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Peerage of the United Kingdom

The Peerage of the United Kingdom comprises most peerages created in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland after the Acts of Union in 1801, when it replaced the Peerage of Great Britain. New peers continued to be created in the Peerage of Ireland until 1898 (the last creation being the Barony of Curzon of Kedleston).

Contents

RanksEdit

The ranks of the peerage are duke, marquess, earl, viscount, and baron.[1]

The last non-royal dukedom was created in 1900, and the last marquessate in 1936. Creation of the remaining ranks, except baronies for life, mostly ceased once Harold Wilson's Labour government took office in 1964, and only eight (four non-royal and four royal) people have been created hereditary peers since then. These were:

Name Year Created Title(s) Noted for
John Morrison 1965 Baron Margadale Former Chairman of the 1922 Committee
William Whitelaw 1983 (extinct 1999) Viscount Whitelaw Former Home Secretary
George Thomas 1983 (extinct 1997) Viscount Tonypandy Former Speaker of the House of Commons
Harold Macmillan 1984 Earl of Stockton
Viscount Macmillan of Ovenden
Former Prime Minister
Prince Andrew 1986 Duke of York
Earl of Inverness
Baron Killyleagh
Second son of Queen Elizabeth II on his wedding day
Prince Edward 1999 Earl of Wessex
Viscount Severn
Third son of Queen Elizabeth II on his wedding day
Prince William 2011 Duke of Cambridge
Earl of Strathearn
Baron Carrickfergus
First son of Charles, Prince of Wales on his wedding day
Prince Harry 2018 Duke of Sussex
Earl of Dumbarton
Baron Kilkeel
Second son of Charles, Prince of Wales on his wedding day

Until the House of Lords Act 1999 was passed, all peers of the United Kingdom were automatically members of the House of Lords. However, from that date, most of the hereditary peers ceased to be members as part of Parliamentary reform, whereas the life peers retained their seats. All hereditary peers of the first creation (i.e., those for whom a peerage was originally created, as opposed to those who inherited a peerage from an ancestor), and all surviving hereditary peers who had served as Leader of the House of Lords were offered a life peerage in order to allow them to sit in the House should they wish.

TitlesEdit

Marquesses, earls, viscounts and barons are all addressed as 'Lord X', where 'X' represents either their territory or surname pertaining to their title. Marchionesses, countesses, viscountesses and baronesses are all addressed as 'Lady X'. Dukes and duchesses are addressed just as 'Duke' or 'Duchess' or, in a non-social context, 'Your Grace'.

Lists of peersEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "The Dukes of the Peerage of the United Kingdom". Archived from the original on 12 May 2008. Retrieved 11 May 2008.