1797 (MDCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1797th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 797th year of the 2nd millennium, the 97th year of the 18th century, and the 8th year of the 1790s decade. As of the start of 1797, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
|French Republican calendar||5–6|
|Ab urbe condita||2550|
|Balinese saka calendar||1718–1719|
|British Regnal year||37 Geo. 3 – 38 Geo. 3|
|Chinese calendar||丙辰年 (Fire Dragon)|
4493 or 4433
— to —
丁巳年 (Fire Snake)
4494 or 4434
|- Vikram Samvat||1853–1854|
|- Shaka Samvat||1718–1719|
|- Kali Yuga||4897–4898|
|Japanese calendar||Kansei 9|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 11 days|
|Minguo calendar||115 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2339–2340|
1923 or 1542 or 770
— to —
1924 or 1543 or 771
- January 3 – The Treaty of Tripoli, a peace treaty between the United States and Ottoman Tripolitania, is signed at Algiers (see also 1796).
- January 7 – The parliament of the Cisalpine Republic adopts the Italian green-white-red tricolour as the official flag (this is considered the birth of the flag of Italy).
- January 13 – Action of 13 January 1797, part of the War of the First Coalition: Two British Royal Navy frigates, HMS Indefatigable and HMS Amazon, drive the French 74-gun ship of the line Droits de l'Homme aground on the coast of Brittany, with over 900 deaths.
- January 14 – War of the First Coalition – Battle of Rivoli: French forces under General Napoleon Bonaparte defeat an Austrian army of 28,000 men, under Feldzeugmeister József Alvinczi, near Rivoli (modern-day Italy), ending Austria's fourth and final attempt to relieve the fortress city of Mantua.
- January 26 – The Treaty of the Third Partition of Poland is signed in St. Petersburg by the Russian Empire, Austria and the Kingdom of Prussia.
- February 2 – Siege of Mantua: Field marshal Dagobert von Wurmser surrenders the fortress city to the French; only 16,000 men of the garrison are capable of marching out as prisoners of war.
- February 3 – Battle of Faenza: A French corps (9,000 men) under General Claude Victor-Perrin defeats the forces from the Papal States, at Castel Bolognese near Faenza, Italy.
- February 4 – The Riobamba earthquake in Ecuador, estimated magnitude 8.3, causes up to 40,000 casualties.
- February 12 – "Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser" is first performed, with the music composed in January by Joseph Haydn, which also becomes the tune to the Deutschlandlied, the German national anthem (Deutschland, Deutschland über alles, later Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit).
- February 14 – French Revolutionary Wars – Battle of Cape St. Vincent: The British Royal Navy under Admiral Sir John Jervis defeats a larger Spanish fleet off Cape St. Vincent, Portugal.
- February 18 – Invasion of Trinidad: Spanish Governor José María Chacón peacefully surrenders the colony of Trinidad to a British naval force, commanded by Sir Ralph Abercromby.
- February 19 – Treaty of Tolentino: Pope Pius VI signs a peace treaty with Revolutionary France. He is forced to deliver works of art, treasures, territory, the Comtat Venaissin and 30 million francs.
- February 22 – The last invasion of Britain begins: French forces, under the command of American Colonel William Tate, land near Fishguard, Wales.
- February 25 – William Tate surrenders to the British at Fishguard.
- February 26 – Bank Restriction Act removes the requirement for the Bank of England (the national bank of Great Britain) to convert banknotes into gold - Restriction period lasts until 1821. The Bank of England issues the first one-pound and two-pound notes (pound notes discontinued March 11, 1988).
- March 4 – John Adams is sworn in as the second President of the United States, with an uneventful transition of power from the administration of George Washington.
- March 5 – Protestant missionaries from the London Missionary Society land in Tahiti, from the Duff (celebrated as Missionary Day in French Polynesia).
- March 13 – Médée, an opera by Luigi Cherubini, is premiered in Paris.
