A1 road (Great Britain)

The A1, also known as the Great North Road, is the longest numbered road in the United Kingdom, at 410 miles (660 km). It connects London, the capital of England, with Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland. The numbering system for A-roads, devised in the early 1920s, was based around patterns of roads radiating from two hubs at London and Edinburgh. The first number in the system, A1, was given to the most important part of that system: the road from London to Edinburgh, joining the two central points of the system and linking the UK's (then) two mainland capital cities.[3] It passes through or near north London, Hatfield, Welwyn Garden City, Stevenage, Baldock, Letchworth Garden City, Biggleswade, Eaton Socon, Buckden, Peterborough, Stamford, Grantham, Newark-on-Trent, Retford, Doncaster, Pontefract, York, Wetherby, Ripon, Darlington, Durham, Gateshead, Newcastle upon Tyne, Morpeth, Alnwick and Berwick-upon-Tweed.[4][5]

A1 shield
A1
Map
  A1   A1(M)
Route information
Part of E15
Length410.00 mi (659.83 km)
Major junctions
South endA1211 in City of London[1]
Major intersections M1

M25
A14
A47
M18
M62
M1
A64
A168
A66
A66(M)
A194(M)
A69
A19

A720
North endEdinburgh[2]
Location
CountryUnited Kingdom
Primary
destinations
Road network
  A2

It was designated by the Ministry of Transport in 1921, and for much of its route it followed various branches of the historic Great North Road, the main deviation being between Boroughbridge and Darlington. The course of the A1 has changed where towns or villages have been bypassed, and where new alignments have taken a slightly different route. Several sections of the route have been upgraded to motorway standard and designated A1(M). Between the M25 (near London) and the A720 (near Edinburgh) the road is part of the unsigned Euroroute E15 from Inverness to Algeciras.

History

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The A1 near Long Bennington, Lincolnshire

The A1 is the latest in a series of routes north from London to York and beyond. It was designated in 1921 by the Ministry of Transport under the Great Britain road numbering scheme.[6][7] The earliest documented northern routes are the roads created by the Romans during the period from AD 43 to AD 410, which consisted of several itinera (plural of iter) recorded in the Antonine Itinerary.[8] A combination of these were used by the Anglo-Saxons as the route from London to York, and together became known as Ermine Street.[9] Ermine Street later became known as the Old North Road.[10] Part of this route in London is followed by the current A10.[11] By the 12th century, because of flooding and damage by traffic, an alternative route out of London was found through Muswell Hill, and became part of the Great North Road.[10][11] A turnpike road, New North Road and Canonbury Road (A1200 road), was constructed in 1812 linking the start of the Old North Road around Shoreditch with the Great North Road at Highbury Corner.[12] While the route of the A1 outside London mainly follows the Great North Road route used by mail coaches between London and Edinburgh, within London the coaching route is only followed through Islington.[13]

The Ferryhill Cut was opened in 1923. A number of bypasses were built from 1926 onwards, including around Barnet and Hatfield in 1927, but it was not until c. 1954 that they were renumbered A1. The Chester-le-Street bypass, opened in 1931, was the first bypass to be built as a dual carriageway. In 1960 Stamford, Biggleswade and Doncaster were bypassed, as was Retford in 1961. Baldock, Eaton Socon and Buckden were bypassed in 1967. During the early 1970s plans to widen the A1 along Archway Road in London were abandoned after considerable opposition and four public inquiries during which road protesters disrupted proceedings.[14] The scheme was finally dropped in 1990.[15] The Hatfield cut-and-cover was opened in 1986.[16]

A proposal to upgrade the whole of the A1 to motorway status was investigated by the government in 1989[17] but was dropped in 1995, along with many other schemes, in response to road protests against other road schemes (including the Newbury Bypass and the M3 extension through Twyford Down).[18]

Inns

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The Angel Inn at Wetherby is a coaching inn on the former A1, bypassed since the 1950s.

The inns on the road, many of which still survive, were staging posts on the coach routes, providing accommodation, stabling for the horses and replacement mounts.[13] Few of the surviving coaching inns can be seen while driving on the A1, because the modern route now bypasses the towns with the inns.

Route

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The A1 runs from New Change[citation needed] in the City of London at St. Paul's Cathedral to the centre of Edinburgh. It shares its London terminus with the A40,[citation needed] in the City area of Central London. It runs out of London via St. Martin's Le Grand and Aldersgate Street, through Islington (where Goswell Road and Upper Street form part of its route), up Holloway Road, through Highgate, and Barnet.

The road enters Hertfordshire just before Potters Bar, near the junction with the M25 at the South Mimms Services. The route here becomes the A1(M) and subsequently passes through Hatfield, Welwyn, Stevenage, Baldock. But from Baldock Junction 10 throughBiggleswade, Sandy, several small villages to Buckden then on to Alconbury Junction 14. Junctions 11, 12 and 13 are still to be planned/built. Several groups along this non motorway stretch are actively campaigning for an upgrade to modern standards.

Continuing north, the A1 runs on modern bypasses around Stamford, Grantham, Newark-on-Trent, Retford, Bawtry, Doncaster, Knottingley, Garforth, Wetherby, Knaresborough, Boroughbridge, Scotch Corner, Darlington, Newton Aycliffe, Durham and Chester-le-Street, past the Angel of the North sculpture and the Metrocentre in Gateshead, through the western suburbs of Newcastle upon Tyne, Morpeth, Alnwick, Berwick-upon-Tweed, into Scotland at Marshall Meadows, past Haddington and Musselburgh before arriving in Edinburgh at the East End of Princes Street near Waverley Station, at the junction of the A7, A8 and A900 roads.

