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Duke of Northumberland is a noble title that has been created three times in English and British history, twice in the Peerage of England and once in the Peerage of Great Britain. The current holder of this title is Ralph Percy, 12th Duke of Northumberland.

Dukedom of Northumberland
Coat of arms of the duke of Northumberland.png
Arms of Percy, Dukes of Northumberland: Quarterly: 1st and 4th grandquarters: 1st and 4th counterquartered: 1st and 4th, Or a Lion rampant Azure (Brabant and Lovaine); 2nd and 3rd, Gules three Lucies hauriant Argent (Lucy); 2nd and 3rd, Azure five Fusils conjoined in fess Or (Percy); 2nd and 3rd grandquarters: quarterly: 1st and 4th, Or three Bars wavy Gules (Drummond); 2nd and 3rd, Or a Lion's Head erased within a Double Tressure flory counterflory Gules (Drummond, coat of augmentation).
Creation date1551 (first creation)
1683 (second creation)
1766 (third creation)
MonarchEdward VI (first creation)
Charles II (second creation)
George III (third creation)
PeeragePeerage of Great Britain
First holderJohn Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland
Present holderRalph Percy, 12th Duke of Northumberland
Heir apparentGeorge Percy, Earl Percy
Remainder tothe 1st Duke's heirs male of the body lawfully begotten
Subsidiary titlesEarl of Northumberland
Earl Percy
Earl of Beverley
Baron Warkworth
Baron Lovaine
Baronet Percy of Stanwick
Extinction date1553 (first creation)
1716 (second creation)
Seat(s)Alnwick Castle
Syon House
Former seat(s)Warkworth Castle
Prudhoe Castle
Kielder Castle
Northumberland House
Stanwick Park
Albury Park

Contents

1551 creationEdit

The title was first created in the Peerage of England in 1551 for John Dudley, 1st Earl of Warwick. He had already been created Viscount Lisle in 1543 and Earl of Warwick in 1547, also in the Peerage of England. In 1553, Dudley advanced the claim of his daughter-in-law, Lady Jane Grey, to the English throne, but when she was deposed by Queen Mary I, Dudley was convicted of high treason and executed. An illegitimate son of one of his younger sons, Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, Sir Robert Dudley, claimed the dukedom when in exile in Italy. On 9 March 1620 the Emperor Ferdinand II officially recognised the title, an act which infuriated James I of England.

1683 creationEdit

George FitzRoy, 1st Earl of Northumberland, an illegitimate son of king Charles II, was created Duke of Northumberland in the Peerage of England in 1683. He had already been created Baron of Pontefract, Viscount Falmouth and Earl of Northumberland in 1674, also in the Peerage of England. However, all the titles became extinct on his death in 1716 as he left no heirs.

Jacobite creationEdit

In 1716 Philip Wharton, 1st Duke of Wharton, was created Duke of Northumberland, Marquess of Woburn, Earl of Malmesbury and Viscount Winchendon in the Jacobite Peerage, by The Old Pretender. The title had no legal validity in the Kingdom of Great Britain.

1766 creationEdit

The title was created for the third time in 1766 for Hugh Percy, 2nd Earl of Northumberland, the former Sir Hugh Smithson, 4th Baronet (1714–1786), who had assumed by Act of Parliament in 1750 for himself and his descendants the surname Percy, due to his having married in 1740 the daughter of Algernon Seymour, 7th Duke of Somerset (1684–1750), whose mother Lady Elizabeth Percy (1667–1722), was the last of the senior blood line of the ancient House of Percy, being the only surviving child of Josceline Percy, 11th Earl of Northumberland (1644–1670). In 1749 King George II created Algernon who had inherited the Dukedom of Somerset in 1748 Earl of Northumberland and by courtesy title (for eldest male heir) Baron Warkworth, of Warkworth Castle in the County of Northumberland with special remainder to his son-in-law Sir Hugh Smithson, 4th Baronet.[1][2]

