFA Club World Cup in Qatar, and earned the right to play against the winners of the 2020 Copa Sudamericana in the 2021 Recopa Sudamericana.[47]

In March 2021, Palmeiras won the 2020 Copa do Brasil, defeating Grêmio with an overall score of 3–0. It was the 4th Copa do Brasil title for Palmeiras.[48]


Estádio Palestra Itália (1917–2010)Edit

Estádio Palestra Itália was home of Palmeiras from 1917 to 2010. The venue was also known as Parque Antártica because the area was a park built by the Antarctica Paulista Brewing Company in the beginning of the last century, before being acquired by Palmeiras in 1920. In the past its capacity was listed as 35,000 spectators. However, even though its grandstands were extended in the late 1990s, it held only seats 27,640 people[49] due to regulations which enforce safety and comfort.

Estádio Palestra Itália in 2010

It was one of the most important Brazilian grounds, considering the amount of decisive and important matches played there. Examples of matches played in Palestra Itália include 1999 Copa Libertadores final, the Copa Mercosur finals of 1998, 1999 and 2000, 1996 Copa do Brasil final and several Campeonato Paulista finals.

The last official match played in the stadium was against Grêmio for the Série A on May 22, 2010, and the last match played was a friendly against Boca Juniors on July 9, 2010.

Allianz Parque (2014–present)Edit

External view

Opened in November 2014, the Allianz Parque has 43,713 covered seats, being 25,395 lower seats, 14,888 upper seats and 3,430 in the cabins.[1] The stadium was built for multipurpose events. Many other facilities are in place, including an enhanced parking area, a VIP area, a media center for up to 1,000 media members, 3 restaurants and bars and an heliport. The first official game at Allianz Parque was held on November 19, 2014, between Palmeiras and Sport in the Brazilian Série A, when hosts Palmeiras lost to Sport Recife 0–2. The first official goal of the stadium was scored by Ananias.

On 14 June 2015, Palmeiras won their first Brasileirão match in Allianz Parque with a 2–1 win over Fluminense.

Average home attendances per seasonEdit

Palmeiras' average attendances per year in Campeonato Brasileiro Série AEdit
Year Avg. Att. Year Avg. Att.
2007 17,730 2017 29,912
2008 16,784 2018 32,690
2009 18,467 2019 28,437
2010 11,082 2020 0
2011 12,728 2021
2012 12,073
2013 *
2014 19,947
2015 29,454[50]
2016 32,684[51]

(*) Information not available.

  • 1 As of 27 November 2017.
  • 1 Source: World Football[52]
Palmeiras's average attendances per year in Copa LibertadoresEdit
Year Attendance Year Attendance Year Attendance
1968 29,724 2001 30,000 2020 19,133
1971 30,756 2005 22,000 2021
1973 29,221 2006 28,000
1974 23,667 2009 22,881
1979 44,978 2013 29,540
1994 11,603 2016 34,530
1995 13,679 2017 38,158
1999 24,015 2018 34,011
2000 45,238 2019 32,685


Dudu in 2018

Palmeiras' first kit consisted of green jerseys, white shorts and green socks. Palmeiras' first jersey was blue jersey tribute to Italian National team. After that, a green with a horizontal white band, and a white with a red Savoy cross as the crest.[53] Palmeiras have played in blue shirts many times as a tribute to the Italian National Team. Their supporters are also well known for creating the mancha verde (green stain) of fog and smoke when Palmeiras is entering the pitch.

From 2007 to 2009 Palmeiras used a third jersey: a light yellow shirt with a dark green shorts and socks, one of the most successful and best sellers from Adidas.

In 2010 Palmeiras the light yellow jersey became the second jersey, and started using a blue and white shirt, with white shorts, for their third jersey.

