1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1867th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 867th year of the 2nd millennium, the 67th year of the 19th century, and the 8th year of the 1860s decade. As of the start of 1867, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
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- January 1 – The Covington–Cincinnati Suspension Bridge opens between Cincinnati, Ohio and Covington, Kentucky in the United States, becoming the longest single-span bridge in the world. It will be renamed after its designer, John A. Roebling, in 1983.
- January 8 – African-American men are granted the right to vote, in the District of Columbia.
- January 11 – Benito Juárez becomes Mexican president again.
- January 30 – Emperor Kōmei of Japan dies suddenly, age 36, leaving his 14-year-old son to succeed as Emperor Meiji.
- January 31 – Maronite nationalist leader Youssef Bey Karam leaves Lebanon aboard a French ship, for Algeria.
- February 3 – Shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu abdicates, and the late Emperor Kōmei's son, Prince Mutsuhito becomes Emperor Meiji of Japan in a brief ceremony in Kyoto, ending the Late Tokugawa shogunate.
- February 7 – West Virginia University is established in Morgantown, West Virginia.
- February 13 – The Covering of the Senne in Brussels begins.
- February 15 – Johann Strauss II's waltz "The Blue Danube" (An der schönen blauen Donau) is first performed, at a concert of the Vienna Men's Choral Association. Strauss adapts it into its popular purely orchestral version, for the International Exposition in Paris, later this year.
- February 17 – The first ship passes through the Suez Canal.
- February 19 – Battle of Inlon River: The Qing Dynasty defeats the Nien rebels in Hubei, China.
- February 22 – The Indiana Daily Student is established at Indiana University, in Bloomington.
- February 28 – After almost 20 years (1848), the United States Congress forbids taxpayer funding of diplomatic envoys to the Holy See (Vatican), and breaks off relations. Funding resumes, along with relations, in 1984.
- March – The University of Illinois at Urbana/Champaign is established (opened one year later).
- March 1 – Nebraska is admitted as the 37th U.S. state.
- March 5 – The Fenian Rising breaks out in Ireland.
- March 16 – An article by Joseph Lister, outlining the discovery of antiseptic surgery, is first published in The Lancet.
- March 23 – William III of the Netherlands accepts an offer of 5,000,000 guilders from Napoleon III, for the sale of Luxembourg, leading to the Luxembourg Crisis.
- March 29 – The British North America Act receives royal assent, forming the Dominion of Canada, in an event known as the Confederation. This unites the Province of Canada (Quebec and Ontario), New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia on July 1. Ottawa becomes the capital, and John A. Macdonald becomes the Dominion's first prime minister.
- March 30 – Alaska is purchased for $7.2 million from Alexander II of Russia, about 2 cent/acre ($4.19/km²), by United States Secretary of State William H. Seward. The news media call this Seward's Folly.
- April 1 – The Strait Settlement of Singapore, formerly ruled from Calcutta, becomes a Crown colony, under the jurisdiction of the Colonial Office in London.
- April 28 – I.C. Sorosis, the first women's fraternity (sorority) founded upon the men's fraternity model, with Pi Beta Phi as its motto, is founded at Monmouth College in Monmouth, Illinois. In 1888, the motto becomes the name of the organization.
- May 1 – The first political May Day march takes place in Chicago.
- May 7 – Alfred Nobel patents dynamite in the United Kingdom.
- May 11
- Treaty of London: The great powers of Europe reaffirm the neutrality of Luxembourg, ending the Luxembourg Crisis. The Duchy of Limburg is formally re-incorporated into the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
- Cox and Box, by Francis Burnand and Arthur Sullivan, is first publicly performed, at the Adelphi Theatre, London.
- May 24 – Robert William Keate becomes Lieutenant-governor of the Colony of Natal.
- May 29
- The Austro-Hungarian Compromise (called Ausgleich in German or kiegyezés in Hungarian (The Compromise)) is born through Act 12, which establishes the Austro-Hungarian Empire; on June 8 Emperor Francis Joseph of Austria is crowned King of Hungary.
- Canadian Confederation: Queen Victoria signs the British North America Act, creating the Dominion of Canada, effective July 1.
- June 15 – The Atlantic Cable Quartz Lode gold mine is named in Montana.
- June 19 – A firing squad executes Emperor Maximilian of Mexico.
- July – The Reverend Thomas Baker, a Wesleyan Methodist missionary (b. in Playden, East Sussex, England) is cooked and eaten by Navatusila tribespeople at Nabutautau, Fiji, together with eight of his local followers, the last missionary in that country to suffer cannibalism.
- July 1
- Canadian Confederation: The British North America Act of 29 March comes into force, creating the Dominion of Canada, the first independent dominion in the British Empire.