The above steps formed a deliberate move to allow ancient names and titles of the Percys to be revived in the male-heir exhausted senior branch of the Dukedom of Somerset which at that time was about to see its largest removal, to another noble but very cadet branch (a fourth cousin) on Algernon's death. Algernon was also created Earl of Egremont at the same time with a different remainder—see this article for further information.[3]

In 1784 the 1st Duke was also granted the substantive title Lord Lovaine, Baron of Alnwick in the County of Northumberland, in the Peerage of Great Britain, with remainder to his second son Lord Algernon Percy,[4] who succeeded and who was created Earl of Beverley in 1790 and thus it too became a courtesy title.[5]

The Duke was succeeded in the dukedom and associated titles by his eldest son, Hugh, the 2nd Duke, a lieutenant-general in the British Army. The 2nd Duke was in his turn succeeded by his eldest son, Hugh, the 3rd Duke, who in 1812, five years before he succeeded in the dukedom, had been summoned to the House of Lords through a writ of acceleration in his father's junior title of Baron Percy.[6] The 3rd Duke later held office as Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland from 1829 to 1830. He was childless and was succeeded by his younger brother, Algernon, 1st Baron Prudhoe, the 4th Duke, who in 1814 had been created Baron Prudhoe, of Prudhoe Castle in the County of Northumberland, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.[7] The 4th Duke was an admiral in the Royal Navy and notably served as First Lord of the Admiralty in 1852. He was also childless and on his death in 1865 the barony of Prudhoe became extinct while the barony of Percy (which could be passed on through the female line) was inherited by his great-nephew, John Stewart-Murray, 7th Duke of Atholl. The Admiral was succeeded in the dukedom and remaining titles by his first cousin, George, the 2nd Earl of Beverley, eldest son of the second son of the 1st Duke. The barony of Lovaine and earldom of Beverley have since been merged in the dukedom as courtesy titles.

The 5th Duke was succeeded by his eldest son, Algernon, the 6th Duke, who notably served as Lord Privy Seal between 1879 and 1880 under Lord Beaconsfield. The 6th Duke's eldest son, Henry, the 7th Duke, was summoned to the House of lords through a writ of acceleration in his father's junior title of Lord Lovaine in 1887.[8] The 7th Duke's eldest son, Henry Percy, Earl Percy, predeceased him. He was succeeded by his fourth but eldest surviving son, Alan, the 8th Duke, whose eldest son, Henry, the 9th Duke, was killed during the retreat to Dunkirk during the Second World War. Henry was succeeded by his younger brother, Hugh, the 10th Duke. In 1957, on the death of his fourth cousin once removed, James Stewart-Murray, 9th Duke of Atholl, Hugh succeeded as 9th Baron Percy, the title thus re-merging with the Dukedom. As of 2012 the titles are held by his second son, Ralph, the 12th Duke, who succeeded on the death of his elder brother in 1995.

Northumberland Estates manages 100,000 acres (400 km2): directly managing 4,000 acres (16 km2) of forestry and 20,000 acres (81 km2) of farmland, with approximately 100 tenant farmers managing the remaining bulk of the land.[9][10][11]

Other members of the Percy familyEdit

Several other members of the Percy family have also gained distinction. Charlotte Percy, Duchess of Northumberland, wife of the third Duke, was governess of the future Queen Victoria. Lord Josceline Percy, second son of the fifth Duke, was a politician. Lord Henry Percy, third son of the fifth Duke, was a soldier. Lord Algernon Percy, second son of the sixth Duke, was a politician. Lord Eustace Percy, seventh son of the seventh Duke, was a politician who was raised to the peerage as Baron Percy of Newcastle in 1953. Jane Percy, Duchess of Northumberland, wife of the twelfth Duke, is Lord-Lieutenant of Northumberland since 2009. See also Earl of Beverley for younger sons of the first Earl of Beverley.