In 2016, Palmeiras announced the extension of the sponsorship agreement with Crefisa and FAM (Faculdade das Américas), which will now have exclusivity in the uniform of Palmeiras. The two companies, which are part of the same group controlled by the couple José Roberto Lamacchia and Leila Pereira, will pay Palmeiras around R$78 million ($20 million) a year, the highest amount ever deposited by a partner in the history of Palmeiras. The uniform will be the most valuable uniform in the Campeonato Brasileiro.[54]

Manufacturer and sponsorsEdit

Crefisa, a Brazilian bank, announced it would sponsor Palmeiras for the 2015 season.[55] After their success in the 2016 Campeonato Brasileiro, Crefisa announced it would increase fundings to R$90 million.[56]

Period Kit manufacturer Shirt partner
1977–1986 Adidas None
1987–1988 Agip
1989–1992 Coca-Cola
1993–1995 Rhummell Parmalat
1996–1999 Reebok
1999–2000 Rhummell
2001–2002 Pirelli
2002–2005 Diadora
2006–2007 Adidas
2008 FIAT
2009–2010 Samsung
2010–2012 FIAT
2012–2013 KIA
2013–2014 None
2015–2018 Crefisa[57]
2019–present Puma

Kit dealsEdit

Kit Supplier Period Contract Announcement Contract duration Value Notes
January 2006–December 2018
2006–2008(first period)[58]

2009–2011(second period)[59]

2012–2014(third period)

2015–2016(fourth period)[60]

2017-2018(fifth period)[61]

$1.5 million per year(2006–2008)

$4.0 million per year(2009–2011)

$5.6 million per year(2012–2014)

$5.7 million per year(2015–2016)

$6.2 million per year(2017–2018)

1 January 2019 – 31 December 2021 (3 years)[62] $7.5 million per year[63]


Palmeiras' supporters in Estádio Palestra Itália

Originally, Palmeiras was a club heavily supported by Brazilians of Italian descent. Over time, that distinction has reduced, and today the fan base is very diverse.

Palmeiras' largest organizadas groups are the Mancha Alvi-Verde (White and Green Stain, a green version of Phantom Blot), TUP (the oldest ultra group), Acadêmicos da Savóia, among others.


Palmeiras against Corinthians in 2010


Palmeiras' biggest rival is Corinthians. The rivalry between the two clubs is considered Brazil's greatest, and the most intense in country, entering the conversation of being one of the biggest rivalries in the world, and considerably one of the oldest as well. their matches are known as the Paulista Derby. Palmeiras was featured heavily in the film O Casamento de Romeu e Julieta where the rivalry between Palmeiras and Corinthians played a major role in the plot.

Palmeiras against São Paulo in 2007

São PauloEdit

São Paulo FC is another major local rival; the games between the two clubs are called the Choque-Rei (King Clash).


Santos FC is another major rival; the games between the two clubs are called the Clássico da Saudade (The Good Times Classic). Located in the city of the same name, only 76 km (47,5 mi) from São Paulo, Santos is also one of the 4 big clubs of the state.

Official mascotEdit

The club's official mascots are a green parakeet, named Periquito, and a pig, named Gobatto.[64]

In 1986, at the Campeonato Paulista playoffs, supporters adopted the pig like their mascot.[65] Although the parakeet is the official mascot, fans will refer to and yell: "PORCO!" (Pig) enthusiastically during matches, as the pig became their preferred mascot.

On November 6, 2016, Palmeiras incorporated the pig as one of the official mascots of the club.


Palmeiras flag

Palmeiras's anthem was composed in 1949 by conductor Antonio Sergi. Sergi also wrote the lyrics for the anthem, but did that under the pseudonym Gennaro Rodrigues.[66]

Quando surge o alviverde imponente
(When the imposing white-green emerges)
No gramado em que a luta o aguarda
(On the pitch where battle awaits)
Sabe bem o que vem pela frente
(Aware of what lies before it)
Que a dureza do prélio não tarda
(That the struggle of the game is approaching)

E o Palmeiras no ardor da partida
(And Palmeiras, in the heat of the match)
Transformando a lealdade em padrão
(Making loyalty its norm)
Sabe sempre levar de vencida
(Always knows how to emerge victorious)
E mostrar que de fato é campeão
(And show that it's indeed the champion)

Defesa que ninguém passa
(Impenetrable defense)
Linha atacante de raça
(Vigorous attacking line)
Torcida que canta e vibra
(Singing, cheering supporters)