Scotch Corner, in North Yorkshire, marks the point where before the M6 was built, the traffic for Glasgow and the west of Scotland diverged from that for Edinburgh. As well as a hotel there have been a variety of sites for the transport café, now subsumed as a motorway services.

A1 Roundabouts, There are currently only 5 roundabouts north of the Sterling corner junction. Biggleswade south. Biggleswade North, Sandy A603, Blackcat A428/A4211, lastly Buckden, then there are no more roundabouts for 276 miles until the Berwick A1167. The Blackcat roundabout is due to be removed with the upgrade 2023–2025, this will leave only 4 roundabouts in a 350 mile stretch.

Overview and post-First World War developments

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Most of the English section of the A1 is a series of alternating sections of primary route, dual carriageway and motorway. From Newcastle upon Tyne to Edinburgh it is a trunk road with alternating sections of dual and single carriageway. The table below summarises the road as motorway and non-motorway sections.[19] Most of the non-motorway sections do not have junction numbers, with the exception of the Newcastle Western Bypass which continues the junction numbering of the A1(M).

Road name Junctions Length Ceremonial counties Primary destinations
miles km
A1 16.58 26.68 London
Hertfordshire
London
Edgware,
Barnet, Borehamwood
A1(M) 1–10 24.14 38.84 Hertfordshire Hertford
Stevenage
A1 26.25 42.24 Hertfordshire, Bedfordshire
Cambridgeshire
Bedford,
Cambridge,
Huntingdon
A1(M) 13–17 12.84 20.66 Cambridgeshire Peterborough
A1 72.99 117.44 Cambridgeshire, Rutland
Lincolnshire, Nottinghamshire
Stamford, Grantham
Newark on Trent
A1(M) 34–38 15.13 24.34 South Yorkshire Worksop, Blyth, Doncaster,
Rotherham, Barnsley
A1 7.51 12.08 South Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
Pontefract, Castleford,
Wakefield
A1(M) 40–65 93.27 150.10 West Yorkshire
North Yorkshire
County Durham
Tyne and Wear
Selby, Leeds, York, Wetherby, Harrogate,
Thirsk, Ripon, Catterick, Richmond, Scotch Corner,
Darlington, Teesside, Bishop Auckland, Durham,
Chester-le-Street, Stanley, Beamish,
Birtley, Washington (Sunderland), Gateshead
A1 65-80
(Newcastle Western Bypass only)
128.29 206.42 Northumberland, Berwickshire
East Lothian, Edinburgh
Gateshead, Blaydon, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Cramlington,
Morpeth, Alnwick, Belford, Lindisfarne, Berwick-upon-Tweed,
Eyemouth, Dunbar, Haddington,
Tranent, Prestonpans, Musselburgh, Edinburgh
397.00 638.78
 
A single carriageway section of the A1 skirting the Scottish coastline just across the border from Northumberland.

A 13-mile (21 km) section of the road in North Yorkshire, from Walshford to Dishforth, was upgraded to motorway standard in 1995.[20] Neolithic remains and a Roman fort were discovered.

A 13-mile (21 km) section of the road from Alconbury to Peterborough was upgraded to motorway standard at a cost of £128 million (£284 million as of 2024),[21] which opened in 1998[22] requiring moving the memorial to Napoleonic prisoners buried at Norman Cross.[23]

A number of sections between Newcastle and Edinburgh were dualled between 1999 and 2004, including a 1.9-mile (3 km) section from Spott Wood to Oswald Dean in 1999, 1.2-mile (2 km) sections from Bowerhouse to Spott Road and from Howburn to Houndwood in 2002–2003 and the 8.5-mile (13.7 km) "A1 Expressway", from Haddington and Dunbar in 2004. The total cost of these works was £50 million.[24]

Plans to dual the single carriageway section of road north of Newcastle upon Tyne were shelved in 2006 as they were not considered a regional priority by central government. The intention was to dual the road between Morpeth and Felton and between Adderstone and Belford.[25]

In 1999 a section of A1(M) between Bramham and Hook Moor opened to traffic along with the extension of the M1 from Leeds.[26] Under a DBFO contract,[27] sections from Wetherby to Walshford and Darrington to Hook Moor were opened in 2005 and 2006.

Recent developments

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A1 Peterborough to Blyth grade separated junctions

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Between September 2006 and October 2009 six roundabouts on the A1 and the A1(M) to Alconbury were replaced with grade-separated junctions. These provide a fully grade-separated route between the Buckden roundabout (just north of St Neots and approximately 8 miles (13 km) north of the Black Cat Roundabout) and just north of Morpeth.[28] This project cost £96 million.[29]

Blyth (A614) Fully operational May 2008
Apleyhead (A614/A57) Fully operational May 2008
Markham Moor (A57) Fully operational March 2009
Gonerby Moor (B1174) Fully operational June 2008
Colsterworth (A151) and the junction with the B6403 Fully operational October 2009
Carpenters Lodge (Stamford) (B1081) Fully operational November 2008

A1(M) Bramham to Wetherby motorway

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Upgrading the 6.2 miles (10 km) of road to dual three-lane motorway standard between the Bramham/A64 junction to north of Wetherby to meet the section of motorway at a cost of £70 million began in 2006, including a road alongside for non-motorway traffic. The scheme's public inquiry began on 18 October 2006 and the project was designed by James Poyner. Work began in May 2007, the motorway section opened in July 2009 and remaining work on side roads was still ongoing in late August and was expected to be completed by the end of 2009.[30]

