List of dukes in the peerages of Britain and Ireland
This is a list of the 31 present and extant dukes in the peerages of the Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Scotland, Kingdom of Great Britain, Kingdom of Ireland, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1927 and after. For a more complete historical listing, including extinct, dormant, abeyant, forfeit dukedoms in addition to these extant ones, see List of dukedoms in the peerages of Britain and Ireland.
In the Peerage of England, the title of Duke was created 74 times (using 40 different titles: the rest were recreations). Twice a woman was created a Duchess in her own right (but only for life); in addition, the Dukedom of Marlborough was once inherited by a woman, the 2nd Duchess of Marlborough, through a special remainder. Out of the 74 times, 37 titles are now extinct (including the two women's), 16 titles were forfeit or surrendered, 10 were merged with the Crown, and 11 are extant (see list below). The first, Cornwall, is a title that automatically goes to the heir apparent (if and only if he is also the eldest living son of the Sovereign). One of the duchies that was merged into the Crown, Lancaster, still provides income to the Sovereign. All but three of the non-royal ducal titles which became extinct did so before the 20th century (the Duke of Leeds became extinct in 1964, the Duke of Newcastle in 1988, and the Duke of Portland in 1990). The last English dukedom to be forfeit became so in 1715. The last British dukedom to become extinct was the title of Duke of Portland in 1990.
The oldest six titles – created between 1337 and 1386 – were Duke of Cornwall (1337), Duke of Lancaster (1351), Duke of Clarence (1362), Duke of York (1385), Duke of Gloucester (1385), and Duke of Ireland (1386). The Duke of Ireland was a title used for only two years and is somewhat confusing since only a small portion of Ireland was really under the control of England in 1386; it is not to be confused with the dukedoms of the Peerage of Ireland. Clarence has not been used since 1478, when George (the brother of Edward IV) was executed for treason. (However Clarence has since been used as half of a double title, most recently until 1892 when Victoria's grandson (and son of the Prince of Wales), the Duke of Clarence and Avondale, died at the age of 28). The titles of Duke of York and the Duke of Gloucester have both become extinct more than once and been re-created as titles within the Peerage of the United Kingdom. Both titles are reserved for princes (and their descendants). The Duke of Lancaster has merged with the Crown and so is held by the monarch. On 29 September 1397, in an unprecedented move, six dukedoms were created on a single day. None of these titles is extant.
Besides the dukedoms of Cornwall and Lancaster, the oldest extant title is that of Duke of Norfolk, dating from 1483 (the title was first created in 1397). The Duke of Norfolk is considered the Premier Duke of England. The premier duke of Scotland is the Duke of Hamilton and Brandon. The premier duke of Ireland is the Duke of Leinster.
Order of precedenceEdit
The general order of precedence among dukes is:
- Dukes in the Peerage of England, in order of creation
- Dukes in the Peerage of Scotland, in order of creation
- Dukes in the Peerage of Great Britain, in order of creation
- Dukes in the Peerage of Ireland created before 1801, in order of creation
- Dukes in the Peerage of the United Kingdom and Dukes in the Peerage of Ireland created after 1801, in order of creation
Whilst the general order of precedence is set according to the age of the peerage, the sovereign's Grace may accord any peer higher precedence than his date of creation would warrant. The royal dukes are Dukes of the United Kingdom, but rank higher in the order of precedence than the age of their titles warrants, due to their close relationship to the monarch. The Prince of Wales holds precedence above all dukes, royal and non-royal, and is the Duke of Cornwall and of Rothesay.
Dukes in the peerages of Britain and IrelandEdit
List of heirs of dukes in the peerages of the British IslesEdit
|1||The Prince of Wales||Edinburgh||Eldest son||Not styled Earl of Merioneth|
|2||Prince George of Cambridge||Cambridge||Eldest son||Not styled Earl of Strathearn|
|3||Archie Mountbatten-Windsor||Sussex||Only son||Not styled Earl of Dumbarton|
|Peerage of England|
|4||Earl of Arundel||Norfolk||Eldest son|
|5||Lord Seymour||Somerset||Eldest son|
|6||Earl of March and Kinrara||Richmond||Eldest son|
|7||Earl of Euston||Grafton||Eldest son|
|8||Marquess of Worcester||Beaufort||Eldest son|
|9||Earl of Burford||St Albans||Only son|
|10||Marquess of Tavistock||Bedford||Only son|
|11||Earl of Burlington||Devonshire||Only son||Does not use Marquess of Hartington|
|12||Marquess of Blandford||Marlborough||Eldest son|
|13||Marquess of Granby||Rutland||Eldest son|
|Peerage of Scotland|
|14||Marquess of Douglas and Clydesdale||Hamilton||Eldest son|
|15||Earl of Dalkeith||Buccleuch||Eldest son|
|Earl of March and Kinrara||Lennox||Eldest son||See Duke of Richmond|
|Earl of Dalkeith||Queensberry||Eldest son||See Duke of Buccleuch|
|16||Marquess of Lorne||Argyll||Eldest son|
|17||Marquess of Tullibardine||Atholl||Eldest son|
|18||Marquess of Graham||Montrose||Eldest son|
|19||Marquess of Bowmont and Cessford||Roxburghe||Eldest son|
|Peerage of Great Britain|
|Marquess of Douglas and Clydesdale||Brandon||Eldest son||See Duke of Hamilton|
|Viscount Mandeville||Manchester||Eldest son||Title Disputed|
|20||Earl Percy||Northumberland||Eldest son|
|Peerage of the United Kingdom|
|21||Earl of Mornington||Wellington||Eldest son||Does not use Marquess of Douro|
|22||Marquess of Hamilton||Abercorn||Eldest son|
|Earl of March and Kinrara||Gordon||Eldest son||See Duke of Richmond|
|23||Earl of Southesk||Fife||Eldest son|
|24||Earl of Ulster||Gloucester||Only son|
|25||Earl of St Andrews||Kent||Eldest son|
|Peerage of Great Britain|
|Lord Kimble Montagu||Manchester||Younger brother||Title disputed|
|Peerage of Ireland|
Dukes without heirsEdit
|Duke of York||Currently divorced with issue but no sons|
|Peerage of the United Kingdom|
|Duke of Westminster||Currently single|
The Earl of Wilton is the heir presumptive to his Marquessate of Westminster.
- As the eldest son of the Sovereign, the Duke of Cornwall and Rothesay ranks higher in precedence than he would by virtue of the seniority of his dukedoms alone.
- The Dukedom of Abercorn was created after the Acts of Union 1800. It takes precedence after earlier Dukedoms of the United Kingdom.
- As members of the Royal Family, these dukes rank higher in precedence than they would by virtue of the seniority of their dukedoms alone.