- The Constitution of the North German Confederation comes into effect, creating a confederation of states, under the leadership of Prussia and Otto von Bismarck.
- July 9 – Queen's Park F.C., the oldest association football league team in Scotland, is founded.
- July 15 – France declares Cambodia's independence from Siam; Cambodia becomes a protectorate of France and England.
- July 17 – In Boston, Massachusetts, the Harvard School of Dental Medicine is established as the first dental school in the United States.
- July 18 – The Battle of Fandane-Thiouthioune: The Serer people defeat the Muslim Marabouts of Senegambia.
- August 7–September 20 – The first Canadian election sees John A. Macdonald's Conservatives elected to government.
- August 15 – Benjamin Disraeli's Second Reform Act enfranchises many men in cities for the first time, and adds 938,000 to an electorate of 1,057,000 in England and Wales.
- September 2 – Emperor Meiji of Japan marries Empress Shōken (née Masako Ichijō). The Empress consort is thereafter known as Lady Haruko.
- September 4 – The Sheffield Wednesday F.C. is founded, at the Adelphi Hotel in Sheffield.
- September 14 – The first volume of Das Kapital (later translated into English as Capital) is published by Karl Marx.
- September 15 – The Dynamikos Sheta-Maat Spellbook: A book of the powerful hidden truth, a grimoire by Ciara Sullivan, is published to widespread displeasure.
- September 30 – The United States takes control of Midway Island.
- October 21 – Manifest destiny – Medicine Lodge Treaty: Near Medicine Lodge Creek, Kansas, a landmark treaty is signed by southern Great Plains Indian leaders. The treaty requires Native American Plains tribes to relocate to a reservation in western Oklahoma.
- October 27 – Giuseppe Garibaldi's troops march into Rome.
- November 9 – The last shogun of Japan, Tokugawa Yoshinobu, tenders his resignation to Emperor Meiji.
- November 21 – American temperance crusader Carrie Nation marries Dr. Charles Gloyd.
- November 23 – The so-called Manchester Martyrs are hanged in Manchester, England for the murder of a policeman, whilst attempting to rescue two members of the Irish Republican Brotherhood from jail.
- December 2 – In a New York City theater, English author Charles Dickens gives his first public reading in the United States.
- December 18 – Angola Horror (Buffalo, New York-area train wreck): The fiery death of 49 people leads John D. Rockefeller to develop and sell his Mineral Seal 300 °F Fire-Tested Burning Oil, and George Westinghouse to invent the railway air brake, which is mandated in the United States in 1893.
- Pierre Michaux invents the front wheel-driven velocipede, the first mass-produced bicycle.
- Yellow fever kills 3,093 in New Orleans.
- South African diamond fields are discovered.
- The Prohibition National Committee is formed in the United States.
- The Wasps Rugby Football Club is formed in Middlesex, England.
- At Fountain Point, Michigan, an artesian water spring begins to gush continuously.
- 1867–1873 – Chinese, Scandinavian and Irish immigrants lay 30,000 miles (48,000 km) of railroad tracks in the USA.
- Clarke School for the Deaf in Western Massachusetts opens its doors for the first time, becoming the first school for the deaf in the United States to teach its children how to communicate using the oral method.
- The modern rose is born, with the introduction of Rosa 'La France' by Jean-Baptiste Guillot (1803–1882).
- Gorse is naturalised in New Zealand, where it soon becomes the worst invasive weed.
- The Famine of 1866–68 reaches Sweden.