A1(M) Dishforth to Leeming motorway

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Upgrading of the existing dual carriageway to dual three-lane motorway standard, with a local road alongside for non-motorway traffic, between Dishforth (A1(M)/A168 junction) and Leeming Bar, began in March 2009 and opened to traffic on or about the scheduled date of 31 March 2012.[31]

A1(M) Leeming to Barton motorway

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It had originally been proposed that the road would be upgraded to motorway from Dishforth to Barton (between Scotch Corner and Darlington), which was the start of current northernmost section of A1(M). In 2010 the section between Leeming and Barton was cancelled as part of government spending cuts[32] but it was reinstated in December 2012.[33] Work began on 3 April 2014 and was expected to be completed by Spring 2017, but only reached completion in March 2018 due in part to significant Roman-era archaeological finds along the route of the motorway. Completion has provided a continuous motorway-standard road between Darrington (south of M62 junction) and Washington, and given the North East and North Yorkshire full motorway access to London (via the M1 at Darrington and Hook Moor).

Councils in the north east have called for the section from Hook Moor in Yorkshire (where the M1 link road joins the A1(M)) to Washington to be renumbered as the M1. They maintain that this would raise the profile of the north-east and be good for business.[34]

A1 (Gateshead Western Bypass)

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In his Autumn Statement on 5 December 2012, the Chancellor of the Exchequer announced that the Government would upgrade a section of road from two to three lanes in each direction within the highway boundary[35] at Lobley Hill (between Coal House and the Metro Centre[35]), Gateshead at a cost of £64 m[36] and create parallel link roads between the Lobley Hill and Gateshead Quay junctions.[35] The same Road investment strategy announcement said that the remaining section of road between Birtley and Coal House will also be widened to three lanes each way, alongside the replacement of the Allerdene Bridge.[35] A modified scheme commenced in August 2014 and was open to traffic in June 2016. The road is now three lanes each way with lane 3 narrower than lanes 1 and 2 so that all existing bridges remained as originally built.[37]

The A1 around Durham, Gateshead and Newcastle has seen a number of incarnations, following routes through, to the east and to the west of both Gateshead and Newcastle. See A1 (Newcastle upon Tyne) for more information.

Ellington to Fen Ditton scheme

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The A14 Ellington to Fen Ditton scheme, also known as the Huntingdon Bypass required a redesigned interchange at Brampton. As a result the A1 was widened to a D3 standard from the current end of the A1(M) to the slip roads connecting directly onto the A14. South of the new Interchange the A1 was realigned but kept as a 2 lane dual carriageway. This scheme was meant to result in the A1 becoming the A1(M) along the upgraded sections, however the legal proceedings for this didn't take place, and instead features a large amount of restrictions, similar to a motorway. This scheme was opened in December 2019.

A52 Grantham Southern Relief Road

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The new junction is now complete on the A1 south of Grantham, Highways England constructed 4 new slip roads to connect the A1 Trunk Road to the new Grantham Southern Relief Road (A52) being constructed by Lincolnshire County Council. This will create a southern entry to Grantham and also to the site known as the 'King 31 Development'.[38] The Grade Separated Junction on the A1 was opened to traffic in December 2022.[4] The on-going phase three is the Southern Quadrant Link Road (SQLR), which will complete the relief road and is expected to be completed in 2025.[39]

Ongoing developments

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A1 Birtley to Coal House Widening

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The A1 between Junctions 65 (Birtley) & 67 (Coal House) on the Newcastle Bypass is currently being widened to a D4 cross section from the existing D2 cross section, this includes replacing the existing bridge over the East Coast Main Line.[7] Works started in December 2021 and are due to be completed in 2025

Black Cat roundabout replacement

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In December 2014 a scheme was announced to dual the A428 from the A1/A421 Black Cat Roundabout to Cambourne. This would include significant works to the A1/A421 Black Cat Roundabout. The existing traffic signal controlled roundabout would be replaced with a grade-separated junction.[40] The new Grade Separated Junction would allow the A1 and A421 traffic to pass over each other, with a middle level roundabout connecting them together including links to local roads. Many direct accesses on the A1 would be stopped up and diverted onto new local access roads. The scheme started construction in late 2023,[5] the works currently underway along the A1. When completed this will remove one of the last 5 roundabouts on the A1 from Sterling corner to the Berwick bypass.[2]

Proposed developments

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A1(M) Red House to Darrington motorway

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In the "Road investment strategy" announced to Parliament by the Department for Transport and Secretary of State for Transport on 1 December 2014, planning will begin to upgrade the road in South Yorkshire to raise the last non-motorway section from Red House to Darrington to motorway standard.[35] Once completed, it will provide a continuous motorway-standard road between Blyth, Nottinghamshire and Washington, Tyne and Wear and will provide the North East and Yorkshire with full motorway access to London via the M1, M62 and M18. It will also improve safety along this route, as well as creating a new corridor to the North East, and reducing congestion on the M1 around Sheffield and Leeds. This is the only missing link of motorway on the strategic M1/M18/A1(M) route London to Washington.