Por nosso alviverde inteiro
(For our white-green as a whole)
Que sabe ser brasileiro
(That knows how to be Brazilian)
Ostentando a sua fibra
(Boasting its fiber)


First-team squadEdit

As of 23 July 2021.[67]

Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Pos. Nation Player
1 GK   BRA Vinícius
2 DF   BRA Marcos Rocha
3 DF   BRA Renan
4 DF   CHI Benjamín Kuscevic
5 MF   BRA Patrick de Paula
6 DF   BRA Jorge
7 FW   BRA Rony
8 MF   BRA Zé Rafael
9 FW   BRA Luan Silva (on loan from Vitória)
10 FW   BRA Luiz Adriano
11 FW   BRA Wesley
12 DF   BRA Mayke
13 DF   BRA Luan
14 MF   BRA Gustavo Scarpa
15 DF   PAR Gustavo Gómez (vice-captain)
No. Pos. Nation Player
16 FW   BRA Deyverson
18 MF   BRA Danilo Barbosa (on loan from Nice)
19 FW   BRA Breno Lopes
21 GK   BRA Weverton
22 DF   URU Joaquín Piquerez
23 MF   BRA Raphael Veiga
25 MF   BRA Gabriel Menino
26 DF   BRA Victor Luis
27 FW   BRA Gabriel Veron
28 MF   BRA Danilo
29 FW   BRA Willian
30 MF   BRA Felipe Melo (captain)
38 MF   BRA Matheus Fernandes
42 GK   BRA Jailson
43 FW   BRA Dudu

Reserve teamEdit

Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Pos. Nation Player
32 DF   BRA Garcia
34 MF   BRA Ramon
35 MF   BRA Fabinho
36 FW   BRA Kevin
41 FW   BRA Giovanni
44 DF   BRA Henri
45 MF   BRA Pedro Bicalho
46 DF   BRA Vanderlan
48 FW   PAN Newton Williams
No. Pos. Nation Player
49 FW   BRA Gabriel Silva
51 GK   BRA Mateus
56 MF   BRA Lucas Freitas
57 MF   BRA Vitinho
59 FW   COL Marino Hinestroza
65 MF   BRA Yago Santos
66 DF   BRA Michel
68 MF   BRA Caio Cunha

On loanEdit

Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Pos. Nation Player
53 DF   BRA Helder (at Inter de Limeira until 30 November 2021)
MF   BRA Gabriel Furtado (at Londrina until 30 November 2021)
20 MF   BRA Lucas Lima (at Fortaleza until 31 December 2021)
40 MF   BRA Alan (at Operário Ferroviário until 31 December 2021)
FW   BRA Lincon Júnior (at Jacuipense until 30 November 2021)
FW   BRA Valdenilson (at Inter de Limeira until 30 November 2021)
FW   BRA Gabriel Barbosa (at FC Seoul until 31 December 2021)
37 FW   BRA Rafael Elias (at Cuiabá until 31 December 2021)
60 FW   BRA Fabrício (at Bahia until 31 December 2021)
No. Pos. Nation Player
6 DF   BRA Lucas Esteves (at Colorado Rapids until 30 June 2022)
44 DF   BRA Pedrão (at Portimonense until 30 June 2022)
38 FW   COL Iván Angulo (at Portimonense until 30 June 2022)
58 FW   PAR Anibal Vega (at União de Leiria until 30 June 2022)
9 FW   COL Miguel Borja (at Grêmio until 31 December 2022)
37 FW   BRA Carlos Eduardo (at Athletico Paranaense until 31 December 2022)
40 FW   BRA Léo Passos (at América Mineiro until 31 December 2022)
FW   BRA Yan (at Moreirense until 30 June 2023)

