Duke of Newcastle

Duke of Newcastle upon Tyne was a title that was created three times, once in the Peerage of England and twice in the Peerage of Great Britain. The first grant of the title was made in 1665 to William Cavendish, 1st Marquess of Newcastle upon Tyne.[1] He was a prominent Royalist commander during the Civil War.

Dukedom of Newcastle upon Tyne
Creation date1665 (first creation)
1694 (second creation)
1715 (third creation)
MonarchCharles II (first creation)
William III and Mary II (second creation)
George I (third creation)
PeeragePeerage of England (first creation)
Peerage of Great Britain (second and third creation)
Remainder tothe 1st Duke's heirs male of the body lawfully begotten
Special remainder for the third creation
Extinction date1691 (first creation)
1711 (second creation)
1768 (third creation)
Dukedom of Newcastle-under-Lyne
Shield of arms of Henry Pelham-Clinton, 5th Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne KG, PC.png
Creation date1756
MonarchGeorge II
PeeragePeerage of Great Britain
First holderThomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle upon Tyne
Last holderEdward Pelham-Clinton, 10th Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne
Remainder toSpecial remainder
Extinction date1988
Seat(s)Clumber Park

The related title of Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne [sic][2] was created once in the Peerage of Great Britain. It was conferred in 1756 on Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle upon Tyne (of the third creation), to provide a slightly more remote special remainder. The title became extinct in 1988, a year that saw the deaths of the distantly related ninth and tenth Dukes of Newcastle-under-Lyne.

Details of each creationEdit

Family background

William Cavendish, 1st Duke of Newcastle, was a son of Charles Cavendish and his second wife Catherine Ogle, 8th Baroness Ogle. Her father was Cuthbert Ogle, 7th Baron Ogle. Charles Cavendish was the third son of Sir William Cavendish and his wife Bess of Hardwick. One of Charles Cavendish's elder brothers became the 1st Earl of Devonshire (see Duke of Devonshire for further history about this branch of the family).

Details of first creation

William Cavendish became Viscount Mansfield in 1620, as well as Baron Cavendish of Bolsover and Earl of Newcastle upon Tyne in 1621. He succeeded his mother as ninth Baron Ogle in 1629, and he became Marquess of Newcastle upon Tyne in 1643. He was elevated to the dukedom of Newcastle upon Tyne in 1665. He also was granted the title of Earl of Ogle as a subsidiary title for the dukedom, to be used as a courtesy title by his heir apparent. Upon his death in 1676, he was succeeded by his son, the second Duke, who was a politician. However, the second Duke's only son and heir apparent (Henry Cavendish, Earl of Ogle) predeceased him. Upon the second Duke's death in 1691, all of the titles became extinct except the barony of Ogle, which fell into abeyance between his four daughters (one of whom was Lady Elizabeth Cavendish).

Details of second creation

One of the second Duke's daughters, Lady Margaret Cavendish, married John Holles, 4th Earl of Clare. In 1694, the dukedom was revived when he was created Marquess of Clare and Duke of Newcastle upon Tyne. The Holles family descended from John Holles, who was created Baron Haughton, of Haughton in Nottinghamshire, in 1616 and Earl of Clare in 1624. His second son was a politician, Denzil Holles, 1st Baron Holles. Lord Clare was succeeded by his eldest son, the second Earl. He represented East Retford, Nottinghamshire, in the House of Commons and served as Lord Lieutenant of Nottinghamshire. His son, the third Earl, was briefly MP for Nottinghamshire in 1660. He was succeeded by his son, the aforementioned fourth Earl, who was raised to Duke in 1694; together with Lady Margaret, he had one daughter but no sons and on his death in 1711, all his titles became extinct.