- March 16 – Battle of Valvasone: The Austrian army, led by Archduke Charles, fights a rearguard action at the crossing of the Tagliamento River, but is defeated by Napoleon Bonaparte at Valvasone.
- March 21 – Battle of Parramatta: Resistance leader Pemulwuy led a group of aboriginal warriors, estimated to be at least 100, in an attack on a government farm at Toongabbie in Sydney, Australia.
- April 16 – The Spithead and Nore mutinies break out in the British Royal Navy.
- April 17
- Battle of San Juan: Sir Ralph Abercromby unsuccessfully invades San Juan, Puerto Rico in what will be one of the largest British attacks on Spanish territories in the western hemisphere, and one of the worst defeats of the British Royal Navy for years to come.
- Veronese Easter: Citizens of Verona, Italy, began an unsuccessful eight-day rebellion against the French occupying forces.
- April 18 – Armistice of Leoben: On behalf of the French Republic, a delegation under Napoleon Bonaparte signs a peace treaty with the Holy Roman Empire at Leoben.
- May 10 – The first ship of the United States Navy, the frigate USS United States, is commissioned.
- May 12 – War of the First Coalition: Napoleon Bonaparte conquers Venice, ending the city and Republic of Venice's 1,100 years of independence. The last doge of Venice, Ludovico Manin, steps down. The Venetian Ghetto is thrown open.
- May 30 – English abolitionist William Wilberforce marries Barbara Ann Spooner about six weeks after their first meeting.
- June 28 – French troops disembark in Corfu, beginning the First period of French rule in the Ionian Islands.
- June 29 – Napoleon Bonaparte decrees the birth of the Cisalpine Republic; he appoints ministers and establishes the first constitution.
- July 9 – U.S. Senator William Blount becomes the first federal legislator to be expelled from office, as his fellow Senators vote 25 to 1 to block him from his seat during an investigation against him on charges of criminal conspiracy.
- July 24 – Horatio Nelson is wounded at the Battle of Santa Cruz, losing an arm.
- August 29 – Massacre of Tranent: British troops attack protestors against enforced recruitment into the militia at Tranent, Scotland, killing 12.
- September 4 – The Coup of 18 Fructidor is carried out in France as three of the five members of The Directory, France's executive council, arrested royalist members of the Council of Five Hundred, the national legislature, and discard the results of the spring elections.
- September 5 – France's new government decrees that citizens who left the country without authorization are subject to the death penalty if they return.
- September 30 – Dominique-Vincent Ramel-Nogaret, French finance minister, repudiates two thirds of France's debt.
- October 11 – Battle of Camperdown: the British Royal Navy defeats the fleet of the Batavian Republic off the coast of Holland.
- October 17 – The Treaty of Campo Formio ends the War of the First Coalition.
- October 18 – The XYZ Affair inflames tensions between France and the United States when American negotiators Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, John Marshall, and Elbridge Gerry meet with French government representatives Jean-Conrad Hottinguer, Pierre Bellamy and Lucien Hauteval and are told that a treaty between France and the U.S. will require payment of a bribe to France's Foreign Minister Charles Talleyrand and a large loan of American cash to France. Pinckney tells people later that his response was "No, no, not a sixpence!"; Hottinguer, Bellamy and Hauteval are referred to, respectively, as "X", "Y" and "Z" in U.S. government reports on the failed negotiations.
- October 21 – In Boston Harbor, the 44-gun United States Navy frigate USS Constitution is launched to fight Barbary pirates off the coast of Tripoli; the ship will remain in commission in the 21st century.
- October 22 – André-Jacques Garnerin makes the first parachute descent, at Parc Monceau, Paris; he uses a silk parachute to descend approximately 3,000 feet (910 m) from a hot air balloon.
- November – 1797 Rugby School rebellion: The students at Rugby School in England rebel against the headmaster, Henry Ingles, after he decrees that the damage to a tradesman's windows should be paid for by the students.
