Richard Temple-Nugent-Brydges-Chandos-Grenville, 2nd Duke of Buckingham and Chandos

Richard Plantagenet Temple-Nugent-Brydges-Chandos-Grenville, 2nd Duke of Buckingham and Chandos, KG, GCH, PC, FSA (11 February 1797 – 29 July 1861), styled Viscount Cobham from birth until 1813, Earl Temple between 1813 and 1822 and Marquess of Chandos between 1822 and 1839, was a British Tory politician. He served as Lord Privy Seal between 1841 and 1842.

The Duke of Buckingham and Chandos

Richard Temple-Nugent-Brydges-Chandos-Grenville, 2nd Duke of Buckingham and Chandos by John Jackson, 1830.jpeg
The Duke of Buckingham and Chandos by John Jackson.
Lord Privy Seal
In office
3 September 1841 – 2 February 1842
MonarchQueen Victoria
Prime MinisterSir Robert Peel
Preceded byThe Earl of Clarendon
Succeeded byThe Duke of Buccleuch
Personal details
Born11 February 1797 (1797-02-11)
Stowe House, Buckinghamshire
Died29 July 1861 (1861-07-30) (aged 64)
Great Western Hotel, Paddington, London
Political partyTory
Lady Mary Campbell
(m. 1819; div. 1850)
Alma materOriel College, Oxford
The Grenville Armorial produced between 1822 and 1839 for Richard Temple-Grenville, Marquess of Chandos, the son of the 1st Duke of Buckingham and Chandos. The centrepiece of the Gothic Library at Stowe House, it shows 719 quarterings of the family.

Two events in his life were remarkable, given the era he lived in and the position he held in society as a duke: firstly, he obtained a divorce at a time when it required an Act of Parliament; secondly, despite the great wealth to which he was born, he declared bankruptcy with debts of over a million pounds in 1847.

Background and educationEdit

Born at Stowe, Buckinghamshire, the Duke of Buckingham and Chandos was the son of the Richard Nugent-Temple-Grenville, Earl Temple (later created the Duke of Buckingham and Chandos) and Lady Anne Brydges, the only surviving child of the 3rd Duke of Chandos. In addition to being the Duchess of Buckingham and Chandos, Lady Anne was suo jure Lady Kinloss. In 1799, Richard Temple-Nugent-Grenville changed the already triple-barrelled family name to Temple-Nugent-Brydges-Chandos-Grenville by royal license to reflect his wife's family.[1]

The second Duke was a paternal grandson of the 1st Marquess of Buckingham and a great-grandson of Prime Minister George Grenville. He was educated at Eton and Oriel College, Oxford.[2]

Political careerEdit

Buckingham sat as Member of Parliament for Buckinghamshire between 1818 and 1839, when he succeeded his father in the dukedom and entered the House of Lords.[2] Two years later, in September 1841, he was sworn of the Privy Council[3] and appointed Lord Privy Seal[3] by Sir Robert Peel, a post he held only until February 1842. He was appointed a Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Hanoverian Order in 1835, elected a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries in 1840[2] and made a Knight of the Garter in 1842.[4]

According to the Legacies of British Slave-Ownership at the University College London, Buckingham was a recipient of payment as a slave trader in the aftermath of the Slavery Abolition Act 1833 with the Slave Compensation Act 1837. The British Government took out a £15 million loan (worth £1.8 billion in 2020) with interest from Nathan Mayer Rothschild and Moses Montefiore which was subsequently paid off by the British taxpayers (ending in 2015). Buckingham was associated with "T71/865 St Andrew claim no. 114 (Hope Estate)", he owned 379 slaves in Jamaica and received a £6,630 payment at the time.[5]

Personal lifeEdit

In 1819, Buckingham married Lady Mary Campbell, daughter of Lieut-Gen The 4th Earl of Breadalbane (later created Marquess of Breadalbane). They had one son, Richard, 3rd Duke of Buckingham and Chandos, and one daughter, Lady Anna, but were divorced in 1850 after Buckingham had lost his inheritance. Anna went to campaign for women's rights.[6] At that time, divorce required an Act of Parliament.

In 1847, eight years after succeeding his father as Duke of Buckingham and Chandos, Richard was declared bankrupt with debts over a million pounds (£92.1 million as of 2021). This occasioned the sale of his Keynsham estate in Somerset in 1841, Avington Park in 1847 and ultimately the auction sale of the contents of the main family seat at Stowe House in August–September 1848, one of the handful of most prominent English country house contents auctions of the 19th century.[7]

Buckingham died at the Great Western Hotel, Paddington, London, in July 1861, aged 64, and was succeeded in the dukedom by his only son. His former wife died less than a year later in June 1862, aged 66.[2]


  1. ^ Mosley, Charles, ed. (2003). Burke's Peerage, Baronetage & Knighthood (107 ed.). Burke's Peerage & Gentry. p. 2186. ISBN 0-9711966-2-1.
  2. ^ a b c d Stephen, Leslie (1890). Dictionary of National Biography. p. 130. Retrieved 10 October 2018.
  3. ^ a b "No. 20014". The London Gazette. 3 September 1841. p. 2221.
  4. ^ "No. 20090". The London Gazette. 12 April 1842. p. 1017.
  5. ^ "Richard Plantagenet Temple-Nugent-Brydges-Chandos-Grenville, 2nd Duke of Buckingham and Chandos". University College London. Retrieved on 20 March 2019.
  6. ^ Elizabeth Crawford, ‘Langton, Lady Anna Eliza Mary Gore- (1820–1879)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 accessed 7 Nov 2017
  7. ^ Beckett, J. V. (1994). The Rise and Fall of the Grenvilles: Dukes of Buckingham and Chandos, 1710 to 1921. Manchester University Press. pp. 228–230. ISBN 9780719037573. Retrieved 10 October 2018.


  • Spring, David & Spring, Eileen (1956). "The Fall of the Grenvilles, 1844-1848". Huntington Library Quarterly. 19 (2): 165–190. doi:10.2307/3816224. JSTOR 3816224.

External linksEdit

Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
William Selby Lowndes
Thomas Grenville
Member of Parliament for Buckinghamshire
With: William Selby Lowndes 1818–1820
Robert Smith 1820–1831
John Smith 1831–1835
Sir George Dashwood, Bt 1832–1835
Sir William Young 1835–1839
George Simon Harcourt 1835–1839
Succeeded by
Sir William Young
George Simon Harcourt
Caledon Du Pré
Political offices
Preceded by
The Earl of Clarendon
Lord Privy Seal
Succeeded by
The Duke of Buccleuch
Peerage of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Richard Temple-Grenville
Duke of Buckingham and Chandos
Succeeded by
Richard Temple-Grenville
Peerage of Scotland
Preceded by
Anne Brydges, Lady Kinloss
Lord Kinloss
Succeeded by
Richard Temple-Grenville