Alnwick (/ˈænɪk/ (listen) AN-ik) is a market town in Northumberland, England, of which it is the traditional county town. The population at the 2011 Census was 8,116.

Alnwick
Alnwick and Alnwick Castle - Northumberland - 140804.jpg
The town of Alnwick, nestling behind Alnwick Castle (August 2004)
Alnwick is located in Northumberland
Alnwick
Alnwick
Location within Northumberland
Population8,116 (2011 census)[1]
OS grid referenceNU186129
Civil parish
Unitary authority
Ceremonial county
Region
CountryEngland
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Post townALNWICK
Postcode districtNE66
Dialling code01665
PoliceNorthumbria
FireNorthumberland
AmbulanceNorth East
UK Parliament
List of places
UK
England
Northumberland
55°24′48″N 1°42′25″W / 55.4134°N 1.7069°W / 55.4134; -1.7069Coordinates: 55°24′48″N 1°42′25″W / 55.4134°N 1.7069°W / 55.4134; -1.7069

The town is on the south bank of the River Aln, 32 miles (51 km) south of Berwick-upon-Tweed and the Scottish border, 5 miles (8 km) inland from the North Sea at Alnmouth and 34 miles (55 km) north of Newcastle upon Tyne.

The town dates to about AD 600 and thrived as an agricultural centre. Alnwick Castle was the home of the most powerful medieval northern baronial family, the Earls of Northumberland. It was a staging post on the Great North Road between Edinburgh and London. The town centre has changed relatively little, but the town has seen some growth, with several housing estates covering what had been pasture and new factory and trading estate developments along the roads to the south.

HistoryEdit

The name Alnwick comes from the Old English wic ('dairy farm, settlement') and the name of the river Aln.[3]

 
Alnwick Castle in winter (December 2013)

The history of Alnwick is the history of the castle and its lords, starting with Gilbert Tyson, written variously as "Tison", "Tisson", and "De Tesson", one of William the Conqueror's standard-bearers, upon whom this northern estate was bestowed. It was held by the De Vesci family (now spelt "Vasey" – a name found all over south-east Northumberland) for over 200 years and then passed into the hands of the House of Percy in 1309.[4]

At various points in the town are memorials of the constant wars between Percys and Scots, in which so many Percys spent the greater part of their lives. A cross near Broomhouse Hill across the river from the castle marks the spot where Malcolm III of Scotland was killed during the first Battle of Alnwick. At the side of the broad shady road called Ratten Row, leading from the West Lodge to Bailiffgate, a stone tablet marks the spot where William the Lion of Scotland was captured during the second Battle of Alnwick by a party of about 400 mounted knights, led by Ranulf de Glanvill.[5]

Hulne Priory, outside the town walls in Hulne Park, the Duke of Northumberland's walled estate, was a monastery founded in the 13th century by the Carmelites; it is said that the site was chosen for some slight resemblance to Mount Carmel where the order originated.[6]

In 1314, Sir John Felton was governor of Alnwick.[7] In winter 1424, much of the town was burnt by a Scottish raiding party. Again in 1448, the town was burnt by a Scottish army led by William Douglas, 8th Earl of Douglas and George Douglas, 4th Earl of Angus. There was a Church of Scotland congregation in Alnwick in the 17th and 18th centuries.[8]

Sir Thomas Malory mentions Alnwick as a possible location for Lancelot's castle Joyous Garde.[9]

A Royal Air Force distribution depot was constructed at Alnwick during the Second World War with four main fuel storage tanks (total capacity 1700 tons) and road and rail loading facilities. The tanks were above ground and surrounded by concrete. The site was closed in the 1970s, and its demolition and disposal were completed in 1980.[10]

The Alnwick by-pass takes the A1 London–Edinburgh trunk road around the town. It was started in 1968.[11]

GeographyEdit

Alnwick lies at 55°25′00″N 01°42′00″W / 55.41667°N 1.70000°W / 55.41667; -1.70000 (55.417, -1.700)1. The River Aln forms its unofficial northern boundary.[12]

GovernanceEdit

 
The rear view of Alnwick Town Hall (the main entrance is in the Market Place)

Historically, the town was partly within the Bamburgh Ward and Coquetdale Ward and later included in the East Division of Coquetdale Ward in 1832.[13] Alnwick Town Hall was the home of the common council of Alnwick.[13] By the time of the 2011 Census, an electoral ward covering only part of Alnwick parish existed. The total population of this ward was 4,766.[14]

EconomyEdit

 
Barter Books in Alnwick

Some major or noteworthy employers in the town are:

EducationEdit

Secondary schools in Alnwick include The Duchess's Community High School.[19]

LandmarksEdit

The town's greatest building is Alnwick Castle, one of the homes of the Duke of Northumberland, and site of The Alnwick Garden.[20]

 
Alnwick marketplace at night in winter

The town centre is the marketplace, with its market cross, and the relatively modern Northumberland Hall, used as a meeting place.[21]