- November 16
- The secret Lautaro Lodge as the Logia de los Caballeros Racionales ("Lodge of Rational Knights") is founded, perhaps in Cádiz; membership will include many leaders of the Spanish American wars of independence such as Francisco de Miranda, Bernardo O'Higgins and José de San Martín.
- Shinyukan Cram School (進修館) founded by Masataka Okudaira (奥平昌孝) in Nakatsu, Buzen Province (now Oita Prefecture), Kyushu Island, as predecessor of Keio-Gijyuku University in Japan.
- Joseph-Louis Lagrange publishes his treatise on differential calculus, entitled Théorie des fonctions analytiques.
- January 1
- January 3 – Frederick William Hope, English entomologist at the University of Oxford (d. 1862)
- January 4 – Wilhelm Beer, German banker, astronomer (d. 1850)
- January 5 – Eduard Vogel von Falckenstein, Prussian general (d. 1885)
- January 6 – Edward Turner Bennett, English zoologist and writer (d. 1836)
- January 9 – Edmund Murray Dodd, Canadian lawyer (d. 1876)
- January 10 – Annette von Droste-Hülshoff, German writer (d. 1848)
- January 11
- January 12
- January 14 – George Agar-Ellis, 1st Baron Dover, British peer and man of letters (d. 1833)
- January 15 – Vincenz Kollar, Austrian entomologist specializing in Diptera (d. 1860)
- January 17 – Joseph Barclay Pentland, Irish geographer (d. 1873)
- January 19
- January 20 – Jonathan Leavitt, American bookbinder, co-founder of the New York City publishing firm of Leavitt & Trow (d. 1852)
- January 21 – Joseph Méry, French writer (d. 1866)
- January 22
- January 24 – Leo Dupont, Martinique-born Venerated French Catholic, who helped spread various Catholic devotions (d. 1876)
- January 25
- January 26 – Therese Albertine Luise Robinson, German-American author (d. 1870)
- January 28 – Narcisse Girard, French violinist (d. 1860)
- January 29
- January 30 – Edwin Vose Sumner, career United States Army officer who became a Union Army general during the American Civil War (d. 1863)
- January 31 – Franz Schubert, Austrian pianist, composer (d. 1828)
- February 1 – Frederick Sullivan, English first-class cricketer associated with Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) (d. 1873)
- February 2
- February 5 – György Andrássy, Hungarian nobleman (d. 1872)
- February 6
- February 10 – George Chichester, 3rd Marquess of Donegall, British landowner, courtier and politician (d. 1883)
- February 11 – Richard Temple-Nugent-Brydges-Chandos-Grenville, 2nd Duke of Buckingham and Chandos, English Conservative politician (d. 1861)
- February 12 – John Timon, first Roman Catholic Bishop of Buffalo (d. 1867)
- February 14 – Pierre Sylvain Dumon, French politician, deputy (1831-1848) (d. 1870)
- February 15 – Henry Engelhard Steinway, German-American piano manufacturer (d. 1871)
- February 17 – Charles Alexandre, French Hellenist (d. 1870)
- February 18
- February 19
- February 21 – João Mouzinho de Albuquerque, Portuguese writer, administrator (d. 1881)
- February 22
- February 23 – Heinrich Halfeld, German engineer (d. 1873)
- February 24 – Samuel Lover, Irish songwriter (d. 1868)
- February 25 – Maria Abdy, English poet (d. 1867)
- February 27
- February 28 – John Henderson, Mississippi lawyer, United States Senator (d. 1857)
- March 2 – Étienne Mulsant, French entomologist, ornithologist (d. 1880)
- March 3 – Gotthilf Hagen, German civil engineer who made important contributions to fluid dynamics (d. 1884)
- March 5
- March 6 – Gerrit Smith, American social reformer (d. 1874)
- March 7 – Édouard Thibaudeau, Lower Canadian lawyer, political figure (d. 1836)