Third creation and Newcastle-under-Lyne additional title with special remainder

The Duke's sister, Lady Grace Holles (died 1700), married Thomas Pelham, 1st Baron Pelham (see Earl of Chichester for earlier history of the Pelham family). Their elder son Thomas, upon his uncle's death in 1711, succeeded to the substantial Holles estates and assumed by Royal Licence the additional surname and arms of Holles. In 1714, the earldom of Clare was revived when he was created Viscount Haughton and Earl of Clare, with remainder to his younger brother Henry Pelham. The following year, the dukedom was revived when he was made Marquess of Clare and Duke of Newcastle upon Tyne, with like special remainder. These titles were in the Peerage of Great Britain. In 1756, when his brother died without male issue and it was evident that the Duke would have no children, the Duke of Newcastle upon Tyne was additionally created Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne [sic] with a different special remainder: to his nephew-by-marriage Henry Clinton, 9th Earl of Lincoln, who rapidly took on the additional surname Pelham. (For the history of this title from the 1768 inheritance upon the 1st Duke's death, see Earl of Lincoln.) The 1st Duke's other titles became extinct, except for the Pelham baronetcy (of Laughton) and the barony of Pelham (of Stanmer), which devolved to his first cousin once-removed, Thomas Pelham. (For the history of these titles, see Earl of Chichester.)

Extensive personal, transaction and estate papers of the dukes are held in the Portland (Welbeck) and Newcastle (Clumber) collections at the University of Nottingham's Department of Manuscripts and Special Collections.

Dukes of Newcastle upon Tyne, first creation (1665)Edit

also Marquess of Newcastle upon Tyne (1643), Earl of Newcastle upon Tyne (1628), Viscount Mansfield (1620) and Baron Ogle (1461)

Earls of Clare (1624)Edit

also Baron Haughton (1616)

Dukes of Newcastle upon Tyne, second creation (1694)Edit

also Earl of Clare (1624) and Baron Haughton (1616)

Dukes of Newcastle upon Tyne, third creation (1715)Edit

also Earl of Clare (1714), Baron Pelham of Laughton (1706), Baron Pelham of Stanmer (1762) and Pelham Baronet, of Laughton (1611)
  • Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle (1693–1768), Prime Minister twice, a nephew of John Holles, 1st Duke of the second creation, died without male issue. At this point his father's baronetcy and barony of 1706, his own earldom and dukedom of 1715 became extinct.

Dukes of Newcastle-under-Lyne (1756)Edit

1st Duke: also Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne (1715), Earl of Clare (1714), Baron Pelham of Laughton (1706), Baron Pelham of Stanmer (1762) and Pelham Baronet, of Laughton (1611)
see also Earl of Lincoln

Principal seats and abodesEdit

Gentleman's Magazine:
Map of London & Environs
, 1764
England
Wales
 
Hafod Uchtryd
  • The heirs of Thomas Johnes (died 1816) sold to the 4th Duke Hafod Uchtryd, in Cardiganshire, together with its estate on the Ystwith. The process of sale took from 1831 until 1833, and the price was £70,000. The Duke spent £20,000 on the property, including adding the Havod Arms Inn, four miles from the house in Llanfihangel y Creuddyn. In 1846, he sold the estate for £95,000 to Henry Hoghton.[6][7][8]
Ireland

Family treeEdit

Family tree: Dukes of Newcastle
Sir William Cavendish
(c. 1505–1557)
m. (3) Bess of Hardwick
Earls & Dukes of Devonshire
Charles Cavendish
(1553–1617)
Frances Cavendish
(1548–1632)
m. Sir Henry Pierrepont
DUKE OF NEWC.-UPON-TYNE, 1665
William Cavendish,
1st Duke of Newcastle

(1592–1676)
Robert Pierrepont,
1st Earl of Kingston

(1584–1643)
William Pierrepont
(c. 1607–1678)
Henry Cavendish,
2nd Duke of Newcastle

(1630–1691)
Frances Pierrepont
(1630–1695)
Grace Pierrepont
(1633–1702)
m. Gilbert Holles,
3rd Earl of Clare
DUKE OF NEWC.-UPON-TYNE, 1694
Henry Cavendish,
Earl of Ogle