The Alnwick Playhouse is a thriving multi-purpose arts centre that stages theatre, dance, music, cinema, and visual arts productions.[22]

In 2003, the Willowburn Leisure Centre was opened on the southern outskirts of the enlarged town (replacing the old sports centre located by the Lindisfarne Middle School and the now-demolished Youth Centre).[23]

 
Bailiffgate Museum, a local history museum

Alnwick's museum, Bailiffgate Museum, is close to the Bailiffgate entrance to the castle. Its collection is specifically dedicated to local social history. The museum has recently had a major refit funded by the Heritage Lottery Fund. Its collection includes a variety of agricultural objects, domestic items, railway items, coal mining artefacts, printing objects, a sizeable photographic collection, paintings and a range of activities for children.[24]

Other places of interest in and near the town include:

 
Brizlee Tower, a folly and observation platform overlooking Hulne Park, the Duke of Northumberland's walled estate by Alnwick Castle

SportEdit

EventsEdit

Alnwick Fair was an annual costumed event, held each summer from 1969 to 2007, recreating some of the appearance of medieval trading fairs and 17th century agricultural fairs. It has now been discontinued.[37]

TransportEdit

RoadEdit

 
Bondgate Tower

Alnwick lies adjacent to the A1, the main national north–south trunk road, providing easy access to Newcastle upon Tyne (35 miles (56 km) south) and Edinburgh (80 miles (130 km) north).[38]

RailEdit

The East Coast Main Line between Edinburgh (journey time approximately 1:10) and London (journey time approximately 3:45) runs through Alnmouth for Alnwick Station – about 4 miles (6 km) away – with a weekday service of 15 trains per day north to Edinburgh and 13 trains per day south to London.[39]

The Alnwick branch line formerly linked Alnwick's own station, close to the town centre, to Alnmouth station, but this line closed in January 1968. Since the 2010s, the Aln Valley Railway Trust have worked to reopen the branch as a heritage railway but, due to construction of the A1 Alnwick bypass removing a section of the original trackbed on the edge of the town, their purpose-built Alnwick Lionheart terminus is located near the Lionheart Enterprise Estate on the outskirts of the town. The reopening project is ongoing and, as of July 2020, the line's eastern terminus had reached a new station at Greenrigg Halt, approximately 1.5 miles (2.4 km) from Lionheart, although it is yet to carry passengers over the full length.[40]

AirEdit

Newcastle Airport lies around 45 minutes drive-time away and provides 19 daily flights to (London Heathrow, Gatwick, Stansted and London City), with regular flights to other UK centres.[41]

Town twinningEdit

Notable peopleEdit

Born in AlnwickEdit

Died in AlnwickEdit

Appearances in film and televisionEdit

FilmEdit

TVEdit

Freedom of the TownEdit

The following people and military units have received the Freedom of the Town of Alnwick.

IndividualsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Parish population 2011". Archived from the original on 26 June 2015. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
  2. ^ "Alnwick Town Council Website". Alnwick Town Council. Retrieved 25 March 2022.
  3. ^ Watts, Victor, ed. (2004). The Cambridge Dictionary of English Place-Names. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. s.v. Alnwick.
  4. ^ "The Percy Papers". University of Durham. 12 January 2018. Retrieved 17 May 2022.
  5. ^ John Wilson (2019). "Second Battle of Alnwick". BattlefieldsofBritain.co.uk. Retrieved 20 July 2020.
  6. ^ Mackenzie, Eneas (1825). An Historical, Topographical, and Descriptive View of the County of Northumberland: And of Those Parts of the County of Durham Situated North of the River Tyne, with Berwick Upon Tweed, and Brief Notices of Celebrated Places on the Scottish Border. Mackenzie and Dent.
  7. ^ Stephen, Leslie, ed. (1889). "Felton, Thomas (d.1381)" . Dictionary of National Biography. Vol. 18. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
  8. ^ Scott, Hew (1928). Fasti ecclesiae scoticanae; the succession of ministers in the Church of Scotland from the reformation. Vol. 7. Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd. p. 504. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
  9. ^ Whitaker, Muriel A. (1976). "Sir Thomas Malory's Castles of Delight". Mosaic: A Journal for the Interdisciplinary Study of Literature. Mosaic: A Journal for the Interdisciplinary Study of Literature 9, no. 2. 9 (2): 73–84. JSTOR 24777076.
  10. ^ Whittle, Tim (2017). Fuelling the Wars - PLUTO and the Secret Pipeline Network 1936 to 2015. p. 207. ISBN 9780992855468.
  11. ^ Smith, Maurice A, ed. (15 February 1968). "News and Views: A1 Alnwick by-pass". Autocar. p. 57.
  12. ^ "Bridges On The Aln - Introduction". Bridgesonthetyne.co.uk. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
  13. ^ a b George Tate, The History of the Borough, Castle, and Barony of Alnwick (Vol. 1). Alnwick: Henry Hunter Blair, 1866.
  14. ^ "Alnwick ward population 2011". Archived from the original on 26 June 2015. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
  15. ^ "A Novel Experience - A Visit to Barter Books Alnwick". Tracy's Travels in Time. 10 May 2019. Retrieved 28 September 2020.
  16. ^ "Quotient Sciences Buys Alnwick Research Centre". Quotient Sciences. 25 August 2021.
  17. ^ "Micropub plan for empty town-centre office". Northumberland Gazette. 18 October 2022. Retrieved 17 May 2022.
  18. ^ "Jobs to go with closure of Alnwick operation". Northumberland Gazette. 11 July 2014. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 30 March 2015.
  19. ^ "A Brief History | The Duchess's". www.dchs-alnwick.org. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  20. ^ "History museums: Divine detour". The Economist. 27 October 2012. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
  21. ^ Historic England. "Northumberland Hall (1041460)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 17 May 2022.
  22. ^ "History of the Playhouse | Alnwick Playhouse". alnwickplayhouse.co.uk. 2012. Retrieved 17 April 2012.
  23. ^ "Willowburn Leisure Centre". Sports Facilities. Retrieved 17 May 2022.
  24. ^ "Bailiffgate Museum". Archived from the original on 5 October 2008. Retrieved 23 December 2008., Retrieved 23 December 2008.
  25. ^ "Brizlee Tower". Robin Kent Architecture & Conservation website. Robin Kent Architecture & Conservation. Archived from the original on 25 March 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2011.
  26. ^ "Camphill Column (Alnwick)". Keys to the Past website. Durham County Council and Northumberland County Council. Archived from the original on 20 March 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2011.
  27. ^ Historic England. "Bondgate Tower, Bondgate Within, Alnwick - Northumberland (UA) (49777)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 3 October 2020.
  28. ^ Historic England. "Nelson monument and railings to west (1303733)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 5 December 2015.
  29. ^ Historic England. "Percy Tenantry Column, Alnwick (1041405)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 28 September 2021.
  30. ^ "RMS Olympic at the White Swan, Alnwick" (PDF). White Swan Hotel, Alnwick. Retrieved 7 April 2012.
  31. ^ "Museum enlists force of model recruits". Northumberland Gazette. 23 September 2004. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
  32. ^ Historic England. "Church of St Michael (1041546)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
  33. ^ "Boulmer (Longhoughton)". Airfields of Britain Conservation Trust. Retrieved 24 November 2021.
  34. ^ "Kelly's Directory of Northumberland (1894)". Archived from the original on 28 August 2016. Retrieved 8 July 2017.
  35. ^ "Berwick RFC". www.pitchero.com/clubs/berwick. Retrieved 29 April 2012.
  36. ^ Alnwick Town at the Football Club History Database
  37. ^ Curry, Jaclyn (14 February 2008). "Death of the Fair". Northumberland Gazette. Northumberland. Archived from the original on 16 February 2008. Retrieved 23 August 2010.
  38. ^ "A1 Alnwick Lane Configuration Change". Roads.ork.uk. Retrieved 17 May 2022.
  39. ^ Butt, R. V. J. (October 1995). The Directory of Railway Stations: details every public and private passenger station, halt, platform and stopping place, past and present (1st ed.). Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85260-508-7. OCLC 60251199. OL 11956311M. p.34
  40. ^ "AVR January/February 2020 Newsletter". Retrieved 15 July 2020.
  41. ^ "How Newcastle Airport's Shiny, New Terminal Was Opened on This Day 50 Years Ago". Evening Chronicle. 17 February 2017. Retrieved 18 July 2021.
  42. ^ "Mary, Queen of Scots (1971 film)". Movie Locations. Retrieved 17 May 2022.
  43. ^ "Unidentified Flying Oddball - History". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. American Film Institute. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
  44. ^ a b "Filming Locations for Robin Hood, Prince of Thieves (1991), with Kevin Costner, in East Sussex, Wiltshire, North Yorkshire, Buckinghamshire, Northumberland, London and France". The Worldwide Guide to Movie Locations. Retrieved 10 May 2021.
  45. ^ "Harry Potter at Alnwick Castle | A Hogwarts Castle Experience | Alnwick Castle". www.alnwickcastle.com. Retrieved 10 May 2021.
  46. ^ Alnwick Castle official website Archived 17 December 2005 at the Wayback Machine, URL accessed 2 June 2008
  47. ^ Brinkburn Priory, URL accessed 9 August 2010
  48. ^ "Robin of Sherwood". Silver Arrow. Retrieved 17 May 2022.
  49. ^ "Vera" Muddy Waters (TV Episode 2015) - IMDb, retrieved 10 May 2021
  50. ^ Smith, Ian (24 March 2022). "Tributes paid to Alnwick man who passed away two days after receiving freedom of town". The Northumberland Gazette. Retrieved 25 March 2022.
  51. ^ "Bill Hugonin: Tributes paid to highly respected Honorary Freeman of Alnwick". Alnwick Town Council. Retrieved 25 March 2022.

External linksEdit