- March 10
- Henry Acton, English Unitarian minister (d. 1843)
- Selah R. Hobbie, United States Representative from New York (d. 1854)
- Henry Liddell, 1st Earl of Ravensworth, British peer, Member of Parliament for several constituencies (d. 1878)
- George Julius Poulett Scrope, English geologist, political economist and magistrate (d. 1876)
- March 12 – Benjamin Caesar, English professional cricketer who played first-class cricket (1824-1830) (d. 1867)
- March 13
- March 15 – Benjamin Guérard, French librarian, historian (d. 1854)
- March 16
- March 17
- March 18 – Michel Goudchaux, French banker, politician who was twice Minister of Finance during the French Second Republic (d. 1862)
- March 19
- March 20 – John Roberton, Scottish physician, social reformer (d. 1876)
- March 21 – Johann Andreas Wagner, German palaeontologist (d. 1861)
- March 22
- March 23 – Ernest Edgcumbe, 3rd Earl of Mount Edgcumbe, English politician (d. 1861)
- March 24
- March 25
- March 26
- March 27
- John Dix Fisher, physician and founder of Perkins Institution for the Blind in Boston (d. 1850)
- George Glyn, 1st Baron Wolverton, English banker with interests in the railways (d. 1873)
- Heinrich LXXII, Prince Reuss of Lobenstein and Ebersdorf (d. 1853)
- Alfred de Vigny, French poet, early leader of French Romanticism (d. 1863)
- March 28 – George O. Belden, American politician, Representative from New York (d. 1833)
- March 29 – Charles I. du Pont, American manufacturer, politician (d. 1869)
- March 31
- April 1
- April 2
- Samuel Bogart, itinerant Methodist minister, militia captain from Ray County, Missouri (d. 1861)
- Joseph-François Deblois, Lower Canadian lawyer (d. 1860)
- John Peter Gassiot, English businessman, amateur scientist (d. 1877)
- Dunning R. McNair, Sergeant at Arms of the United States Senate (1853-1861) (d. 1875)
- David Robertson, 1st Baron Marjoribanks, Scottish stockbroker, politician (d. 1873)
- Franz Graf von Wimpffen, Austrian general, admiral (d. 1870)
- April 3
- April 4
- April 5
- April 7
- Théodore Anne, French playwright (d. 1869)
- Louis Thomas Jérôme Auzoux, French anatomist, naturalist (d. 1880)
- Pierre Leroux, French philosopher, political economist (d. 1871)
- Joseph Young, early American convert to the Latter Day Saint movement, missionary, longtime general authority of the LDS Church (d. 1881)
- April 8 – Jehiel Brooks, American soldier, territorial governor, and plantation owner (d. 1886)
- April 9
- April 12 – Zina Pitcher, American physician (d. 1872)
- April 13 – Stanislas Julien, French sinologist, Chair of Chinese at the Collège de France for over 40 years (d. 1873)
- April 15
- April 17
- April 18
- April 19
- April 21 – George Stephen Benjamin Jarvis, Upper Canadian judge, political figure (d. 1878)
- April 23
- April 24
- April 26 – Albert Seerig, German surgeon, anatomist (d. 1862)
- April 27
- Jean Victoire Audouin, French naturalist, entomologist, herpetologist, ornithologist, and malacologist (d. 1841)
- Eliphaz Fay, fourth president of Colby College (then called the Waterville College) in Maine (d. 1854)
- William B. Slaughter, United States politician (d. 1879)
- Linus Yale Sr., American inventor, manufacturer of locks (d. 1858)
- April 28 – John Richardson, Australian convict, accompanies several exploring expeditions as botanical collector (d. 1882)
- April 29 – Gideon Hard, American lawyer, politician (d. 1885)
- May 1
- May 2
- May 3
- May 6 – Joseph Brackett, American religious leader, composer (d. 1882)
- May 7
- Walter Colton, Chaplain for the United States Navy (d. 1851)