(1659–1680)
Lady Margaret Cavendish
(1661–1716)
John Holles,
4th Earl of Clare,
1st Duke of Newcastle

(1662–1711)
Lady Grace Holles
(c. 1668–1700)
m. Thomas, 1st Baron Pelham
DUKE OF NEWC.-UPON-TYNE, 1715
DUKE OF NEWC.-UNDER-LYNE, 1756
Thomas Pelham-Holles,
1st Duke of Newcastle

(1693–1768)
P.M. 1754–56, 1757–62
Hon. Lucy Pelham
(1695–1736)
m. Henry Clinton,
7th Earl of Lincoln
Hon. Henry Pelham
(1694–1754)
P.M. 1743–54
DUKE OF NEWC.-UNDER-LYNE, 1756
(succeeded by special remainder, 1768)
George Clinton,
8th Earl of Lincoln
(1718–1730)
Henry Pelham-Clinton,
9th Earl of Lincoln,
2nd Duke of Newcastle

(1720–1794)
Catherine Pelham
(1727–1760)
Henry Pelham-Clinton,
Earl of Lincoln

(1750–1778)
Thomas Pelham-Clinton,
3rd Duke of Newcastle
10th Earl of Lincoln

(1752–1795)
Henry Pelham-Clinton,
4th Duke of Newcastle
11th Earl of Lincoln

(1785–1851)
Henry Pelham-Clinton,
5th Duke of Newcastle
12th Earl of Lincoln

(1811–1864)
Lord Charles Pelham-Clinton
(1813–1894)
Henry Pelham-Clinton,
6th Duke of Newcastle
13th Earl of Lincoln

(1834–1879)
Charles Pelham-Clinton
(1857–1911)
Henry Pelham-Clinton,
7th Duke of Newcastle
14th Earl of Lincoln

(1864–1928)
Francis Pelham-Clinton-Hope,
8th Duke of Newcastle
15th Earl of Lincoln

(1866–1941)
Guy Pelham-Clinton
(1894–1934)
Henry Pelham-Clinton-Hope,
9th Duke of Newcastle
16th Earl of Lincoln

(1907–1988)
Edward Pelham-Clinton,
10th Duke of Newcastle
17th Earl of Lincoln

(1920–1988)

Dukedom Extinct, 1988: the Earldom of Lincoln passed to the 10th Duke's 10th cousin, Edward Horace Fiennes-Clinton, 18th Earl of Lincoln. (See Earldom of Lincoln for more complete tree of the Earldom.)

Other notable descendants (last creation)Edit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Newcastle, Dukes of" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 19 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 470–471.
  2. ^ Despite the name of the town being Newcastle-under-Lyme with an "m", the dukedom was created as Lyne with an "n". There is no known satisfactory explanation for the discrepancy, which may have been an error. If it was an error, however, that error has perpetuated itself in numerous sources, including peerage catalogues.
  3. ^ 'London', in A Topographical Dictionary of England, ed. Samuel Lewis (London, 1848), pp. 129-170, at British History Online, accessed 30 September 2017.
  4. ^ 'Nottingham', in A Topographical Dictionary of England, ed. Samuel Lewis (London, 1848), pp. 446-461, British History Online, accessed 30 September 2017.
  5. ^ Samuel Lewis, 'Dyfryn-Elain', in A Topographical Dictionary of Wales (London, 1849), pp. 317-320, British History Online, accessed 30 September 2017.
  6. ^ Samuel Lewis, 'Cardiganshire', in A Topographical Dictionary of Wales (London, 1849), pp. 158-180, British History Online, accessed 30 September 2017.
  7. ^ Samuel Lewis, 'Edern - Eidda', in A Topographical Dictionary of Wales (London, 1849), pp. 320-328, British History Online, accessed 30 September 2017.
  8. ^ Samuel Lewis, 'Llanvihangel', in A Topographical Dictionary of Wales (London, 1849), pp. 129-147, British History Online, accessed 30 September 2017.
  9. ^ Burke's Peerage, vol. 2 (2003), p. 2337