- January 1 – Lew Fields, American vaudeville performer (d. 1941)
- January 5 – Dimitrios Gounaris, 94th Prime Minister of Greece (d. 1922)
- January 6 – Takejirō Tokonami, Japanese politician, Home Minister, Railway Minister, and Minister of Communication (d. 1935)
- January 8
- January 17 – Carl Laemmle, German-born film executive (d. 1939)
- January 18 – Rubén Darío, Nicaraguan poet (d. 1916)
- January 20 – Yvette Guilbert, French singer, actress (d. 1944)
- January 21
- January 25 – Adelaide Cabete, Portuguese women's rights activist (d. 1935)
- January 29 – Carl L. Boeckmann, Norwegian-American artist (d. 1923)
- February 3 – Charles Henry Turner, African-American entomologist (d. 1923)
- February 4 – Alexander Godley, British general (d. 1957)
- February 7 – Laura Elizabeth Wilder, née Ingalls, American children's author (d. 1957)
- February 8 – William Michael Crose, United States Navy Commander and the seventh Naval Governor of American Samoa (d. 1929)
- February 10 – Charles W. Bryan, American politician (d. 1945)
- February 21 – Otto Hermann Kahn, German-born American millionaire, philanthropist (d. 1934)
- February 27
- March 4 – Charles Pelot Summerall, American general (d. 1955)
- March 6 – Samuel Cody, American aviation pioneer (k. 1913)
- March 19 – Sakichi Toyoda, Japanese inventor, industrialist (d. 1930)
- March 21 – Florenz Ziegfeld, Jr., American theatrical producer (d. 1932)
- March 25 – Arturo Toscanini, Italian conductor (d. 1957)
- March 26 – Arnold Theiler, founder of the Onderstepoort Veterinary Research Institute in South Africa (d. 1936)
- March 29 – Cy Young, American baseball player (d. 1955)
- April 2 – Eugen Sandow, German-born body builder, circus performer (d. 1925)
- April 7 – Holger Pedersen, Danish linguist (d. 1953)
- April 9 – Chris Watson, third Prime Minister of Australia (d. 1941)
- April 10 – George William Russell, Irish nationalist, poet and artist (d. 1935)
- April 11 – Mark Keppel, Superintendent of Los Angeles County Schools (d. 1928)
- April 13 – Sammy Woods, English cricketer (d. 1931)
- April 16
- April 23 – Johannes Fibiger, Danish scientist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1928)
- May 3 – J. T. Hearne, English cricketer (d. 1944)
- May 7 – Władysław Reymont, Polish writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1925)
- May 14 – Kurt Eisner, German politician, publicist (d. 1919)
- May 26 – Mary of Teck, wife of George V of Great Britain (d. 1953)
- June 2 – William Goodenough, British admiral (d. 1945)
- June 4 – Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim, President of Finland (d. 1951)
- June 6 – David T. Abercrombie, American businessman, co-founder of Abercrombie & Fitch (d. 1931)
- June 8 – Frank Lloyd Wright, American architect (d. 1959)
- June 9 – Clarence Geldart, Canadian-American actor (d. 1935)
- June 14 – Joseph John Englehart, American Northwest Frontier painter (d. 1915)
- June 17 – Flora Finch, British-American silent film comedian (d. 1940)
- June 24 – J. Gordon Edwards, American film director (d. 1925)
- June 28 – Luigi Pirandello, Italian writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1936)
- June 30
- July 8 – Käthe Kollwitz, German artist (d. 1945)
- July 10 – Prince Maximilian of Baden, Chancellor of Germany (d. 1929)
- July 25 – Alexander Rummler, American painter (d. 1959)
- July 27 – Enrique Granados, Spanish composer (d. 1916)
- July 28 – Charles Dillon Perrine, American-born astronomer (d. 1951)
- July 29 – Berthold Oppenheim, Moravian rabbi (d. 1942)
- July 31 – S.S. Kresge, American businessman, founder of Kmart (d. 1966)
- August 3 – Stanley Baldwin, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1947)
- August 6 – Sam Mussabini, English athletics coach (d. 1927)
- August 9
- August 11 – Hobart Bosworth, American film actor, director, writer, and producer (d. 1943)
- August 12 – Edith Hamilton, German-born educator, author (d. 1963)
- August 14 – John Galsworthy, English writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1933)
- August 22 – Maximilian Bircher-Benner, Swiss physician, nutritionist (d. 1939)
- August 28 – Umberto Giordano, Italian opera composer (d. 1948)
- September 5 – Amy Beach, American pianist, composer (d. 1944)
- September 7 – Albert Bassermann, German actor (d. 1952)
- September 16 – Vintilă Brătianu, 31st Prime Minister of Romania (d. 1930)
- September 21 – Charles Bathurst, 1st Viscount Bledisloe, English politician, 4th Governor-General of New Zealand (d. 1958)
- September 28 – Hiranuma Kiichirō, 24th Prime Minister of Japan (d. 1952)
- September 29 – Walter Rathenau, German statesman, Weimar Republic foreign minister (d. 1922)
- October 2 – James Stevenson-Hamilton, 1st warden of South Africa's Kruger National Park (d. 1957)
- October 12 – Lyn Harding, Welsh actor (d. 1952)
- October 14 – Masaoka Shiki, Japanese haiku poet (d. 1902)