- Charles Frederick, Royal Navy officer, Third Naval Lord (d. 1875)
- Elizabeth Grant, British diarist (d. 1885)
- José Antonio Saco, Cuban statesman, deputy to the Spanish Cortes, writer, social critic, publicist, essayist, anthropologist, historian (d. 1879)
- May 8
- May 9 – Lansdown Guilding, St. Vincent-born English theologian, early naturalist (d. 1831)
- May 10 – Daniel Lynn Carroll, sixth President of Hampden–Sydney College (1835-1838) (d. 1851)
- May 11
- May 12 – Johann Hermann Kufferath, German composer (d. 1864)
- May 13 – Ulrik Frederik Cappelen, Norwegian jurist and politician (d. 1864)
- May 14 – Carl Georg Christian Schumacher, German painter (d. 1869)
- May 15
- May 16
- May 18
- May 19
- May 20 – Alexis-François Rio, French writer on art (d. 1874)
- May 21
- May 24
- May 26 – Ralph Randolph Gurley, American clergyman (d. 1872)
- May 27 – Sir Thomas Bazley, 1st Baronet of England (d. 1883)
- May 29
- May 30 – Georg Amadeus Carl Friedrich Naumann, German mineralogist (d. 1873)
- June 1 – Abby Hadassah Smith, early American suffragist, campaigner for property and voting rights from Glastonbury (d. 1879)
- June 2 – Joseph Blake, 3rd Baron Wallscourt, Irish nobleman and pioneering socialist (d. 1849)
- June 6 – Rehuel Lobatto, Dutch mathematician (d. 1866)
- June 7
- June 8 – Henry William-Powlett, 3rd Baron Bayning, English peer and clergyman (d. 1866)
- June 11
- Francis Conyngham, 2nd Marquess Conyngham, English soldier, courtier and politician (d. 1876)
- Henry Lascelles, 3rd Earl of Harewood, English peer and Member of Parliament (d. 1857)
- José Trinidad Reyes, Honduran Father, national hero, and founder of Autonomous National University of Honduras (d. 1855)
- June 12 – Thomas Ainslie Young, official and political figure in Lower Canada (d. 1860)
- June 15
- June 16
- June 17 – Alexandre Vinet, Swiss critic and theologian (d. 1847)
- June 19 – Hamilton Hume, early explorer of the present-day Australian states of New South Wales and Victoria (d. 1873)
- June 20 – Karolina Gerhardinger, German Roman Catholic professed religious, established the School Sisters of Notre Dame (d. 1879)
- June 21 – Christoffel Brand, South African jurist (d. 1875)
- June 23 – Théophile Bra, French Romantic sculptor and exact contemporary of Eugène Delacroix (d. 1863)
- June 24
- June 26 – Imam Shamil, Avar political and religious leader of the Muslim tribes of the Northern Caucasus (d. 1871)
- June 29 – Frederic Baraga, Slovenian Catholic missionary to the United States, grammarian of Native American languages (d. 1868)
- July 2
- July 4
- July 6 – Henry Paget, 2nd Marquess of Anglesey, England (d. 1869)
- July 7 – George Meads, English professional cricketer who played first-class cricket (1825-1836) (d. 1881)
- July 11 – Francis Close, Anglican rector of Cheltenham (1826–1856) and Dean of Carlisle (1856–1881) (d. 1882)
- July 12
- July 14 – James Scott Bowerbank, British naturalist, palaeontologist (d. 1877)
- July 15
- July 16 – Daniel D. Barnard, American politician, Representative from New York (d. 1861)
- July 17
- July 18 – Robert Christison, Scottish toxicologist, physician (d. 1882)
- July 20
- July 21 – John M. Read, American lawyer (d. 1874)
- July 24 – Maria Foote, English actress, peeress (d. 1867)
- July 25
- July 26
- July 29
- July 30 – Harriet Windsor-Clive, 13th Baroness Windsor of England (d. 1869)
- July 31 – Alonzo C. Paige, American lawyer, politician from New York (d. 1868)
- August 1
- August 2
- August 4
- August 5
