Duke of Newcastle
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Duke of Newcastle upon Tyne was a title that was created three times, once in the Peerage of England and twice in the Peerage of Great Britain. The first grant of the title was made in 1665 to William Cavendish, 1st Marquess of Newcastle upon Tyne. He was a prominent Royalist commander during the Civil War.
|Dukedom of Newcastle upon Tyne|
|Creation date||1665 (first creation)|
1694 (second creation)
1715 (third creation)
|Monarch||Charles II (first creation)|
William III and Mary II (second creation)
George I (third creation)
|Peerage||Peerage of England (first creation)|
Peerage of Great Britain (second and third creation)
|Remainder to||the 1st Duke's heirs male of the body lawfully begotten|
Special remainder for the third creation
|Extinction date||1691 (first creation)|
1711 (second creation)
1768 (third creation)
|Dukedom of Newcastle-under-Lyne|
Arms of the 5th Duke of Newcastle
|Peerage||Peerage of Great Britain|
|First holder||Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle upon Tyne|
|Last holder||Edward Pelham-Clinton, 10th Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne|
|Remainder to||Special remainder|
The related title of Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne [sic] was created once in the Peerage of Great Britain. It was conferred in 1756 on Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle upon Tyne (of the third creation), to provide a slightly more remote special remainder. The title became extinct in 1988, a year that saw the deaths of the distantly related ninth and tenth Dukes of Newcastle-under-Lyne.
Details of each creationEdit
- Family background
William Cavendish, 1st Duke of Newcastle, was a son of Charles Cavendish and his second wife Catherine Ogle, 8th Baroness Ogle. Her father was Cuthbert Ogle, 7th Baron Ogle. Charles Cavendish was the third son of Sir William Cavendish and his wife Bess of Hardwick. One of Charles Cavendish's elder brothers became the 1st Earl of Devonshire (see Duke of Devonshire for further history about this branch of the family).
- Details of first creation
William Cavendish became Viscount Mansfield in 1620, as well as Baron Cavendish of Bolsover and Earl of Newcastle upon Tyne in 1621. He succeeded his mother as ninth Baron Ogle in 1629, and he became Marquess of Newcastle upon Tyne in 1643. He was elevated to the dukedom of Newcastle upon Tyne in 1665. He also was granted the title of Earl of Ogle as a subsidiary title for the dukedom, to be used as a courtesy title by his heir apparent. Upon his death in 1676, he was succeeded by his son, the second Duke, who was a politician. However, the second Duke's only son and heir apparent (Henry Cavendish, Earl of Ogle) predeceased him. Upon the second Duke's death in 1691, all of the titles became extinct except the barony of Ogle, which fell into abeyance between his four daughters (one of whom was Lady Elizabeth Cavendish).
- Details of second creation
One of the second Duke's daughters, Lady Margaret Cavendish, married John Holles, 4th Earl of Clare. In 1694, the dukedom was revived when he was created Marquess of Clare and Duke of Newcastle upon Tyne. The Holles family descended from John Holles, who was created Baron Haughton, of Haughton in Nottinghamshire, in 1616 and Earl of Clare in 1624. His second son was a politician, Denzil Holles, 1st Baron Holles. Lord Clare was succeeded by his eldest son, the second Earl. He represented East Retford, Nottinghamshire, in the House of Commons and served as Lord Lieutenant of Nottinghamshire. His son, the third Earl, was briefly MP for Nottinghamshire in 1660. He was succeeded by his son, the aforementioned fourth Earl, who was raised to Duke in 1694; together with Lady Margaret, he had one daughter but no sons and on his death in 1711, all his titles became extinct.
- Third creation and Newcastle-under-Lyne additional title with special remainder
The Duke's sister, Lady Grace Holles (died 1700), married Thomas Pelham, 1st Baron Pelham (see Earl of Chichester for earlier history of the Pelham family). Their elder son Thomas, upon his uncle's death in 1711, succeeded to the substantial Holles estates and assumed by Royal Licence the additional surname and arms of Holles. In 1714, the earldom of Clare was revived when he was created Viscount Haughton and Earl of Clare, with remainder to his younger brother Henry Pelham. The following year, the dukedom was revived when he was made Marquess of Clare and Duke of Newcastle upon Tyne, with like special remainder. These titles were in the Peerage of Great Britain. In 1756, when his brother died without male issue and it was evident that the Duke would have no children, the Duke of Newcastle upon Tyne was additionally created Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne [sic] with a different special remainder: to his nephew-by-marriage Henry Clinton, 9th Earl of Lincoln, who rapidly took on the additional surname Pelham. (For the history of this title from the 1768 inheritance upon the 1st Duke's death, see Earl of Lincoln.) The 1st Duke's other titles became extinct, except for the Pelham baronetcy (of Laughton) and the barony of Pelham (of Stanmer), which devolved to his first cousin once-removed, Thomas Pelham. (For the history of these titles, see Earl of Chichester.)
Extensive personal, transaction and estate papers of the dukes are held in the Portland (Welbeck) and Newcastle (Clumber) collections at the University of Nottingham's Department of Manuscripts and Special Collections.
