Eugen Sandow (born Friedrich Wilhelm Müller; 2 April 1867 – 14 October 1925) was a German bodybuilder and showman. Born in Königsberg, Sandow became interested in bodybuilding at the age of ten during a visit to Italy. After a spell in the circus, Sandow studied under strongman Ludwig Durlacher in the late 1880s. On Durlacher's recommendation, he began entering strongman competitions, performing in matches against leading figures in the sport such as Charles Sampson, Frank Bienkowski, and Henry McCann. In 1901 he organised what is believed to be the world's first major body building competition. Set in London's Royal Albert Hall, Sandow judged the event alongside author Arthur Conan Doyle and athlete/sculptor Charles Lawes-Wittewronge.
Friedrich Wilhelm Müller
2 April 1867
|Died||14 October 1925 (aged 58)|
Kensington, London, England
|Resting place||Putney Vale Cemetery|
|Other names||Eugene Sandow|
|Height||175 cm (5 ft 9 in)|
(m. 1896; his death 1925)
Sandow was born to a Jewish family in Königsberg, Prussia (now Kaliningrad), on 2 April 1867. His father was a German Jew, while his mother was of Russian Jewish descent. Although his parents were born Jewish, the family were Lutherans and wanted him to become a Lutheran minister.:6 He left Prussia in 1885 to avoid military service and traveled throughout Europe, becoming a circus athlete and adopting Eugen Sandow as his stage name, adapting and Germanizing his Russian mother's maiden name, Sandov.
In Brussels he visited the gym of a fellow strongman, Ludwig Durlacher, better known under his stage name "Professor Attila". Durlacher recognized Sandow's potential, mentored him, and in 1889 encouraged him to travel to London and take part in a strongmen competition. Sandow handily beat the reigning champion and won instant fame and recognition for his strength. This launched him on his career as an athletic superstar. Soon he was receiving requests from all over Britain for performances. For the next four years, Sandow refined his technique and crafted it into popular entertainment with posing and incredible feats of strength.
Florenz Ziegfeld wanted to display Sandow at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, but Ziegfeld knew that Maurice Grau had Sandow under a contract. Grau wanted $1,000 a week. Ziegfeld could not guarantee that much but agreed to pay 10 percent of the gross receipts.
Ziegfeld found that the audience was more fascinated by Sandow's bulging muscles than by the amount of weight he was lifting, so Ziegfeld had Sandow move in poses which he dubbed "muscle display performances" ... and the legendary strongman added these displays in addition to performing his feats of strength with barbells. He added chain-around-the-chest breaking and other colorful displays to Sandow's routine, and Sandow quickly became Ziegfeld's first star.
In 1894, Sandow was featured in a short film series by the Edison Studios. The film was of only part of his act and featured him flexing his muscles rather than performing any feats of physical strength.
While the content of the film reflected the audience's focus on his appearance, it made use of the unique capacities of the new medium. Film theorists have attributed the appeal being the striking image of a detailed image moving in synchrony, much like the example of the Lumière brothers' Repas de bébé where audiences were reportedly more impressed by the movement of trees swaying in the background than the events taking place in the foreground. In 1894, Sandow also appeared in a short Kinetoscope film that became the part of the first commercial motion picture exhibition in history.
In April of that same year Sandow gave one of his "muscle display performances" at the 1894 California Mid-Winter International Exposition in Golden Gate Park at the "Vienna Prater" Theater.
While he was on tour in the United States, Sandow made a brief return to England to marry Blanche Brooks, a girl from Manchester. However, due to stress and ill health he returned permanently to recuperate.
He was soon back on his feet, and opened the first of his Institutes of Physical Culture, where he taught methods of exercise, dietary habits and weight training. His ideas on physical fitness were novel at the time and had a tremendous impact. The Sandow Institute was an early gymnasium that was open to the public for exercise. In 1898 he also founded a monthly periodical, originally titled Physical Culture and subsequently renamed Sandow's Magazine of Physical Culture that was dedicated to all aspects of physical culture. This was accompanied by a series of books published between 1897 and 1904 – the last of which coined the term 'bodybuilding' in the title (as "body-building").
He worked hard at improving exercise equipment, and had invented various devices such as rubber strands for stretching and spring-grip dumbbells to exercise the wrists. In 1900 William Bankier wrote Ideal Physical Culture in which he challenged Sandow to a contest in weightlifting, wrestling, running and jumping. When Sandow did not accept his challenge Bankier called him a coward, a charlatan and a liar.:171
In 1901, Sandow organized the world's first major bodybuilding competition in London's Royal Albert Hall. The venue was so full that people were turned away from the door. The three judges presiding over the contest were Sir Charles Lawes the sculptor, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle the author, and Sandow himself.
In 1906, he was able to buy the lease of 161 (formerly 61) Holland Park Avenue, thanks to a generous gift from an Indian businessman, Sir Dhunjibhoy Bomanji, whose health had improved dramatically after he had adopted Sandow's regime. This grand four-storey end-of-terrace house – which was named Dhunjibhoy House after his benefactor – was his home for 19 years.
