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The 1938 FIFA World Cup was the third staging of the World Cup, and was held in France from 4 to 19 June 1938. Italy retained the championship by beating Hungary 4–2 in the final. Italy's 1934 and 1938 teams became the only ones to have won two World Cups under the same coach, Vittorio Pozzo.

1938 FIFA World Cup
Coupe du Monde 1938
Fueßball-Wältmaischterschaft 1938 (Alemannic German)
WorldCup1938poster.jpg
Official poster
Tournament details
Host countryFrance
Dates4–19 June
Teams15 (from 4 confederations)
Venue(s)10 (in 9 host cities)
Final positions
Champions Italy (2nd title)
Runners-up Hungary
Third place Brazil
Fourth place Sweden
Tournament statistics
Matches played18
Goals scored84 (4.67 per match)
Attendance374,835 (20,824 per match)
Top scorer(s)Brazil Leônidas (7 goals)
1934
1950

It was the first World Cup that was not won by the host nation.

Contents

Host selectionEdit

France was chosen as host nation by FIFA in Berlin on 13 August 1936. France was chosen over Argentina and Germany in the first round of voting. The decision to hold a second consecutive tournament in Europe (after Italy in 1934) caused outrage in South America, where it was believed that the venue should alternate between the two continents. This was the last World Cup to be staged before the outbreak of the Second World War.

QualificationEdit

Because of anger over the decision to hold a second successive World Cup in Europe, neither Uruguay nor Argentina entered the competition. Spain meanwhile could not participate due to the ongoing Spanish Civil War.

It was the first time that the hosts, France, and the title holders, Italy, qualified automatically. Title holders were given an automatic entry into the World Cup from 1938 until 2002 (inclusive), after which it was abolished.

Of the 14 remaining places, eleven were allocated to Europe, two to the Americas, and one to Asia. As a result, only three non-European nations took part: Brazil, Cuba and the Dutch East Indies. This is the smallest ever number of teams from outside the host continent to compete at a FIFA World Cup.

Austria qualified for the World Cup, but after qualification was complete, the Anschluss united Austria with Germany. Austria subsequently withdrew from the tournament, with some Austrian players joining the German squad, although not including Austrian star player Matthias Sindelar, who refused to play for the unified team.[1] Latvia was the runner-up in Austria's qualification group, but was not invited to participate; instead Austria's place remained empty, and Sweden, which would have been Austria's initial opponent, progressed directly to the second-round by default.

This tournament saw the first, and as of 2018 the only, participation in a World Cup tournament from Cuba and the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia). It also saw the World Cup debuts of Poland and Norway. Romania would not qualify for another World Cup until 1970, Poland and the Netherlands would not reappear at a finals tournament until 1974, and Norway would not qualify for another World Cup finals until 1994. A unified Germany team would not appear again until 1994, although Austria returned in 1954 and won third place.

List of qualified teamsEdit

The following 16 teams originally qualified for the final tournament. However, 15 teams participated after Austria's withdrawal due to the Anschluss.

FormatEdit

The knockout format from 1934 was retained. If a match was tied after 90 minutes, then 30 minutes of extra time were played. If the score was still tied after extra time, the match would be replayed. This was the last World Cup tournament that used a straight knockout format.

SummaryEdit

 
Qualifying countries and their results

Germany, France, Italy, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Cuba and Brazil were seeded for draw taking place in Paris, on 5 March 1938. Sweden was given a bye due to Austria's withdrawal.[2]

Five of the seven first round matches required extra time to break the deadlock; two games still went to a replay. In one replay, Cuba advanced to the next round at the expense of Romania. In the other replay, Germany, which had led 1–0 in the first game against Switzerland, led 2–0 but eventually was beaten 2–4. This loss, which took place in front of a hostile, bottle-throwing crowd in Paris, was blamed by German coach Sepp Herberger on a defeatist attitude from the five Austrian players he had been forced to include; a German journalist later commented that "Germans and Austrians prefer to play against each other even when they're in the same team".[3] Until they were knocked out in the first round in 2018, this was the only time Germany had failed to advance past the first round for 80 years.[4]

Sweden advanced directly to the quarter-finals as a result of Austria's withdrawal, and they proceeded to beat Cuba 8–0. The hosts, France, were beaten by the holders, Italy, and Switzerland were seen off by Hungary. Czechoslovakia took Brazil to extra time in a notoriously feisty match in Bordeaux before succumbing in a replay; the South Americans proved too strong for the depleted Czechoslovak side (both Oldřich Nejedlý and František Plánička had suffered broken bones in the first game) and won 2–1. This was the last ever match to be replayed in a World Cup.

Hungary destroyed Sweden in one of the semi-finals 5–1, while Italy and Brazil had the first of their many important World Cup clashes in the other. The Brazilians rested their star player Leônidas confident that they would qualify for the final, but the Italians won 2–1. Brazil topped Sweden 4–2 for third place.