- August 6 – August Wilhelm Stiehler, German government official, paleobotanist (d. 1878)
- August 7
- August 8
- August 9
- August 10
- August 11 – George Shillibeer, English coachbuilder (d. 1866)
- August 12 – Manuel Aguilar Chacón, Costa Rican head of state (d. 1846)
- August 13 – Horatio Chriesman, American surveyor, politician in Mexican Texas and participant in the Texas Revolution (d. 1878)
- August 14 – Robert Radcliffe, English first-class cricketer associated with Cambridge University (d. 1832)
- August 15 – James Black, Scottish-born Canadian clergyman (d. 1886)
- August 17 – Peter Broun, first Colonial Secretary of Western Australia (d. 1846)
- August 18 – Antoine Claudet, French photographer, artist who produced daguerreotypes (d. 1867)
- August 20
- August 21
- August 22
- August 23 – Adhémar Jean Claude Barré de Saint-Venant, French mechanic, mathematician (d. 1886)
- August 24
- August 25
- August 26
- August 27
- August 28
- August 30 – Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, English novelist, dramatist, essayist, biographer and travel writer (d. 1851)
- August 31
- September 1 – William FitzGerald-de Ros, 23rd Baron de Ros of England (d. 1874)
- September 3 – Benjamin Nottingham Webster, English actor-manager and dramatist (d. 1882)
- September 4
- September 5
- September 6
- September 7
- September 10
- Benjamin Nicolas Marie Appert, French philanthropist (d. 1847)
- Franz Krüger, German (Prussian) painter, lithographer (d. 1857)
- Daniel Parkhurst Leadbetter, United States Representative from Ohio (d. 1870)
- Carl Gustaf Mosander, Swedish chemist (d. 1858)
- Piotr Wysocki, Polish lieutenant, leader of the Polish conspiracy against Russian Tsar Nicolas I (d. 1875)
- September 11 – George Strange Boulton, Upper Canada lawyer, political figure (d. 1869)
- September 12
- September 13 – Joseph Stannard, English marine and landscape painter (d. 1830)
- September 14 – Joseph-Désiré Court, French painter of historical subjects and portraits (d. 1865)
- September 15 – Andrew Trumbo, United States Representative from Kentucky (d. 1871)
- September 16
- September 17
- September 18 – Camille-Melchior Gibert, French dermatologist (d. 1866)
- September 19 – January Suchodolski, Polish painter, Army officer (d. 1875)
- September 21
- September 23
- September 24 – Carl Peter Wilhelm Gramberg, German theologian, biblical scholar (d. 1830)
- September 25 – John J. Allen, Virginia lawyer (d. 1871)
- September 26 – Olry Terquem, French pharmacist, paleontologist (d. 1887)
- September 27
- September 28
- September 29
- October 1 – Lewis Ruffner, salt manufacturer from Malden, West Virginia (d. 1883)
- October 2 – Jonathan Pitney, American physician, promoter of Absecon Island as healing seashore resort (d. 1889)
- October 3
- October 4
- October 5 – John Gardner Wilkinson, English traveller, writer and pioneer Egyptologist (d. 1875)
- October 6
- October 7 – Peter Georg Bang, Danish politician, jurist (d. 1861)
- October 8
- October 9
- October 10
- October 12 – Gaspard Thémistocle Lestiboudois, French naturalist (d. 1876)
- October 13
- George Anson, British military officer, Whig politician (d. 1857)
- Thomas Haynes Bayly, English poet (d. 1839)
- Dong Haichuan, Chinese martial artist, credited to be the founder of Baguazhang (d. 1882)
- John H. McHenry, United States House of Representatives (d. 1871)
- William Motherwell, Scottish poet, antiquary and journalist (d. 1835)
- October 14
- October 15
- October 16 – James Brudenell, 7th Earl of Cardigan (d. 1868)
- October 17
- October 18