Family residencesEdit

The seat of the Dukes of Northumberland is Alnwick Castle, which is located in Alnwick, Northumberland.[12] The family's London residence is Syon House in Brentford, which replaced, as their London residence, the demolished Northumberland House in the Strand.[13] Warkworth and Prudhoe castles were the residences of the Earls of Northumberland in the Middle Ages, and ownership was retained by the later Dukes. Both are now in the custody of English Heritage. Albury Park is a former residence which has been converted into apartments, while the surrounding estate is still directly owned by the Duke.[14] The traditional burial place of the Dukes is the Northumberland Vault in Westminster Abbey in London, the Percys thus being the last family to maintain such a privilege. Their family vault is however nearly full, and a new private graveyard has been created in Hulne Park near Alnwick.

List of titleholdersEdit

Dukes of Northumberland; First creation (1551)Edit

Created by Edward VI of England
Name Period Duchess Notes Other titles
John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland
(1504–1553)
1551–1553 Jane Guildford Tudor courtier and general, regent for Edward VI, executed for high treason against Mary I Earl of Warwick
Viscount Lisle
Baron Lisle

Dukes of Northumberland; Second creation (1683)Edit

Created by Charles II of England
Name Period Duchess Notes Other titles
George FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Northumberland
(1665–1716)
1683–1716 Catherine Wheatley
Mary Dutton
Illegitimate son of Charles II, died without heirs male Earl of Northumberland
Viscount Falmouth
Baron of Pontefract

Earls of Northumberland; Fifth creation (1749)Edit

Created by George II of Great Britain
Name Period Countess Notes Other titles
Algernon Seymour, 7th Duke of Somerset, 1st Earl of Northumberland (1684–1750) 1749–1750 Frances Thynne Duke of Somerset etc.
Baron Warkworth
Hugh Percy, 2nd Earl of Northumberland (1714–1786) 1750–1786 Elizabeth Percy,
2nd Baroness Percy
Son-in-law of Algernon Seymour, 1st Earl of Northumberland; created Duke of Northumberland in 1766 Baron Warkworth
Baronet of Stanwick

Dukes of Northumberland; Third creation (1766)Edit

Created by George III of Great Britain
Name Period Duchess Notes Other titles
Hugh Percy, 1st Duke of Northumberland
(1714–1786)
1766–1786 Elizabeth Percy,
2nd Baroness Percy
Created Lord Lovaine in 1784, with remainder to his second son Lord Algernon Percy, later 2nd Lord Lovaine and 1st Earl of Beverley. Earl of Northumberland
Earl Percy
Baron Warkworth
Baron Lovaine
Baronet of Stanwick
Hugh Percy, 2nd Duke of Northumberland
(1742–1817)
1786–1817 Frances Burrell Son of the preceding Earl of Northumberland
Earl Percy
Baron Percy
Baron Warkworth
Baronet of Stanwick
Hugh Percy, 3rd Duke of Northumberland
(1785–1847)
1817–1847 Lady Charlotte Clive Son of the preceding; had been summoned to the House of Lords as Baron Percy in 1812
Algernon Percy, 4th Duke of Northumberland
(1792–1865)
1847–1865 Lady Eleanor Grosvenor Brother of the preceding; had been created Baron Prudhoe in his own right in 1814 Earl of Northumberland
Earl Percy
Baron Percy
Baron Warkworth
Baron Prudhoe
Baronet of Stanwick
George Percy, 5th Duke of Northumberland
(1778–1867)
1865–1867 widowed Cousin of the preceding; eldest son of Algernon Percy, 1st Earl of Beverley, second son of the 1st Duke of Northumberland – had succeeded in earldom in 1830 Earl of Northumberland
Earl Percy
Earl of Beverley
Baron Warkworth
Lord Lovaine
Baronet of Stanwick
Algernon George Percy, 6th Duke of Northumberland (1810–1899) 1867–1899 Louisa Drummond Son of the preceding
Henry George Percy, 7th Duke of Northumberland (1846–1918) 1899–1918 Lady Edith Campbell Son of the preceding; had been summoned to the House of Lords as Lord Lovaine in 1887
Alan Ian Percy, 8th Duke of Northumberland
(1880–1930)
1918–1930 Lady Helen Gordon-Lennox Son of the preceding
Henry George Alan Percy, 9th Duke of Northumberland (1912–1940) 1930–1940 none Son of the preceding
Hugh Algernon Percy, 10th Duke of Northumberland (1914–1988) 1940–1988 Lady Elizabeth Montagu Douglas Scott Brother of the preceding Earl of Northumberland
Earl Percy
Earl of Beverley
Baron Percy
(from 1957)
Baron Warkworth
Lord Lovaine
Baronet of Stanwick
Henry Alan Walter Richard Percy, 11th Duke of Northumberland (1953–1995) 1988–1995 none Son of the preceding
Ralph George Algernon Percy, 12th Duke of Northumberland (b. 1956) since 1995 Jane Richard Brother of the preceding