A1 Scotswood to North Brunton

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The same announcement said that the road from Scotswood to North Brunton would be widened to three lanes each way, with four lanes each way between some junctions.[35]

A1 Morpeth to Ellingham

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The announcement then said that the road from Morpeth to Ellingham would be upgraded to dual carriageway.[35] The selection of the preferred route was scheduled for the year 2017, with construction due to begin in 2019.[41] In response to questions regarding transport in the north, Highways England stated that a new dual carriageway section between Morpeth and Felton and also that of Alnwick to Ellingham would start in 2021 with full opening in 2023.[42] However in June 2022 UK government minister Grant Shapps delayed a decision about a Development Consent Order signing off on National Highways' plans until December 2022.[43]

A1 North of Ellingham

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Measures were also announced to enhance the performance and safety of the A1 north of Ellingham to include three sections of climbing lanes, five junctions with improved right turn refuges, and better crossing facilities for pedestrians and cyclists.[35] Start of construction is scheduled for 2018.[41]

A46 Newark northern bypass scheme

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It was then also announced that planning would begin to upgrade the Newark northern bypass to dual carriageway, and the A46 junction with the A1 will be replaced to support nearby housing growth and improve links from the A1 to Newark and Lincoln.[44] The DCO is due to be submitted in early 2024, with construction likely to start in 2026 if approved.[9]

A1(M) Doncaster By-pass

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It was also announced that the Doncaster By-pass, which is the oldest stretch of two-lane motorway still in service, would be upgraded to dual three lanes. This will relieve local congestion and provide the capacity needed to make the A1 an alternative (and better) strategic route to the north east.[35]

Sandy-Beeston By-pass

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Sandy-Beeston Bypass
LocationBedfordshire
ProposerHighways Agency
Cost estimate£67 million
Start date2016

In 2003 a proposal for a bypass of Sandy and Beeston, Bedfordshire, was put forward as a green-lighted scheme as part of a government multi-modal study, with a cost of £67 million.[45] However, the Highways Agency was unwilling to confirm the information as the study was preliminary and intended for future publication.[46] In 2008 the proposal was submitted for consideration in the pre-2013/14 Regional Funding Advice 2 Programme of the East of England Development Agency.[47]

A1(M) technology enhancements and upgrades; A1 East of England feasibility study

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It was also announced in 2014 that new technology would be implemented to bring the road to motorway standards, including detection loops, CCTV cameras and variable message signs to provide better information for drivers and active traffic management across Tyne and Wear,[35] while Junction 6 (Welwyn North) to Junction 8 (Hitchin) would be upgraded to smart motorway, including widening of a two-lane section to dual three lanes and hard shoulder running.[40] This plan to upgrade to smart motorway has now been cancelled.[48]

A strategic study will examine how to improve the safety and performance of the A1 between Peterborough and the M25, including whether to upgrade the old dual carriageway section to motorway standard.[40]

A1(M)

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A1(M) looking southwards from junction 2 at Hatfield

Some sections of the A1 have been upgraded to motorway standard. These are known as the A1(M) and include:

M25 to Stotfold

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The M25 to Stotfold section is 23 miles (37 km), and was constructed between 1962 and 1986. The main destinations are Hatfield, Welwyn Garden City, Stevenage, and Letchworth. It opened in five stages: junctions 1 to 2 in 1979; 2 to 4 in 1986; 4 to 6 in 1973; 6 to 8 in 1962; and 8 to 10 in 1967.

Alconbury to Peterborough

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The Alconbury to Peterborough section is 14 miles (23 km), and opened in 1998.

Doncaster Bypass

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The Doncaster By-pass opened in 1961 and is one of the oldest sections of motorway in Britain.[49] It is 15 miles (24 km) long, and runs from Blyth to Carcroft.

Darrington to Gateshead

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The Darrington to Gateshead section was constructed between 1965 and 2018. It is 93 miles (150 km), and opened in sections:

  • Junctions 56 to 59 in 1965
  • Junctions 59 to 63 in 1969
  • Junctions 63 to 65 in 1970
  • Walshford to 49 in 1995
  • Junctions 43 to 44 in 1999
When this section opened it ended at a temporary terminus south of the M1. There was a final exit into Micklefield Village for non-motorway traffic onto what is now the access road. During the first week of June 2009, Junctions 44 and 45 were renumbered 43 and 44. At the same time the A1/A659 Grange Moor junction became A1(M) Junction 45.[50] As a result many atlases show incorrect junction numbering for this stretch of motorway.
  • Junction 46 to temporary junction at Walshford opened in 2005[51]
  • Junction 40 to south of 43 opened in 2005 & 2006
The northern section of the upgrade, bypassing Fairburn village opened in April 2005 with a temporary connection with the A1 between Fairburn and Brotherton. The southern section, with a free-flow interchange with the M62 motorway opened on 13 January 2006.
  • Junctions 44 to 46 opened in 2009[52]
  • Junctions 49 to 51 opened as of 31 March 2012. Work began in March 2009 to upgrade the Dishforth to Leeming section to dual three-lane motorway standard with existing connections being replaced by two new junctions.[53] This work was completed on 31 March 2012.
  • Junctions 51 to 56 opened in 2017 & 2018.
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The A1 is celebrated in song. It is mentioned by Jethro Tull on the title track of the album Too Old to Rock 'n' Roll: Too Young to Die! "Up on the A1 by Scotch Corner". "Scotch Corner", by the Welsh band Man, on the album Rhinos, Winos and Lunatics is about an encounter there. Near the southern end, signs saying "Hatfield and the North" inspired the eponymous 1970s rock band Hatfield and the North. The A1(M) is mentioned in the song "Gabadon" by Sheffield band, Haze. It is also referenced in the track 'M1A1' by Gorillaz.