Notable playersEdit


Current staffEdit

Position Staff
Head coach Abel Ferreira
Assistant manager Andrey Lopes
Vítor Castanheira
Carlos Martinho
Fitness coordinator João Martins
Goalkeeping coach Rogério Godoy
Thales Damasceno
Performance analysts Tiago Costa
Rafael Costa
Guilherme Dias
Medical coordinator Gustavo Magliocca
Scientific coordinator Daniel Gonçalves
Physiotherapy coordinator Fred Manhães
Physiology coordinator Thiago Santi
In house doctors Gilberto Cunha
Guilherme Dilda
Pedro Pontin
Medical Imaging André Yamada
Physiotherapists Marcelo Gondo
Rodrigo Alencar
Leonardo Alcântara
Fitness coaches Rudy Pracidelli
Marco Aurélio Schiavo
Thiago Maldonado
Physiologists Vinicius Ponzio
Nutritionists Mirtes Stancanelli
Elaine Francelino de Souza
Dentist Vitor Ugo Salvoni
Massagists Serginho
Nurse Daniel Lima
Podiatrist Edson Silva

Last updated: 08 August 2020
Source: Palmeiras


The club associates congregate in a general assembly every four years to elect the seventy-six members of the Conselho Deliberativo (Deliberating Council)[68] who in their turn chose amongst them a president for a two-year mandate.[69] As of 2006 the president can only be re-elected once.[70]

These are all Palmeiras presidents since the club's foundation:[71][72]

Name Years
Ezequiel Simone 1914
Leonardo Pareto 1915
Augo Vaccaro 1915
Ludovico Bacchiani 1916
Guido Farti 1917
Dulio Frugoli 1918
Valentino Sola 1918
Menotti Falchi 1919–1920
David Pichetti 1921–1922
Francisco De Vivo 1923–1924
Giuseppe Perrone 1925–1927
Eduardo Matarazzo 1928–1931
Name Years
Dante Delmanto 1932–1934
Raphael Parisi 1934–1938
Ítalo Adami 1939–1940
Enrico de Martino 1939–1940
João Minervino 1939–1940
Ítalo Adami 1941–1944
Francisco Patti 1945–1946
Higino Pellegrini 1947–1948
Ferrúcio Sandoli 1949–1950
Mário Frugiuelle 1951–1952
Pascoal Walter Byron Giuliano 1953–1954
Mário Beni 1955–1958
Delfino Facchina 1959–1970
Paschoal Walter Byron Giuliano 1971–1976
Name Years
Jordão Bruno Sacomani 1977–1978
Brício Pompeu Toledo 1977–1978
Delfino Facchina 1979–1980
Brício Pompeu Toledo 1981–1982
Paschoal Walter Byron Giuliano 1983–1984
Nélson Tadini Duque 1985–1988
Carlos Bernardo Facchina Nunes 1989–1992
Mustafá Contursi Goffar Majzoub 1993–2005
Afonso Della Monica Netto 2005–2009
Luiz Gonzaga de Mello Belluzzo 2009–2011
Arnaldo Tirone 2011–2012
Paulo Nobre[73] 2013–2016
Mauricio Galiotte[74] 2016–2021
Leila Pereira[75] 2021–


Top scorersEdit


These are Palmeiras's top scorers since its foundation (data as of 1 February 2016):

# Name Goals Years
1   Heitor 327 1916–31
2   César Maluco 180 1967–74
3   Ademir da Guia 153 1961–77
4   Lima 149 1938–54
5   Servílio 140 1963–68
6   Evair 127 1991–94, 1999
7   Humberto 126 1953–58, 1960–61
8   Rodrigues 125 1950–55
9   Luizinho 123 1935–41
10   Tupãzinho 122 1963–68

Leading goalscorers in the National League, by seasonEdit

Player Goals
1993   Edmundo 11
1994   Evair
1995   Edílson 10
1996   Djalminha 12
1997   Oséas 11
1998   Oséas 15
1999   Evair
  Paulo Nunes
2000   Tuta 9
2001   Lopes 8
2002   Francisco Arce 9
2003   Vágner Love 19
2004   Osmar 11
2005   Marcinho 18
2006   Edmundo
  Paulo Baier
2007   Caio 9
2008   Alex Mineiro 18
2009   Obina 12
2010   Kleber 8
2011   Luan 9
2012   Hernán Barcos 14
2013   Alan Kardec 14
2014   Henrique 16
2015   Dudu 10
2016   Gabriel Jesus 12
2017   Dudu 9
2018   Willian 10
2019   Bruno Henrique 10
2020   Luiz Adriano 27
2021   Raphael Veiga 18