The heir apparent is the present holder's elder son George Percy, Earl Percy (b. 1984)

Family treeEdit

Family tree: Dukes of Northumberland
 
 
 
 
 
 
King Henry VII
(1457–r.1485–1509)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Princess Mary
(Queen of France)

(1496–1533)
m.(2) Charles Brandon,
1st Duke of Suffolk
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
DUKE OF NORTHUMBERLAND, 1551
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
DUKE OF NORTHUMBERLAND, 1683
John Dudley,
1st Duke of Northumberland

(1504–1553)
 
 
 
Lady Frances Brandon
(1517–1559)
m. Henry Grey,
1st Duke of Suffolk
 
 
 
George FitzRoy,
1st Duke of Northumberland

(1665–1716)
illegitimate son of King Charles II
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Lord Guildford Dudley
(c.1535–1554)
 
Lady Jane Grey
(c.1537–1554)
Queen for 9 days in 1553
 
Lady Katherine Grey
(1540–1568)
m. Edward Seymour,
1st Earl of Hertford
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Edward Seymour,
Viscount Beauchamp

(1561–1612)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Francis, 1st Baron Seymour
of Trowbridge

(c.1590–1664)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Earl of Northumberland
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Charles, 2nd Baron Seymour
of Trowbridge

(c.1621–1665)
 
Josceline Percy,
11th Earl of Northumberland

(1644–1670)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Charles Seymour,
6th Duke of Somerset

(1662–1748)
 
Elizabeth Percy,
Baroness Percy

(1667–1722)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
EARL OF NORTHUMBERLAND, 1749
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Algernon Seymour,
7th Duke of Somerset,
1st Earl of Northumberland

(1684–1750)
 
 
DUKE OF NORTHUMBERLAND, 1766
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Hugh Percy,
2nd Earl of Northumberland,
1st Duke of Northumberland

(1714–1786)
formerly Sir Hugh Smithson, Bt.
 
 
 
 
 
Elizabeth Seymour,
2nd Baroness Percy

(1716–1776)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Earl of Beverley
 
 
Hugh Percy,
2nd Duke of Northumberland

(1742–1817)
 
 
 
Algernon Percy,
1st Earl of Beverley

(1750–1830)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Hugh Percy,
3rd Duke of Northumberland

(1785–1847)
 
Algernon Percy,
4th Duke of Northumberland

(1792–1865)
 
George Percy,
5th Duke of Northumberland

(1778–1867)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Algernon George Percy,
6th Duke of Northumberland

(1810–1899)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Henry George Percy,
7th Duke of Northumberland

(1846–1918)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Alan Ian Percy,
8th Duke of Northumberland

(1880–1930)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Henry George Alan Percy,
9th Duke of Northumberland