Junctions

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A1 Road junctions – Central London to South Mimms
Northbound exits (A carriageway) Junction Southbound exits (B carriageway)
Services No exit
A5100 – Burnt Oak, Edgware, Mill Hill, Broadway Mill Hill Circus A5100 – Burnt Oak, Edgware, Mill Hill, Broadway
A41Aylesbury, Watford, Harrow, (M1), (M25) West

A5109 – Edgware

A41Aylesbury, Watford, Harrow, (M1), (M25) West

A5109 – Edgware

A411 – Watford, Elstree, Barnet, Arkley Stirling Corner A411 – Watford, Elstree, Barnet, Arkley
A5135 – Borehamwood, Shenley, Council Offices, DVLA/DSA, (B462) A5135 – Borehamwood, Shenley, Council Offices, DVLA/DSA, (B462)
A1(M) Motorway junctions – South Mimms to Stotfold
Northbound exits (A carriageway) Junction Southbound exits (B carriageway)
M25(M1),

(M3), (M11), (M4), (M40), (M23), (M20), Heathrow, Gatwick, Stansted

A1081Barnet

South Mimms Services

J1

Services

Road continues as A1 to London
A1001Welham Green J2 No access
A1001 – Hatfield

A414St Albans

J3 A1001 – Welham Green

A414St Albans

A414Hertford

A6129 – Welwyn Garden City

J4 A1001- Hatfield

A414Hertford

A6129 – Welwyn Garden City

Ramp on Only J5 No access
A1000 – Welwyn J6 A1000 – Welwyn Garden City, Welwyn
A602Stevenage J7 A602Stevenage, Ware
A602Stevenage, Hitchin, Luton Airport J8 A602Stevenage, Hitchin, Luton Airport
A505Letchworth, Baldock J9 A505Letchworth, Baldock
A507Stotfold, Shefford,

Baldock Services

J10

Services

A507Stotfold, Baldock

Baldock Services

A1 Road junctions – Stotfold to Alconbury
Northbound exits (A carriageway) Junction Southbound exits (B carriageway)
Langford, Edworth, Hinxworth Langford Turn Langford, Edworth, Ashwell, Hinxworth
A6001 – Biggleswade Biggleswade Roundabout A6001 – Biggleswade
A6001Biggleswade, Old Warden Old Warden Roundabout A6001Biggleswade, Old Warden
A603Bedford

B1042Sandy

Sandy Roundabout A603Bedford

B1042Sandy

Blunham Blunham, Tempsford, Little Barford, Everton
A421Milton Keynes, Bedford, (M1) Black Cat Roundabout A421Milton Keynes, Bedford, (M1)
A428Cambridge, St Neots, Eaton Socon A428Cambridge, St Neots, Eaton Socon
B645 – Kimbolton

B1048 – Little Paxton

B645 – St Neots

B1048 - Little Paxton

B1041 – Little Paxton, Southoe, Diddington B1041 – Little Paxton, Southoe, Diddington
B661 – Kimbolton, Buckden Buckden Roundabout B661 – Kimbolton, Buckden
B1514 – Brampton, RAF Brampton B1514 – Brampton, RAF Brampton
A14London (E), Stansted Airport, Felixstowe, Cambridge No exit
A14THE MIDLANDS, Kettering, Corby, (M1), (M6)

A141 – Huntingdon, Brampton

Brampton Hut Interchange A14THE MIDLANDS, Harwich, Felixstowe, (M1), (M6)

A141 – Huntingdon, Brampton

B1043 – Peterborough, Huntingdon, The Stukeleys,

Alconbury Weald, Monks Wood, Upton, (A1(M)), (A1307)

B1043 – Peterborough, Huntingdon, The Stukeleys,

Alconbury Weald, Monks Wood, Upton, (A1(M)), (A1307)

A1(M) Motorway junctions – Alconbury to Peterborough
Northbound exits (A carriageway) Junction Southbound exits (B carriageway)
No exit J14 A1307 – Huntingdon, St lves
B1043 – Sawtry, Ramsey, (B660) J15 B1043 – Sawtry, Ramsey, (B660)
A15 – Yaxley, Haddon

B1043 – Stilton, Holme, Ramsey, Glatton, (B660)

J16 A15 – Yaxley, Haddon

B1043 – Stilton, Holme, Ramsey, Glatton, (B660)

A605 – Northampton, Oundle, Elton

A1139 – Peterborough, Wisbech, Orton Centre, Peterborough Business Park, (A47)

Peterborough Services

J17

Services

A605 – Northampton, Oundle, Elton

A1139 – Peterborough, Wisbech, Orton Centre, Peterborough Business Park, (A47)

Peterborough Services

A1 Road junctions – Peterborough to Blyth
Northbound exits (A carriageway) Junction Southbound exits (B carriageway)
Showground, Chesterton, Alwalton, Elton Showground, Chesterton, Alwalton, Elton
Sibson, Elton, Stibbington, Stibbington truckstop Sibson, Elton, Stibbington, Stibbington truckstop
B671 – Wansford No exit
A47Peterborough (North), Ailsworth, Castor, Sacrewell Farm Centre, Leicester A47Peterborough (North), Ailsworth, Castor, Sacrewell Farm Centre, Leicester
Thornhaugh No exit
No exit Barnack
Wittering Wittering
No exit Barnack
Easton on the hill No exit
B1081 – Stamford, Burghley House B1081 – Stamford, Burghley House
No exit A43Kettering, Corby, Leicester, (A427), (A47)