- October 19 – Littleton Kirkpatrick, American Whig Party politician (d. 1859)
- October 20 – José Bernardo Escobar, interim President of Guatemala (d. 1849)
- October 21
- October 24 – Štefan Moyses, Slovak bishop, teacher, patriot, co-founder and first chairman of Matica slovenská (d. 1869)
- October 25
- October 26
- October 27 – Andrew Combe, Scottish physician, phrenologist (d. 1847)
- October 28 – James C. Curtis, American lawyer, politician (d. 1881)
- October 30
- October 31 – Benjamin H. Smith, American politician from Virginia (d. 1887)
- November 1
- November 2 – Baltazar Mathias Keilhau, Norwegian geologist, mountain pioneer (d. 1858)
- November 3 – Thomas Icely, early colonial New South Wales landholder, stockbreeder (d. 1874)
- November 4 – Carlo Blasis, Italian dancer (d. 1878)
- November 5 – Elisha H. Groves, mid-level American LDS Church leader (d. 1867)
- November 6 – Gabriel Andral, French pathologist, professor at the University of Paris (d. 1876)
- November 13 – Niklas Westring, Swedish entomologist, arachnologist (d. 1882)
- November 14
- November 15
- November 17 – Isaac Funk, American rancher and politician (d. 1865)
- November 18 – Carl Reinhold Roth, Swedish businessman, ironmaster (d. 1858)
- November 19
- November 20
- November 21 – Anders Josef Europaeus, Finnish priest, vicar (d. 1870)
- November 22 – David Salomons, leading figure in the struggle for Jewish emancipation in the United Kingdom (d. 1873)
- November 23
- November 27 – José Xavier de Cerveira e Sousa, Portuguese prelate (d. 1862)
- November 29
- November 30
- December 2 – Benjamin F. Hallett, Massachusetts lawyer, Democratic Party activist (d. 1862)
- December 3
- December 4
- December 5
- December 6
- December 7 – Charles J. McCurdy, American lawyer (d. 1891)
- December 8 – Martin Martens, Belgian botanist, chemist (d. 1863)
- December 9
- December 10 – Raffaele Fidanza, Italian painter (d. 1846)
- December 11
- December 12
- December 13 – Heinrich Heine, German poet (d. 1856)
- December 14
- December 15
- December 17
- December 18
- December 19 – Antoine Louis Dugès, French obstetrician, naturalist (d. 1838)
- December 22
- December 23 – Adrien-Henri de Jussieu, French botanist (d. 1853)
- December 24
- December 25
- December 26
- December 27
- December 28
- December 29 – François Leuret, French anatomist, psychiatrist (d. 1851)
- approximate date – Sojourner Truth, African-American abolitionist, women's rights activist (d. 1883)
- January 11 – Francis Lightfoot Lee, member of the House of Burgesses in the Colony of Virginia (b. 1734)
- January 13 – Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel-Bevern, queen consort of Prussia (b. 1715)
- January 19 – David Graeme, British Army general (b. 1716)
- January 26 – Antão de Almada, 12th Count of Avranches (b. 1718)
- January 30 – John Glover, American military general, fisherman and merchant (b. 1732)
- February 1 – James Duane, American lawyer (b. 1733)
- February 8 – Princess Joséphine of Lorraine (b. 1753)
- February 11 – Antoine Dauvergne, French composer (b. 1713)
- February 13 – Sir Robert Burdett, 4th Baronet, British politician and member of the English gentry (b. 1716)
- February 17 – Maria Anna Sophia of Saxony, daughter of King Augustus III of Poland (b. 1728)
- February 21 – John Parkhurst, English academic (b. 1728)
- February 22 – Karl Friedrich Hieronymus Freiherr von Münchhausen, German officer and adventurer (b. 1720)
- March 2 – Horace Walpole, English politician and writer (b. 1717)
- March 5 – Empress Xiaoshurui, first Empress Consort of the Jiaqing Emperor of the Qing Dynasty (b. 1760)
