Arena da Amazônia
Arena da Amazônia (Amazon Arena) is a football stadium in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, located on the former site of the Vivaldão stadium. The stadium has an all-seater capacity of 44,300 and was constructed from 2010 to 2014 as part of Brazil's hosting of the 2014 FIFA World Cup. It hosted matches of the football tournament at the 2016 Summer Olympics. During the World Cup, the arena had a limited maximum-capacity of 40,549.
|Full name||Arena Vivaldo Palma Lima|
|Location||Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil|
|Owner||Amazonas State Government|
|Field size||105 x 68 m|
|Opened||9 March 2014|
|Construction cost||R$605 million|
Design and constructionEdit
Built on the site of the old Vivaldo Lima stadium, the Arena da Amazônia is located midway between Manaus International Airport and the historic center of the city. It is also near the Manaus Convention Center and the Amadeu Teixeira Arena. The cost of its construction was split with 25% paid by the Amazonas State Government and 75% by the Brazilian Development Bank.
The stadium was designed by German architecture firm Gerkan, Marg and Partners, with inspiration from the Amazon rainforest that surrounds the city of Manaus and its metallic exterior structure is designed to evoke the straw baskets that are made in the region. It was built by the Brazilian engineering firm Andrade Gutierrez and incorporates several sustainability-friendly features.
The stadium can seat around 44,300 spectators and features a restaurant, luxury suites, underground parking spaces and accessibility for people with special needs. It also includes an on-site rain water recycling system and sewage treatment facilities to reduce its water usage and is designed to make use of natural ventilation to reduce its consumption of energy. In addition, more than 95% of the material from the demolition of the old stadium was recycled.
Because the climate of Manaus is extremely warm because of its location near the equator, the stadium was designed to minimize the temperatures inside the structure with features such as a white, reflective exterior, plentiful shade over the seating areas, and a large amount of ventilation openings in the façade of the building.
Despite these efforts, England Manager Roy Hodgson criticized the location of the stadium saying the extreme heat of Manaus would make it difficult for players. England was later drawn to play their opening game against Italy in Manaus and lost the game with a score of 2–1.
The stadium itself has been criticised for being completely unnecessary beyond the World Cup, because of the small crowds that attend local Football Matches in Manaus and the remote nature of Manaus. The Stadium has seen light use since the World Cup with occasional 4th Division Matches and Christian Evangelical Concerts. The Stadium hosted several men's and women's football matches during the 2016 Olympics and some of Brazil's 2018 FIFA World Cup qualifying matches.
Opening and 2014 FIFA World CupEdit
The stadium was still under construction by February 2014, and doubts were raised over whether or not it would have been ready to host the FIFA World Cup.
The stadium hosted four games during the World Cup.
|Date||Time (UTC-04)||Team #1||Res.||Team #2||Round||Attendance|
|June 14, 2014||18:00||England||1–2||Italy||Group D||39,800|
|June 18, 2014||18:00||Cameroon||0–4||Croatia||Group A||39,982|
|June 22, 2014||18:00||United States||2–2||Portugal||Group G||40,123|
|June 25, 2014||16:00||Honduras||0–3||Switzerland||Group E||40,322|
- "Governo do Estado do Amazonas" (in Portuguese). Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- "Com ritmo acelerado, obras da Arena da Amazônia chegam a 76% (With fast pace, the Arena da Amazonia work reaches 76%)". O Globo. Retrieved 2014-06-18.
- "Arena Amazonia, Manaus". FIFA.com. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
- "Arena da Amazônia - The Stadium Guide". Retrieved 2014-06-18.