(1912–1940)
 
Hugh Algernon Percy,
10th Duke of Northumberland

(1914–1988)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Henry Alan Walter Richard Percy,
11th Duke of Northumberland

(1953–1995)
 
Ralph George Algernon Percy,
12th Duke of Northumberland

(b. 1956)

Line of SuccessionEdit

Coat of armsEdit

Coat of arms of Duke of Northumberland
 
Coronet
A Coronet of a Duke
Crest
On a Chapeau Gules turned up Ermine a Lion statant with tail extended Azure
Escutcheon
Quarterly: 1st and 4th grandquarters: 1st and 4th counterquartered: 1st and 4th, Or a Lion rampant Azure (Brabant and Lovaine); 2nd and 3rd, Gules three Lucies hauriant Argent (Lucy); 2nd and 3rd, Azure five Fusils conjoined in fess Or (Percy); 2nd and 3rd grandquarters: quarterly: 1st and 4th, Or three Bars wavy Gules (Drummond); 2nd and 3rd, Or a Lion's Head erased within a Double Tressure flory counterflory Gules (Drummond, coat of augmentation)
Supporters
Dexter: a Lion rampant Azure; Sinister: a Lion rampant guardant Or ducally crowned of the last gorged with a Collar company Argent and Azure
Motto
Esperance En Dieu (Hope in God)

Ducal pipersEdit

Since at least the mid 18th century, the family has maintained a Northumbrian piper; the earliest known of these was Joseph Turnbull, who was painted in 1756 playing his pipes; the portrait, entitled Joseph Turnbull, Piper to the Duchess of Northumberland is at Alnwick Castle. At this time, before the Third Creation of the Dukedom, he would actually have been piper to the Countess. A later piper, William Green stated that "Joe Turnbull was the first Piper at Alnwick Castle – that was ever!" A list of the Ducal Pipers is at.[57] The present Ducal Piper is Richard Butler. The piper's main duty is to play at the Shrove Tuesday football match in Alnwick.

Other pipers have been associated less formally with the family – the notorious piper James Allan (1729–1810) was a favourite of the Countess; in the last century Tom Clough and Richard Mowat are known to have played together with the Duke's then piper, James Hall, for the Duke and his guests at Alnwick; one such guest was Edward VII, in 1905.[58]

See alsoEdit

In popular cultureEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "No. 8887". The London Gazette. 23 September 1749. p. 2.
  2. ^ Debrett's Peerage, 1968, p.1037
  3. ^ Debrett's Peerage, 1968, p.851
  4. ^ "No. 12514". The London Gazette. 27 January 1784. p. 2.
  5. ^ "No. 13249". The London Gazette. 26 October 1790. p. 646.
  6. ^ "No. 16583". The London Gazette. 14 March 1812. p. 497.
  7. ^ "No. 17164". The London Gazette. 17 August 1816. p. 1596.
  8. ^ "No. 25723". The London Gazette. 22 July 1887. p. 4001.
  9. ^ "Farming". The Northumberland Estates. The Northumberland Estates. Archived from the original on 21 April 2013. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
  10. ^ "Sawmill and Forestry". The Northumberland Estates. The Northumberland Estates. Archived from the original on 21 April 2013. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
  11. ^ "Duke's Plans Spark Suspicion". Northumberland Gazette. 7 February 2001. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
  12. ^ "Alnwick Castle". Alnwickcastle.com.
  13. ^ www.syonpark.co.uk, Syon Park - w:. "Welcome". Syonpark.co.uk.
  14. ^ "History - Albury Park". Albury Park. Retrieved 10 April 2017.
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  57. ^ http://www.northumbrianpipes.com/DucalPipers.htm Ducal Pipers
  58. ^ The Clough Family of Newsham, edited by Chris Ormston and Julia Say, Northumbrian Pipers' Society, ISBN 0-902510-20-7

External linksEdit