The following information is a list of all the honours of Palmeiras since the club was founded.[76]

Palmeiras' former Hall of Trophies
Palmeiras' former Hall of Trophies (other vision)


Campeonato Brasileiro Série A

Copa do Brasil

Copa dos Campeões

  • Champions: 2000

Campeonato Brasileiro Série B


Torneio Rio-São Paulo[a]

  • Champions (5): 1933, 1951, 1965, 1993, 2000

Taça dos Campeões Estaduais Rio–São Paulo

  • Champions (4): 1926, 1934, 1942, 1947

Campeonato Paulista


Copa Rio: [78][79][80][81][82]

FIFA Club World Cup


Copa Libertadores

Copa Mercosul


* 1978 Kirin Cup Shared with Borussia Mönchengladbach.


Palmeiras B TeamEdit

For many years, Palmeiras had a "second" team that played in the lower divisions of the Paulista Championship. The team was dissolved at the end of the Paulista 2013.

Other sportsEdit

Palmeiras has athletic departments in many sports, such as aikido, athletics, archery, boxing, american football, futsal, judo, karate, taekwondo, tennis, volleyball and weightlifting . The club has also a victorious tradition in rink hockey and basketball. Palmeiras has in it history 2 Brazilian Roller Hockey National Championships, being one of the main teams from São Paulo.

Basketball teamEdit

Leandro Barbosa and Oscar Schmidt, two of the best Brazilian basketball players of all time, started their careers at Palmeiras.


  1. ^ Prior to 1959, the Torneio Rio-São Paulo was the largest national tournament in Brazil.[77]
  2. ^ The APEA organized a second shorter tournament in September to fill the long period of inactivity before the following season.
  3. ^ The LFESP organized a second shorter edition of the 1938 Paulistão to fill the nearly six month interruption of the tournament due to the World Cup.
  4. ^ Palmeiras defeated Pelé's Santos in a playoff after being level on points through 38 matches.