- October 16 – Mario Ruspoli, 2nd Prince of Poggio Suasa (d. 1963)
- October 25
- October 31 – David Graham Phillips, American journalist, novelist (d. 1911)
- November 7
- November 8 – Sadakichi Hartmann, German/Japanese critic, poet (d. 1944)
- November 9 – Shrimad Rajchandra, prominent Indian Jain philosopher, scholar, poet & spiritual mentor of Mahatma Gandhi (d. 1901)
- November 17 – Henri Gouraud, French general (d. 1946)
- December 1 – Ignacy Mościcki, former President of Poland (d. 1946)
- December 2 – Alec B. Francis, English actor (d. 1934)
- December 5 – Józef Piłsudski, Polish statesman, field marshal (d. 1935)
- December 13 – Kristian Birkeland, Norwegian physicist (d. 1917)
- December 14 – Ingibjörg H. Bjarnason, Icelandic politician (d. 1941)
- December 16 – Amy Carmichael, Irish Protestant missionary (d. 1951)
- December 23 – Madam C. J. Walker, first African-American millionaire (d. 1919)
- December 23 – Clotilde Apponyi, Hungarian women's rights activist, diplomat (d. 1942)
- December 26 – Yordan Milanov, Bulgarian architect (d. 1932)
- Laura Anning Bell, English artist (d. 1950)
- Habib Pacha Es-Saad, 3rd Prime Minister and 2nd President of Lebanon (d. 1942)
- Florence Fuller, South African-born Australian artist (d. 1946)
- Zhang Haipeng, Chinese general (d. 1949)
- probable – Scott Joplin, American musician and composer (d. 1917)
- Elena Meissner, Romanian women's rights activist (d. 1940)
- January 14 – Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, French painter (b. 1780)
- January 30 – Emperor Kōmei, 121st Emperor of Japan (b. 1831)
- March 8 – Artemus Ward, American humorist (b. 1834) (tuberculosis)
- March 25 – Friedlieb Ferdinand Runge, German chemist (b. 1795)
- April 1 – Louis du Couret, French explorer, writer and military officer (b. 1812)
- April 12 – David Canabarro, Brazilian general, Gaúcho revolutionary (b. 1796)
- April 27 – Benjamin Hall, 1st Baron Llanover, after whom Big Ben may be named (b. 1802)
- May 12 – Friedrich Wilhelm Eduard Gerhard, German archaeologist (b. 1795)
- May 23 – William Crawshay II, Welsh industrialist (b. 1788)
- May 29 – Margaretta Morris, American entomologist (b. 1797)
- June 19 – Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico (executed) (b. 1832)
- July – Thomas Baker, Methodist missionary to Fiji (b. 1832)
- July 26 – Otto of Greece, first modern King of Greece (b. 1815)
- July 31 – Benoît Fourneyron, French engineer, inventor of the turbine (b. 1802)
- August 6 – David R. Porter, American politician (b. 1788)
- August 8 – Maria Theresa of Austria, second Queen consort of Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies (b. 1816)
- August 25 – Michael Faraday, English chemist, physicist (b. 1791)
- August 31 – Charles Baudelaire, French writer (b. 1821)
- September 10 – Simon Sechter, Austrian music teacher (b. 1788)
- September 26 – James Ferguson, Scotland-born American astronomer (b. 1797)
- October 9 – Ignacy Feliks Dobrzyński, Polish composer (b. 1807)
- October 11 – Gunatitanand Swami, Indian paramahamsa of the Hindu Swaminarayan Sampraday sect (b. 1785)
- October 23 – Franz Bopp, German linguist (b. 1791)
- October 25 – Abuna Salama III, metropolitan of the Ethiopian Church
- October 31 – William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse, Irish astronomer (b. 1800)
- November 19 – Fitz-Greene Halleck, American poet (b. 1790)
- November 19 – Ren Zhu, Chinese leader of the Nian Rebellion (b. 1830?)
- December 1 – Filaret, Metropolitan of Moscow, Russian Orthodox leader (b. 1782)
- December 10 – Sakamoto Ryōma, Japanese samurai, politician and businessman (b. 1836)
- December 26 – József Kossics, Hungarian-Slovenian Catholic priest, writer and ethnologist (b. 1788)
- December 30 – Sarah Booth, English actress (b. 1793)
- Demey, Thierry (1990). Bruxelles, chronique d’une capitale en chantier. 1. Brussels: Paul Legrain/C.F.C.-Editions.
- Moody, T. W.; Martin, F. X., eds. (1967). The Course of Irish History. Cork: Mercier Press. p. 370.
- Haverty-Stacke, D. T. (2009). America’s forgotten holiday: May Day and nationalism, 1867-1960. New York: New York University Press.
- "Alfred Nobel", Encyclopædia Britannica
- Schück, H.; Sohlman, R. (1929). The Life of Alfred Nobel. London: Heinemann. p. 101.
- "Constitution Act, 1867". Department of Justice (Canada). 2012-07-09. Retrieved 2012-08-14.
- Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 287–288. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
- Charity Vogel (November 30, 2007). "The Angola Train Wreck". American History. Retrieved October 29, 2013.
- Hessayon, D. G. The Rose Expert. Mohn Media Mohndrunk. p. 9.
- "La France: Hybrid Tea Rose". Archived from the original on September 22, 2009. Retrieved 2009-09-19.
- "A Biography of Scott Joplin". The Scott Joplin International Ragtime Foundation. Archived from the original on February 24, 2007. Retrieved 25 February 2007.