Rumour has it, before the finals Benito Mussolini was to have sent a telegram to the team, saying "Vincere o morire!" (literally translated as "Win or die!"). This should not have been meant as a literal threat, but instead just an encouragement to win. However, no record remains of such a telegram, and World Cup player Pietro Rava said, when interviewed, "No, no, no, that's not true. He sent a telegram wishing us well, but no never 'win or die'."[5]

The final itself took place at the Stade Olympique de Colombes in Paris. Vittorio Pozzo's Italian side took the lead early, but Hungary equalised within two minutes. The Italians took the lead again shortly after, and by the end of the first half were leading the Hungarians 3–1. Hungary never really got back into the game. With the final score favouring the Italians 4–2, Italy became the first team to successfully defend the title and were once more crowned World Cup winners.

Because of World War II, the World Cup would not be held for another 12 years, until 1950. As a result, Italy were the reigning World Cup holders for a record 16 years, from 1934 to 1950. The Italian Vice-President of FIFA, Dr. Ottorino Barassi, hid the trophy in a shoe-box under his bed throughout the Second World War and thus saved it from falling into the hands of occupying troops.[6]

VenuesEdit

Ten cities were planned to host the tournament; of these, all hosted matches except Lyon, which did not due to Austria's withdrawal.

Colombes Paris Marseille Lyon
Stade Olympique de Colombes Parc des Princes Stade Vélodrome Stade Gerland
(the only match there was cancelled)
Capacity: 60,000 Capacity: 40,000 Capacity: 48,000 Capacity: 40,500
       
Toulouse Bordeaux
Stade du T.O.E.C.
(in the old Parc des Sports),
initially planned to
the new stadium
(in the new Parc des Sports)
Parc Lescure
Capacity: 15,000 Capacity: 34,694
 
Strasbourg Le Havre
Stade de la Meinau Stade Municipal
Capacity: 30,000 Capacity: 22,000
   
Reims Lille Antibes
Vélodrome Municipal Stade Victor Boucquey Stade du Fort Carré
Capacity: 21,684 Capacity: 15,000 Capacity: 7,000
     

SquadsEdit

For a list of all squads that appeared in the final tournament, see 1938 FIFA World Cup squads.

Final tournamentEdit

BracketEdit

 
Round of 16Quarter-finalsSemi-finalsFinal
 
              
 
5 June – Marseille
 
 
  Italy (aet)2
 
12 June – Paris (Olympique)
 
  Norway1
 
  Italy3
 
5 June – Paris (Olympique)
 
  France1
 
  France3
 
16 June – Marseille
 
  Belgium1
 
  Italy2
 
5 June – Strasbourg
 
  Brazil1
 
  Brazil (aet)6
 
12 and 14 June – Bordeaux
 
  Poland5
 
  Brazil1 (2)
 
5 June – Le Havre
 
  Czechoslovakia1 (1)
 
  Czechoslovakia (aet)3
 
19 June – Paris (Olympique)
 
  Netherlands0
 
  Italy4
 
5 June – Reims
 
  Hungary2
 
  Hungary6
 
12 June – Lille
 
  Dutch East Indies0
 
  Hungary2
 
4 and 9 June – Paris (Princes)
 
   Switzerland0
 
   Switzerland1 (4)
 
16 June – Paris (Princes)
 
  Germany1 (2)
 
  Hungary5
 
5 June – Lyon
 
  Sweden1 Third place
 
  Swedenw/o
 
12 June – Antibes19 June – Bordeaux
 
  Austria[7]
 
  Sweden8  Brazil4
 
5 and 9 June – Toulouse
 
  Cuba0   Sweden2
 
  Cuba3 (2)
 
 
  Romania3 (1)
 

Round of 16Edit

Switzerland   1–1 (a.e.t.)  Germany
Abegglen   43' Report Gauchel   29'
Attendance: 27,152

Hungary  6–0  Dutch East Indies
Kohut   13'
Toldi   15'
Sárosi   28'89'
Zsengellér   35'76'
Report
Attendance: 9,000
Referee: Roger Conrié (France)


Cuba  3–3 (a.e.t.)  Romania
Socorro   44'103'
Magriñá   69'
Report Bindea   35'
Barátky   88'
Dobay   105'
Attendance: 7,000
Referee: Giuseppe Scarpi (Italy)

France  3–1  Belgium
Veinante   1'
Nicolas   16'69'
Report Isemborghs   38'

Italy  2–1 (a.e.t.)  Norway
Ferraris   2'
Piola   94'
Report Brustad   83'
Attendance: 19,000

Brazil  6–5 (a.e.t.)  Poland
Leônidas   18'93'104'
Romeu   25'
Perácio   44'71'
Report Scherfke   23' (pen.)
Wilimowski   53'59'89'118'
Attendance: 13,452
Referee: Ivan Eklind (Sweden)

Czechoslovakia  3–0 (a.e.t.)  Netherlands
Košťálek   93'
Zeman   111'
Nejedlý   118'
Report
Attendance: 11,000
Referee: Lucien Leclerq (France)

ReplaysEdit

Switzerland   4–2  Germany
Walaschek   42'
Bickel   64'
Abegglen   75'78'
Report Hahnemann   8'
Lörtscher   22' (o.g.)
Attendance: 20,025
Referee: Ivan Eklind (Sweden)