  1. ^ a b "Laudo de Engenharia - Allianz Parque" (PDF). WTorre Engenharia. October 29, 2014. Retrieved July 19, 2015.
  2. ^ "Os clubes brasileiros com mais sócios-torcedores" (in Portuguese). 90min. September 30, 2016.
  3. ^ "ESPN - Tudo pelo esporte".
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  5. ^ a b c d e f
  6. ^ "Ao, explicação da entidade que comanda o futebol é de que Copa Rio tem nível mundial, mas é diferente dos torneios organizados depois de 2000". (in Portuguese). August 11, 2014.
  7. ^ For FIFA statute, official competitions are those for representative teams organized by FIFA or any confederation. Representative teams are usually national teams but also club teams that represent a confederation. cfr. "FIFA Statutes, April 2016 edition" (PDF). p. 5. cfr. "FIFA Club World Cup UAE 2018: Statistical-kit" (PDF). December 10, 2018. p. 13.
  8. ^ In accordance with the regulations integrated in the FIFA Statute, official competitions for club teams can be defined as those organized under the auspices of FIFA, confederations and member associations, or authorized by them, excluding friendly matches and test matches; say the confederal and interconfederal cups (arranged by FIFA or confederations), the championships and the national cups (arranged by member associations). cfr. "LAWS OF THE GAME 2015/16" (PDF). p. 18. cfr. "REGULATIONS on the Status and Transfer of Players 2016" (PDF). p. 5. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 12, 2019. Retrieved July 18, 2019. cfr. Fédération Internationale de Football Association (ed.). "FIFA Governance Regulations (FGR) 2016" (PDF). pp. 6–7, 9–11. cfr. "Regulations Governing International Matches" (PDF). pp. 15, 25. cfr. "FIFA Statutes, April 2016 edition" (PDF). pp. 5, 19–21, 33–35, 37, 44, 74. cfr. "FIFA ignora Taça Latina do Benfica, FC Porto é o clube português com mais títulos" (in Portuguese). May 25, 2011. Archived from the original on June 16, 2015. Retrieved July 18, 2019.
  9. ^ Until 1955 FIFA limited itself to authorizing the creation of international competitions for clubs only if they were organized by at least two member associations. From 1955 he assigned the confederations the exclusive right to organize competitions deemed official. cfr. Union des Associations Européennes de Football (October 2004). "50 years of the European Cup" (PDF). pp. 7–9.
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  11. ^ "COPA RIO - TORNEIO INTERNACIONAL DE CAMPEÕES". (In Portuguese), 02/22/2015.
  12. ^ "Palmeiras pediu ajuda da Conmebol para reconhecer 1951 como Mundial". SPORTS (In Portuguese). June 15, 2018.
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  18. ^ "Presidente da Fifa reconhece título de 51 como mundial do Palmeiras".
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  20. ^ "PVC - Fifa documentou a ministro que Palmeiras ganhou Copa do Mundo de clubes".
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  22. ^ "FIFA Club World Cup UAE 2017: Statistical Kit FIFA" (PDF). pp. 15, 40, 41, 42. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 15, 2017.
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  54. ^ Palmeiras renews sponsorship
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  63. ^ Palmeiras and PUMA officialise partnership
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  69. ^ Estatuto da Sociedade Esportiva Palmeiras (club statute), art. 83.
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  77. ^ "Torneio Rio-São Paulo, 75 anos". 2008. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  78. ^ Official competitions are those recognized as valid by an organization and not only organized by it, in fact Conmebol includes in its list of official competitions the Club World Cup that is fully organized by FIFA but not the Copa Rio. "Las competiciones oficiales de la CONMEBOL". CONMEBOL.
  79. ^ For FIFA statute, official competitions are those for representative teams organized by FIFA or any confederation. Representative teams are usually national teams but also club teams that represent a confederation in the interconfederal competitions or a member association in a continental competition. This is not the case of Copa Rio organized by Brazilian federation. cfr. "FIFA Statutes, April 2016 edition" (PDF). p. 5. cfr. "FIFA Club World Cup UAE 2018: Statistical-kit" (PDF). December 10, 2018. p. 13. cfr. "2018/19 UEFA Champions League regulations" (PDF). p. 10.
  80. ^ In accordance with the regulations integrated in the FIFA Statute, official competitions for club teams can be defined as those organized under the auspices of FIFA, confederations and member associations, or authorized by them, excluding friendly matches and test matches; say the confederal and interconfederal cups (arranged by FIFA or confederations), the championships and the national cups (arranged by member associations). cfr. "LAWS OF THE GAME 2015/16" (PDF). p. 18. cfr. "REGULATIONS on the Status and Transfer of Players 2016" (PDF). p. 5. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 12, 2019. Retrieved July 18, 2019. cfr. Fédération Internationale de Football Association (ed.). "FIFA Governance Regulations (FGR) 2016" (PDF). pp. 6–7, 9–11. cfr. "Regulations Governing International Matches" (PDF). pp. 15, 25. cfr. "FIFA Statutes, April 2016 edition" (PDF). pp. 5, 19–21, 33–35, 37, 44, 74. cfr. "FIFA ignora Taça Latina do Benfica, FC Porto é o clube português com mais títulos" (in Portuguese). May 25, 2011. Archived from the original on June 16, 2015. Retrieved June 18, 2019.
  81. ^ Until 1955 FIFA limited itself to authorizing the creation of international competitions for clubs only if they were organized by at least two member associations. From 1955 he assigned the confederations the exclusive right to organize competitions deemed official. cfr. Union des Associations Européennes de Football (October 2004). "50 years of the European Cup" (PDF). pp. 7–9.
  82. ^ "FIFA ignora Taça Latina do Benfica, FC Porto é o clube português com mais títulos" (in Portuguese). May 25, 2011. Archived from the original on June 16, 2015. Retrieved June 18, 2019.

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