A1175Stamford

A6121Ketton, Tinwell, Spalding, Stamford, (A16) A6121Ketton, Tinwell, Spalding, Stamford, (A16)
A606Oakham, Melton, Stamford A606Oakham, Melton, Stamford
No exit B1081 – Stamford
Empingham, Pickworth, Exton Empingham, Pickworth, Exton
B668 – Oakham B668 – Oakham
South Witham, Stamford, Castle Bytham South Witham, Stamford, Castle Bytham
Lobthorpe, Swayfield Lobthorpe, Swayfield
North Witham, Gunby North Witham, Gunby
Honey Pot Lane Industrial Estate Honey Pot Lane Industrial Estate
B6403 – Colsterworth, North Witham B6403 – Colsterworth, North Witham
A151 – Bourne, Corby Glen, Grimsthorpe

B676 – Melton Mowbray, Colsterworth

A151 – Bourne, Corby Glen, Grimsthorpe

B676 – Melton Mowbray, Colsterworth

B6403 – Easton, Ancaster B6403 – Easton, Ancaster
Skillington, Stainby, Buckminster Skillington, Stainby, Buckminster
Stoke Rochford, Skillington Stoke Rochford, Skillington
Boothby Pagnell Boothby Pagnell
Hungerton Hungerton
B1174 – Grantham, Boston, Sleaford, (A52), (A153) No exit
Boston, Grantham, (B1174) Spittlegate Junction Boston, Grantham, (B1174)
A607 – Grantham, Melton Mowbray, Harlaxton A607 – Grantham, Melton Mowbray, Harlaxton
A52 – Grantham, Barrowby, Nottingham Barrowby Junction A52 – Grantham, Barrowby, Nottingham
B1174 – Grantham, Great Gonnerby, Downtown

Moto Grantham North Service

Gonerby Moor Interchange

Services

B1174 – Grantham, Great Gonnerby, Downtown

Moto Grantham North Service

Barkston, Marston Barkston, Marston
Allington Foston
Long Bennington, Staunton, Foston, Roseland Business Park Long Bennington, Staunton, Foston, Roseland Business Park
Long Bennington, Cotham Long Bennington, Cotham
B6326 – Claypole B6326 – Claypole
B6326 – Claypole, Balderton, Newark B6326 – Claypole, Balderton, Newark
Coddington Coddington
A46 – Leicester, Lorry Park, Southwell, Manfield, Nottingham, (A52), (A617), (A612)

A17 – Sleaford

B6166 – Newark

Winthorpe Interchange/ Brownshill Roundabout A46 – Leicester, Lorry Park, Southwell, Manfield, Nottingham, (A52), (A617), (A612)

A17 – Sleaford

B6166 – Newark

B6325 – Ollerton, South Muskham, Newark, (A616) B6325 – Ollerton, South Muskham, Newark, (A616)
North Muskham, Bathley, Caunton North Muskham, Bathley, Caunton
Cromwell Cromwell
No exit Carlton-on-Trent
B1164 – Carlton, Sutton-on-Trent, Weston, Normanton-on-Trent, Kneesall B1164 – Carlton, Sutton-on-Trent, Weston, Normanton-on-Trent, Kneesall
Tuxford Tuxford
A57Lincoln, East Markham

A638Retford

B1164 – Tuxford, Ollerton, (A6075)

Markham Moor Interchange A57Lincoln, East Markham

A638Retford

B1164 – Tuxford, Ollerton, (A6075)

Bothamsall, (B6387) No exit
No exit West Drayton
B6387 – Retford, Ollerton B6387 – Retford, Ollerton
Elkesley village No exit
Ordsall, Elkesley Ordsall, Elkesley
A57Worksop, Sheffield

A614Nottingham, Ollerton

B6420 – Babworth

Apleyhead Interchange A57Worksop, Sheffield

A614Nottingham, Ollerton

B6420 – Babworth

A620 – Retford, Ranby

B6079 – Worksop

A620 – Retford, Ranby

B6079 – Worksop

No exit Barnby Moor
Blyth, Ranskill No exit
A1(M) Motorway junctions – Blyth to Skellow
Northbound exits (A carriageway) Junction Southbound exits (B carriageway)
A614Bawtry, Gainsborough, Robbin Hood Airport, (A631)

B6045 – Blyth

Moto Blyth Service

J34

Services

A614Bawtry, Gainsborough, Robbin Hood Airport, (A631)

B6045 – Blyth

Moto Blyth Service

M18Sheffield, Doncaster, Scunthorpe, Hull, (M180), (M62(E)), (M1) J35 M18Sheffield, Doncaster, Scunthorpe, Hull, (M180), (M62(E)), (M1)
A360Sheffield, Rotherham, Conisbrough, Doncaster, Balby, Racecourse Lakeside J36 A360Sheffield, Rotherham, Conisbrough, Doncaster, Balby, Racecourse Lakeside
A635Barnsley, Brodsworth Hall, Doncaster, Scawsby, Cusworth Hall, (A638) J37 A635Barnsley, Brodsworth Hall, Doncaster, Scawsby, Cusworth Hall, (A638)
A638Wakefield, Doncaster J38 A638Wakefield, Doncaster
A1 Road junctions – Skellow to Darrington
Northbound exits (A carriageway) Junction Southbound exits (B carriageway)
Hampole