Cuba  2–1  Romania
Socorro   51'
Fernández   57'
Report Dobay   35'
Attendance: 8,000
Referee: Alfred Birlem (Germany)

Quarter-finalsEdit

Switzerland   0–2  Hungary
Report Sárosi   40'
Zsengellér   89'[9]
Attendance: 15,000
Referee: Rinaldo Barlassina (Italy)

Sweden  8–0  Cuba
H. Andersson   9'81'89'[10]
Wetterström   22'37'44'
Keller   80'[11]
Nyberg   84'[12]
Report

France  1–3  Italy
Heisserer   10' Report Colaussi   9'
Piola   51'72'

Brazil  1–1 (a.e.t.)  Czechoslovakia
Leônidas   30' Report Nejedlý   65' (pen.)
Attendance: 22,021

ReplayEdit

Brazil  2–1  Czechoslovakia
Leônidas   57'
Roberto   62'[13]
Report Kopecký   25'
Attendance: 18,141

Semi-finalsEdit

Hungary  5–1  Sweden
Jacobsson   19' (o.g.)
Titkos   37'
Zsengellér   39'85'
Sárosi   65'
Report Nyberg   1'
Attendance: 20,000
Referee: Lucien Leclerq (France)

Italy  2–1  Brazil
Colaussi   51'
Meazza   60' (pen.)
Report Romeu   87'

Third place play-offEdit

Sweden  2–4  Brazil
Jonasson   28'
Nyberg   38'
Report Romeu   44'
Leônidas   63'74'
Perácio   80'
Attendance: 12,000

FinalEdit

Italy  4–2  Hungary
Colaussi   6'35'
Piola   16'82'
Report Titkos   8'
Sárosi   70'

GoalscorersEdit

FIFA retrospective rankingEdit

 
A ball from the tournament

In 1986, FIFA published a report that ranked all teams in each World Cup up to and including 1986, based on progress in the competition, overall results and quality of the opposition.[14][15] The rankings for the 1938 tournament were as follows:

R Team P W D L GF GA GD Pts.
1   Italy 4 4 0 0 11 5 +6 8
2   Hungary 4 3 0 1 15 5 +10 6
3   Brazil 5 3 1 1 14 11 +3 7
4   Sweden 3 1 0 2 11 9 +2 2
Eliminated in the quarter-finals
5   Czechoslovakia 3 1 1 1 5 3 +2 3
6    Switzerland 3 1 1 1 5 5 0 3
7   Cuba 3 1 1 1 5 12 −7 3
8   France 2 1 0 1 4 4 0 2
Eliminated in the round of 16
9   Romania 2 0 1 1 4 5 -1 1
10   Germany 2 0 1 1 3 5 -2 1
11   Poland 1 0 0 1 5 6 −1 0
12   Norway 1 0 0 1 1 2 −1 0
13   Belgium 1 0 0 1 1 3 −2 0
14   Netherlands 1 0 0 1 0 3 −3 0
15   Dutch East Indies 1 0 0 1 0 6 −6 0

FootnotesEdit

  1. ^ Ashdown, John (22 April 2014). "World Cup: 25 stunning moments … No11: Austria's Wunderteam". theguardian.com. Retrieved 29 June 2014.
  2. ^ "History of the World Cup Final Draw" (PDF). Retrieved 26 March 2012.
  3. ^ Hesse-Lichtenberger, Ulrich (2003). Tor!: The Story of German Football. London: WSC Books. p. 85. ISBN 095401345X.
  4. ^ Steinberg, Jacob (27 June 2018). "South Korea 2-0 Germany: World Cup 2018 – as it happened". Retrieved 20 September 2018 – via www.theguardian.com.
  5. ^ Martin, Simon (1 April 2014): "World Cup: 25 stunning moments … No8: Mussolini's blackshirts' 1938 win". theguardian.com. Läst 22 April 2016.
  6. ^ "Jules Rimet Cup". FIFAWorldCup.com. Archived from the original on 20 March 2007. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
  7. ^ a b Sweden were awarded a walkover as Austria were unable to compete because of the Austrian Anschluss in March 1938.
  8. ^ Actually from Austria, but finally representing the German Football Association because of the Anschluss.
  9. ^ RSSSF credits this goal as coming in the 90th minute.
  10. ^ RSSSF credits goal in the 81st minute as coming in the 61st minute.
  11. ^ RSSSF credits goal in the 80th minute as coming in the 60th minute.
  12. ^ RSSSF credits this goal as coming in the 89th minute.
  13. ^ FIFA initially credits this goal to Leônidas, but changed it to Roberto in 2006."Archived copy". Archived from the original on 16 November 2006. Retrieved 5 December 2013.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  14. ^ "page 45" (PDF). Retrieved 26 March 2012.
  15. ^ "FIFA World Cup: Milestones, facts & figures. Statistical Kit 7" (PDF). FIFA. 26 March 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 May 2013.

External linksEdit