He travelled around the world on tours to countries as varied as South Africa, India, Japan, Australia, New Zealand. At his own expense, from 1909 he provided training for would-be recruits to the Territorial Army, to bring them up to entrance fitness standards, and did the same for volunteers for active service in World War I.
The Grecian IdealEdit
Sandow's resemblance to the physiques found on classical Greek and Roman sculpture was no accident, as he measured the statues in museums and helped to develop "The Grecian Ideal" as a formula for the "perfect physique". Sandow built his physique to the exact proportions of his Grecian Ideal, and is considered the father of modern bodybuilding, as one of the first athletes to intentionally develop his musculature to predetermined dimensions. In his books Strength and How to Obtain It and Sandow's System of Physical Training, Sandow laid out specific prescriptions of weights and repetitions in order to achieve his ideal proportions.
Influence on yogaEdit
Sandow was acclaimed on his 1905 visit to India, at which time he was already a "cultural hero" in the country at a time of strong nationalistic feeling. The scholar Joseph Alter suggests that Sandow was the person who had the most influence on modern yoga as exercise, which absorbed a variety of exercise routines from physical culture in the early 20th century.
Sandow died at his home in Kensington, London, on 14 October 1925 of what newspapers announced as a brain hemorrhage at age 58. It was allegedly brought on after straining himself, without assistance, to lift his car out of a ditch after a road accident two or three years earlier. However, without an autopsy, his death was certified as due to aortic aneurysm.
Sandow was buried in an unmarked grave in Putney Vale Cemetery at the request of his wife, Blanche. He was unfaithful to his wife later in marriage, and she refused to mark his grave. In 2002, a gravestone and black marble plaque was added by Sandow admirer and author Thomas Manly. The inscription (in gold letters) read "Eugen Sandow, 1867–1925, the Father of Bodybuilding". In 2008, the grave was purchased by Chris Davies, Sandow's great-grandson. Manly's items were replaced for the anniversary of Sandow's birth that year and a new monument, a one-and-a-half-ton natural pink sandstone monolith, was put in its place. The stone, simply inscribed "SANDOW 1867-1925", is a reference to the ancient Greek funerary monuments called steles.
Sandow was befriended by King George V, Thomas Edison, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle and classical pianist Martinus Sieveking. He was portrayed by the actor Nat Pendleton in the Academy Award-winning film The Great Ziegfeld (1936).
As recognition of his contribution to the sport of bodybuilding, a bronze statue of Sandow sculpted by Frederick Pomeroy has been presented to the winner of the Mr. Olympia contest, a major professional bodybuilding competition sponsored by the International Federation of Bodybuilders, since 1977. This statue is simply known as "The Sandow".
In 2013, Eugen Sandow was portrayed by the Canadian bodybuilder Dave Simard in the film Louis Cyr.
Sandows (London) cold brew coffee is named after him.
- Sandow's System of Physical Training (1894)
- Sandow on Physical Training (1894)
- Strength and how to Obtain It (1897)
- Sandow's Magazine of Physical Culture (1898–1907)
- Strength and Health
- The Construction and Reconstruction of the Human Body (1907) [with a foreword by Arthur Conan Doyle]
- Life is Movement (1919)
- "Death of Sandow". Time magazine. 26 October 1925. Retrieved 19 February 2009.
As it must to all men, Death came last week to Eugene Sandow, aged 58, chest expansion 14 inches.
- "Eugen Sandow". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 19 February 2009.
At the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago he joined Florenz Ziegfeld's Trocadero Company and toured the continent for several years. Ziegfeld's Follies and his glorification of the American girl were inspired in part by his earlier successful showcasing of Sandow. Noted physical educator Dudley Sargent of Harvard University examined Sandow and judged him to be the finest specimen of manhood he had seen. By the time he left the United States, Sandow's name was a household word, and he had earned more than a quarter million dollars.
- Louise Maher (29 April 2015). "The Mighty Sandow: How the world's strongest man wowed Australian audiences in 1902". ABC Radio.
- Baader, Benjamin Maria; Gillerman, Sharon; Lerner, Paul (2012). Jewish Masculinities. Indiana University Press – via https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt16gz5c0.
- Chapman, David L. (1994). Sandow the Magnificent: Eugen Sandow and the Beginnings of Bodybuilding. Sport and society. University of Illinois Press. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-252-02033-9. OCLC 538245261. Retrieved 27 January 2019. "Adam hints at the quarrel by reporting that Sandow's parents at first wanted their son to become a Lutheran minister, but later relented when it became obvious that he had no inclinations in that field."
- "Full text of "Sandow on physical training : a study in the perfect type of the human form"".
- Sandow, Eugen; Adam, G. Mercer (1 January 1894). Sandow on physical training: a study in the perfect type of the human form. New York : J. S. Tait – via Internet Archive.
- "Louis Attila". Legendary Strength. 29 October 2013. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
- "Florenz Ziegfeld Dies in Hollywood After Long Illness". The New York Times. Associated Press. 23 July 1933. Retrieved 19 February 2009.