Service

B1220 – Skellow
No exit Burghwallis
Skelbrooke Campsall
A639 – Pontefract

A6201 – Hemsworth, South Elmsall, Upton

A639 – Pontefract

A6201 – Hemsworth, South Elmsall, Upton

Thorpe Audlin Kirk Smeaton
Wentbridge, Kirk Smeaton Wentbridge, Kirk Smeaton
B6474 – Wentbridge No exit
Womersley, Darrington Womersley, Darrington
A162 – Hull, Pontefract, (A645), (M62) No Exit
A1(M) Motorway junctions – Darrington to Newcastle
Northbound exits (A carriageway) Junction Southbound exits (B carriageway)
M62Manchester, Leeds J41 M62Manchester, Hull
A63Leeds, Selby J42 A63Leeds, Selby
No exit J43 M1London, Leeds, Manchester, (M62)
A64Leeds, York J44 A64Leeds (North), York
A659 – Wetherby, Collingham, Otley, Boston Spa, Tadcaster, (A168) J45 A659 – Wetherby, Collingham, Otley, Boston Spa, Tadcaster, (A168)
B1224 – Wetherby, York, Moto Wetherby Service J46

Services

B1224 – Wetherby, York, Moto Wetherby Service
A59 – Knaresbrorogh, Harrogate, York J47 A59 – Knaresbrorogh, Harrogate, York
A6055Boroughbridge, Ripon, Dishforth, (A168) J48 A6055Boroughbridge, Ripon, Dishforth, (A168)
A168Thirsk, Teesside, (A19) J49 A168Thirsk, Teesside, (A19)
A61Ripon, Thirsk, Baldersby, Skipton-on-Swale, Topcliffe, (A167)

A6055Bedale, Masham

J50 A61Ripon, Thirsk, Baldersby, Skipton-on-Swale, Topcliffe, (A167)

A6055Bedale, Masham

A684Leyburn, Bedale, Northallerton, (B6285)

A6055Leeming, Hackforth, Hornby, Kirkby Fleetham, Fencotes

J51 A684Leyburn, Bedale, Northallerton, (B6285)

A6055Leeming, Hackforth, Hornby, Kirkby Fleetham, Fencotes

A6055Catterick, Brompton-on-Swale, Colburn, Catterick Garrison, Richmond, (A6136) J52 A6055Catterick, Brompton-on-Swale, Colburn, Catterick Garrison, Richmond, (A6136)
A66Brough, Penrith

A6055Richmond, Barton, Piercebridge, (A6108), (B6275)

Moto Scotch Corner Rest Area

J53

Rest area

A66Brough, Penrith

A6055Richmond, Barton, Piercebridge, (A6108), (B6275)

Moto Scotch Corner Rest Area

Barton, Croft-on-Tees, Stapleton, Darlington, (A6055)

B6275 – Melsonby, Piercebridge

J56 Barton, Croft-on-Tees, Stapleton, Darlington, (A6055)

B6275 – Melsonby, Piercebridge

A66(M)Darlington, Teesside J57 No exit
A68Darlington, Corbridge, Bishop Auckland, Shildon J58 A68Darlington, Corbridge, Bishop Auckland, Shildon
A167Newton Aycliffe, Spennymoor, Durham Tees Valley Airport, Darlington, (A688) J59 A167Newton Aycliffe, Spennymoor, Durham Tees Valley Airport, Darlington, (A688)
A689Teesside, Sedgefield, Bishop Auckland J60 A689Teesside, Sedgefield, Bishop Auckland
A688Bishop Auckland, Spennymoor, Sedgefield, Peterlee, Quarrington Hill, Coxhoe, (A177) J61 A688Bishop Auckland, Spennymoor, Sedgefield, Peterlee, Quarrington Hill, Coxhoe, (A177)
A690Durham, Sunderland, Consett, (A691) J62 A690Durham, Sunderland, Consett, (A691)
A167Chester-le-Street, Durham, Stanley, Birtley, (A693)

A183Bournmoor

J63 A167Chester-le-Street, Durham, Stanley, Birtley, (A693)

A183Bournmoor

A195 – Washington, Birtley

Moto Washington Services

J64

Services

A195 – Washington, Birtley

Moto Washington Services

A194(M) – Tyne Tunnel, South Shields J65 A1231 – Washington, Sunderland, Springwell, (B1288)
A1 Road junctions – Newcastle to Edinburgh
Northbound exits (A carriageway) Junction Southbound exits (B carriageway)
A167Birtley, Gateshead, Newcastle

B1295 – Wrekenton

J66 A167Birtley, Gateshead, Newcastle

B1295 – Wrekenton

Team Valley J67 Team Valley
A692 – Consett, Whickham, (B6317)

B1426 – Gateshead

J68 A692 – Consett, Whickham, (B6317)

B1426 – Gateshead

A184 – Central Newcastle, Central Gateshead J69 A184 – Central Newcastle, Central Gateshead
Dunston, Whickham J70 Dunston, Whickham
Metro Centre J71 Metro Centre
B6317 – Swalwell, Whickham J72 No exit
No exit J73 A694 – Consett, Whickham, Swalwell, Newcastle, Blaydon, (A695)
No exit J74 A191 – Scotswood, Denton Burn

A695 – Riverside Route, City Centre, Quayside, Walker, (A186), (B1600)

A6085 – Bells Close, Newburn, Riverside, Lemington

A69Hexham

A186 – City West, Crematorium, General Hospital, Fenham, Denton, (B1305)

J75 A69Hexham

A186 – City West, Crematorium, General Hospital, Fenham, Denton, (B1305)

B6324 – Westerhope, City Centre, (A167) J76 B6324 – Westerhope, City Centre, (A167)
A167 – City Centre