- March 7
- March 16 – Cristina Roccati, Italian scholar in physics (b. 1732)
- March 17 – Daniel Dulany the Younger, Maryland Loyalist politician (b. 1722)
- March 26 – James Hutton, Scottish geologist (b. 1726)
- March 30 – Pierre Jean Van Stabel, French rear-admiral (b. 1744)
- March 31
- April 4 – Pierre-François Berruer, French sculptor (b. 1733)
- April 17 – Susanna Boylston, prominent early-American socialite (b. 1708)
- April 27 – Henry Louis, Prince of Nassau-Saarbrücken, titular prince of Nassau-Saarbrücken (b. 1768)
- April 29 – Elizabeth Ryves, Irish writer, translator (b. 1750)
- May 7 – Jedediah Strutt, English hosier and cotton spinner from Belper (b. 1726)
- May 14 – Giovanni Fagnano, Italian churchman and mathematician (b. 1715)
- May 17 – Michel-Jean Sedaine, French dramatist (b. 1719)
- May 25
- May 27
- June 15 – Christen Friis Rottbøll, Danish physician, botanist and pupil of Carolus Linnaeus (b. 1727)
- June 17
- June 21 – Andreas Peter Bernstorff, Danish statesman, politician (b. 1735)
- June 24 – Bahadur Shah of Nepal, younger son of King Prithvi Narayan Shah (1723–1775) of modern Nepal (b. 1757)
- June 30
- July 9 – Edmund Burke, Irish philosopher (b. 1723)
- July 11 – Ienăchiță Văcărescu, Wallachian writer (b. 1740)
- July 12 – Peter Bonnevaux, fourth Military Governor of British Ceylon, third General Officer Commanding (b. 1752)
- July 14 – Emmanuel de Rohan-Polduc, member of the wealthy and influential Rohan family of France (b. 1725)
- July 25
- July 29 – John Weatherhead, officer of the British Royal Navy (b. 1775)
- August 3
- August 6 – James Pettit Andrews, English historian, antiquary (b. 1737)
- August 10 – Alexei Senyavin, Russian admiral (b. 1716)
- August 22 – Dagobert Sigmund von Wurmser, Alsatian-born Austrian general (b. 1724)
- August 25 – Thomas Chittenden, first governor of the state of Vermont (b. 1730)
- August 29 – Joseph Wright of Derby, English landscape and portrait painter (b. 1734)
- September 4 – Sir William Ashburnham, 4th Baronet, Church of England clergyman, baronet (b. 1710)
- September 10 – Mary Wollstonecraft, English feminist author (b. 1759)
- September 12 – David Forman, brigadier general of New Jersey militia (b. 1745)
- September 19
- September 21
- September 25 – John Baughan, English carpenter, thief and transportee to Australia (b. 1754)
- September 30 – Gunning Bedford Sr., American lawyer and politician from New Castle (b. 1742)
- October 9 – Vilna Gaon, Lithuanian rabbi (b. 1720)
- October 10
- October 14 – William Orr, member of the United Irishmen (executed) (b. 1766)
- October 17 – Jean-François Hubert, bishop of Quebec (b. 1739)
- October 20 – William Cooke, English cleric, academic (b. 1711)
- November 14 – Ivan Shuvalov, founder of Moscow University (b. 1727)
- November 16 – King Frederick William II of Prussia (b. 1744)
- November 18 – Jacques-Alexandre Laffon de Ladebat, French shipbuilder, merchant (b. 1719)
- November 26 – Andrew Adams, American lawyer (b. 1736)
- November 27 – Johann Baptist Wendling, Alsatian-born flute player, composer of the Mannheim School (b. 1723)
- November 29 – Samuel Langdon, American Congregational clergyman, President of Harvard University (b. 1723)
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- December 11 – Richard Brocklesby, English physician (b. 1722)
- December 13 – Louis Legendre, French politician of the Revolution period (b. 1752)
- December 23
- December 26 – John Wilkes, English radical (b. 1725)
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