In New York the younger Ziegfeld knew Maurice Grau, grand opera impresario, had under contract Eugene Sandow. The "perfect man" Mr. Grau esteemed as worth $1,000 a week. Mr. Ziegfeld could not guarantee anybody $1,000 a week and so offered 10% of the gross. The deal was made and Sandow went to the World's Fair.
- "Souvenir Strip of the Edison Kinetoscope (Sandow, the Modern Hercules)". Film Threat. 11 April 2008. Retrieved 20 April 2008.
The film began with Sandow holding his hands behind his head, enabling a conspicuous bit of biceps flexing and abs display. (Speaking of display, Sandow's posing shorts left very, very little to the imagination.) Sandow then folded his arms across his meaty chest, followed by a modified version of the crab pose that enabled another view of his abs while showing off his forearms. After a quick single biceps pose, Sandow turned around for a lat spread, showing off a ridiculously well developed back. After a few stretching exercises, Sandow turned back to the camera and repeated his poses.
- "Sandow's Engagement". San Francisco Call. 29 April 1894. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
- "Plaque to father of body-building". BBC. 16 February 2009. Retrieved 19 February 2009.
Fitness pioneer Eugen Sandow devised the first major body-building contest, which was held at the Royal Albert Hall in 1901. Sandow opened a gym, the Institute of Physical Culture, and performed on the stage all over the world. The plaque was unveiled at 161 Holland Park Avenue, where he lived from 1906 until he died at aged 58 in 1925.
- Patrick Scott, 'Body-Building and Empire-Building: George Douglas Brown, The South African War, and Sandow's Magazine of Physical Culture, Victorian Periodicals Review, 41:1 (2008), pp. 78–94.
- Eugen Sandow: Bodybuilding's Great Pioneer by David Chapman – Author of 'Sandow the Magnificent – Eugen Sandow and the Beginnings of Bodybuilding' Archived 2010-03-25 at the Wayback Machine
- "SANDOW, Eugen (1867–1925)". English Heritage. Retrieved 7 June 2018.
- Waller, David (2011). The perfect man : the muscular life and times of Eugen Sandow, Victorian strongman. Brighton. p. 200. ISBN 978-1-906469-25-2. OCLC 774635051.
- "Eugen Sandow: Fakir of Physical Culture". OPEN Magazine. Retrieved 7 June 2018.
- Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. 48. Oxford University Press. 2004. pp. 904–905. ISBN 0-19-861398-9.Entry by Mark Pottle.
- Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. 48. p. 904.
- Sandow, Eugen (2005) . Strength and How to Obtain It (4th ed.). Elibron Books. ISBN 1-4021-5900-5. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- Цитатник Mug (31 January 2011). "Eugen Sandow, the father of bodybuilding". Live Internet Russia. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- Singleton, Mark (2010). Yoga Body : the origins of modern posture practice. Oxford University Press. p. 89. ISBN 978-0-19-539534-1. OCLC 318191988.
- Alter, Joseph (2004). Yoga in modern India : the body between science and philosophy. Princeton University Press. p. 28. ISBN 978-0-691-11874-1. OCLC 53483558.
- "Eugen Sandow". Hartford Courant. 15 October 1925. Retrieved 20 April 2008.
Eugen Sandow, who died yesterday in London, was a physical weakling as a child and yet he became known as "the world's strongest man" and was probably entitled to the honor.
- Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. 48. p. 905.
- Kenrick, John. "Florenz Ziegfeld:A Biography" Musicals101, (Copyright 2002–2004), accessed 13 January 2011.
- Hayter-Menzies, Grant (26 January 2016). Mrs. Ziegfeld: The Public and Private Lives of Billie Burke. McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-5308-5 – via Google Books.
- "Frequently Asked Questions: Why Are You Called Sandows?". Sandows London. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
- [161 Holland Park Avenue, Holland Park, "SANDOW, Eugen (1867-1925)"] Check
|url=value (help). English Heritage. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
- Chapman, David, "Eugen Sandow and the Birth of Bodybuilding", Hardgainer (May 1993)
- Waller, David, The Perfect Man: The Muscular Life and Times of Eugen Sandow, Victorian Strongman (Brighton: Victorian Secrets, 2011)
- Barford, Vanessa and Lucy Townsend, Eugen Sandow: The man with the perfect body, BBC News Magazine, 19 October 2012
- Tate, Don, Strong As Sandow: How Eugen Sandow Became The Strongest Man On Earth, Charlesbridge Publishing, September 2017
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Eugen Sandow.|
- Official website
- Works by Eugene Sandow at Faded Page (Canada)
- Eugen Sandow & The Golden Age of Iron Men
- His workout with video demonstrations
- Works by or about Eugen Sandow at Internet Archive
- Eugen Sandow on IMDb
- Eugene Sandow in several famous poses: 1., 2., 3.[permanent dead link], 4., 5., 6., 7., 8., 9., 10.