A696Woolsington, Newcastle International Airport

B6918 – Airport

J77 A167 – City Centre

A696Woolsington, Newcastle International Airport

B6918 – Airport

Kingston Park, Newcastle (N), Fawdon J78 Kingston Park, Newcastle (N), Fawdon
A1056 – Wide Open, Killingworth

B1318 – Gosforth, City (North)

J79 A1056 – Wide Open, Killingworth

B1318 – Gosforth, City (North)

A19Tyne Tunnel

A1068Cramlington, Ashington, Blyth, (A189) B1318 – Seaton Burn

J80 A19Tyne Tunnel

A1068Cramlington, Ashington, Blyth, (A189) B1318 – Seaton Burn

No exit Shotton, Ponteland, Dinnington, Blagdon
Stannington No exit
Bedlington, Hepscott, Stannington Station, Netherton Park Bedlington, Hepscott, Stannington Station, Netherton Park
B1337 – Morpeth No exit
A197Ashington, Morpeth, (A192) A197Ashington, Morpeth, (A192)
A697 – Coldstream, Wooler, Rothbury, (B6344) No exit
Longhirst, Cockle Park, Hebron Longhirst, Cockle Park, Hebron
Ulgham, Tritlington Ulgham, Tritlington
Fenrother Fenrother
Earsdon Earsdon
Amble, Acklington, Widdrington, Chevington Moor, (A1068) Amble, Acklington, Widdrington, Chevington Moor, (A1068)
Fieldhead, Causey Park Fieldhead, Causey Park
Eshott, Helm Eshott, Helm
Eshottheugh Eshottheugh
Longhorsley Longhorsley
Weldon Bridge, Bywell Weldon Bridge, Bywell
Amble, Warkworth Castle, Thirston, Felton, (B6345) Amble, Warkworth Castle, Thirston, Felton, (B6345)
Amble, Felton, (B6345) Amble, Felton, (B6345)
Swarland, Longframlington Swarland, Longframlington
Swarland, Acklington, Guyzance Swarland, Acklington, Guyzance
Longframlington, Newton on the Moor Longframlington, Newton on the Moor
Longframlington, Newton on the Moor Longframlington, Newton on the Moor
Shilbottle Shilbottle
Alnmouth, Shilbottle Alnmouth, Shilbottle
Deanmoor Deanmoor
Whittingham Whittingham
A1068Alnwick, Alnmouth A1068Alnwick, Alnmouth
B1340 – Alnwick, Denwick, Seahouses B1340 – Alnwick, Denwick, Seahouses
B6347 – South Charlton, Eglingham, (B6346) B6347 – South Charlton, Eglingham, (B6346)
B6347 – Christon Bank, Rock, Seahouses, (B1340) B6347 – Christon Bank, Rock, Seahouses, (B1340)
Charlton Lodge Charlton Lodge

References

edit
  1. ^ 51°30′55″N 0°05′50″W / 51.5153°N 0.0972°W / 51.5153; -0.0972
  2. ^ 55°57′08″N 3°11′19″W / 55.9522°N 3.1886°W / 55.9522; -3.1886
  3. ^ "A1 and A1(M) | Roads.org.uk". www.roads.org.uk. 31 July 1961. Retrieved 25 January 2024.
  4. ^ a b Marshall, Chris, CBRD Motorway Database: A1, archived from the original on 17 June 2009, retrieved 2 May 2019
  5. ^ a b "SABRE - Road Lists - The First 99 - A1". Sabre-roads.org.uk. Archived from the original on 15 November 2021. Retrieved 15 November 2021.
  6. ^ Chris Marshall (2011). "CBRD » In Depth » Road Numbers » How it happened". cbrd.co.uk. Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 7 August 2011.
  7. ^ a b "Memorandum on Route Numbering". The National Archives. 28 June 1922. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
  8. ^ Codrington, Thomas (1903). Roman Roads in Britain – Antonine Itinerary. Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. Archived from the original on 3 July 2011. Retrieved 23 August 2011 – via roman-britain.org.
  9. ^ a b Thomas Codrington. "LacusCurtius • Codrington's Roman Roads in Britain – Chapter 4". penelope.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 23 August 2011.
  10. ^ a b Frank Goddard (2004). Great North Road. Frances Lincoln Ltd. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-7112-2446-9. Retrieved 23 August 2011.
  11. ^ a b Christopher Hibbert, Ben Weinreb (2009). The London Encyclopedia. Pan Macmillan. p. 343. ISBN 978-1-4050-4925-2. Retrieved 23 August 2011.
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  18. ^ "Column: 1180". Hansard. 20 December 1995. Retrieved 20 January 2008.
  19. ^ The table was drawn up by reading values from the AA Route Planner for the journey Bank of England, London to Waverley Station, Edinburgh via Wittering. Adjustments were made for sections of the route that were not part of the A1."Route planner". AA. Archived from the original on 31 January 2011. Retrieved 15 January 2011.
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  29. ^ "Bigger and bigger pricetag". Archived from the original on 25 September 2009.
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  37. ^ "A1 Coal House to Metro Centre Improvement". Archived from the original on 7 June 2016.
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  51. ^ "A1(M) Wetherby to Walshford". Highways Agency. Archived from the original on 30 August 2008. Retrieved 6 August 2008.
  52. ^ "A1(M) Bramham to Wetherby". Highways Agency. Archived from the original on 20 August 2008. Retrieved 6 August 2008.
  53. ^ "A1 Dishforth to Leeming Improvement Scheme (A1 Dishforth to Barton)". Highways Agency. Archived from the original on 1 July 2010. Retrieved 17 July 2010.
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