Dukes of Newcastle upon Tyne, first creation (1665)Edit
- also Marquess of Newcastle upon Tyne (1643), Earl of Newcastle upon Tyne (1628), Viscount Mansfield (1620) and Baron Ogle (1461)
Earls of Clare (1624)Edit
- also Baron Haughton (1616)
- John Holles, 1st Earl of Clare (1564–1637) was Comptroller of the Household to Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales
- John Holles, 2nd Earl of Clare (1595–1666), eldest son of the 1st Earl
- Gilbert Holles, 3rd Earl of Clare (1633–1689), second (eldest adult) son of the 2nd Earl
- John Holles, 4th Earl of Clare (1662–1711), eldest son of the 3rd Earl, was created Duke in 1694
- married Lady Margaret Cavendish, daughter of Henry Cavendish, 2nd Duke of the first creation
Dukes of Newcastle upon Tyne, second creation (1694)Edit
- also Earl of Clare (1624) and Baron Haughton (1616)
- John Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle (1662–1711) died without male issue, and his titles became extinct
Dukes of Newcastle upon Tyne, third creation (1715)Edit
- also Earl of Clare (1714), Baron Pelham of Laughton (1706), Baron Pelham of Stanmer (1762) and Pelham Baronet, of Laughton (1611)
- Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle (1693–1768), Prime Minister twice, a nephew of John Holles, 1st Duke of the second creation, died without male issue. At this point his father's baronetcy and barony of 1706, his own earldom and dukedom of 1715 became extinct.
Dukes of Newcastle-under-Lyne (1756)Edit
- 1st Duke: also Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne (1715), Earl of Clare (1714), Baron Pelham of Laughton (1706), Baron Pelham of Stanmer (1762) and Pelham Baronet, of Laughton (1611)
- Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle (1693–1768) (above) was granted this second Newcastle dukedom, with remainder to his nephew
- Henry Fiennes Pelham-Clinton, 9th Earl of Lincoln, 2nd Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne (1720–1794), nephew of the 1st Duke
- Thomas Pelham-Clinton, 3rd Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne (1752–1795), third son of the 2nd Duke
- Henry Pelham Fiennes Pelham-Clinton, 4th Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne (1785–1851), eldest son of the 3rd Duke
- Henry Pelham Pelham-Clinton, 5th Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne (1811–1864), eldest son of the 4th Duke
- Henry Pelham Alexander Pelham-Clinton, 6th Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne (1834–1879), eldest son of the 5th Duke
- Henry Pelham Archibald Douglas Pelham-Clinton, 7th Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne (1864–1928), eldest son of the 6th Duke, died without issue
- Henry Francis Hope Pelham-Clinton-Hope, 8th Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne (1866–1941), second and youngest son of the 6th Duke
- Henry Edward Hugh Pelham-Clinton-Hope, 9th Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne (1907–1988), only son of the 8th Duke, died without male issue
- Edward Charles Pelham-Clinton, 10th Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne (1920–1988), great-grandson of Lord Charles Pelham Pelham-Clinton, second son of the 4th Duke. On his death also in 1988 the dukedom ceased to have patrilineal heirs so became extinct.
- see also Earl of Lincoln
Principal seats and abodesEdit
- Clumber Park, also known as Clumber Park Lodge, spanning Clumber and Worksop, Nottinghamshire, from 1709 until 1938, when the house was demolished.
- Newcastle House, Lincolns Inn Fields, London, briefly in the 18th century
- Claremont', Esher, north Surrey, from 1714 to 1768.
- A house on part of the site of dismantled Nottingham Castle which was on the rejection of "the Reform Bill" by the lords set on fire by a mob, at which time it had for many years been divided into separate dwellings.
- The 6th Duke inherited the Hope mansion of Deepdene House, Dorking, Surrey, which was sold by the 8th Duke.
- Boyton Manor, Wiltshire, bought in the 1950s and sold about 1980.
- One duke bought the retreat of Cwm Elain, Dyfryn-Elain, Cwm-Toyddwr, Radnorshire, from Sir Robert Peel. It had been sold off by 1849.
- The heirs of Thomas Johnes (died 1816) sold to the 4th Duke Hafod Uchtryd, in Cardiganshire, together with its estate on the Ystwith. The process of sale took from 1831 until 1833, and the price was £70,000. The Duke spent £20,000 on the property, including adding the Havod Arms Inn, four miles from the house in Llanfihangel y Creuddyn. In 1846, he sold the estate for £95,000 to Henry Hoghton.
Other notable descendants (last creation)Edit
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica. 19 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 470–471. .
- Despite the name of the town being Newcastle-under-Lyme with an "m", the dukedom was created as Lyne with an "n". There is no known satisfactory explanation for the discrepancy, which may have been an error. If it was an error, however, that error has perpetuated itself in numerous sources, including peerage catalogues.
- 'London', in A Topographical Dictionary of England, ed. Samuel Lewis (London, 1848), pp. 129-170, at British History Online, accessed 30 September 2017.
- 'Nottingham', in A Topographical Dictionary of England, ed. Samuel Lewis (London, 1848), pp. 446-461, British History Online, accessed 30 September 2017.
- Samuel Lewis, 'Dyfryn-Elain', in A Topographical Dictionary of Wales (London, 1849), pp. 317-320, British History Online, accessed 30 September 2017.
- Samuel Lewis, 'Cardiganshire', in A Topographical Dictionary of Wales (London, 1849), pp. 158-180, British History Online, accessed 30 September 2017.
- Samuel Lewis, 'Edern - Eidda', in A Topographical Dictionary of Wales (London, 1849), pp. 320-328, British History Online, accessed 30 September 2017.
- Samuel Lewis, 'Llanvihangel', in A Topographical Dictionary of Wales (London, 1849), pp. 129-147, British History Online, accessed 30 September 2017.
- Burke's Peerage, vol. 2 (2003), p. 2337
- Kidd, Charles & Williamson, David (editors). Debrett's Peerage and Baronetage (1990 edition). New York: St Martin's Press, 1990
- "Manuscripts and Special Collections :The Dukes of Newcastles of Clumber Park - a Brief History". University of Nottingham. Retrieved 8 February 2013.