Ashington is a town and civil parish in Northumberland, England, with a population of 27,864 at the 2011 Census. It was once a centre of the coal mining industry. The town is 15 miles (24 km) north of Newcastle upon Tyne, west of the A189 and bordered to the south by the River Wansbeck. The North Sea coast at Newbiggin-by-the-Sea is 3 miles (5 km) away.
Milburn Statue, Station Road, Ashington
|Population||27,764 (2011 census)|
|OS grid reference|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
The name Ashington possibly originates from Essendene which has been referenced since 1170, but may instead have originated from Æsc, a Saxon invader who sailed from Northern Germany to the River Wansbeck and settled in the deep wooded valley near Sheepwash. But it could have come from "Valley of Ash Trees" - these would have lined the valley and the Saxon word Dene means valley giving the name 'Ash Dene'. In the 1700s all that existed of Ashington was a small farm with a few dwellings around it.
The Anglo Saxon theory is the most likely. The suffix "ington" denotes a settlement (usually a farm) belonging to an Anglo Saxon, therefore Æscington would have meant "the settlement/farm in/by the ash trees". There are numerous "ington's" nearby that would seem to discount the "Essendene" theory. Examples are: Bedlington, Choppington, Cramlington, Barrington, Whittington, Acklington, Stannington etc.
"sc" in Old Englisc is "sh" in Modern English, so "Aesc" becomes "Ash", which is also related to the Old Norse "Ask". Ask was the name of the first man in Norse mythology. Ask and Embla (Ash and Elm) were the first humans crafted by Odin and his brothers from driftwood. Anglo Saxon and Norse mythology are related, although lack of writing does limit how much we know of the similarities and differences in the pagan mythos of the two cultures. We can only guess at how important ash trees were to Anglo Saxon settlers.
The first evidence of mining is from bell-shaped pits and monastic mine workings discovered in the 20th Century during tunnelling. Ashington developed from a small hamlet in the 1840s when the Duke of Portland built housing to encourage people escaping the Irish potato famine to come and work at his nearby collieries. As in many other parts of Britain, "deep pit" coal mining in the area declined during the 1980s and 1990s leaving just one colliery, Ellington which closed in January 2005. In 2006 plans for an opencast mine on the outskirts of the town were put forward, although many people objected to it. During the heyday of coal-mining, Ashington was considered to be the "world's largest coal-mining village". There is now a debate about whether Ashington should be referred to as a town or a village; if considered as a village it would be one of the largest villages in England.
Growth of the townEdit
As coal mining expanded, more people left the countryside and settled in Ashington. This led the Ashington Coal Company to build parallel rows of colliery houses. Some newcomers came from as far as Cornwall to make use of their tin-mining skills.
With the growing coal industry came the need for a railway link. Ashington was linked to the Blyth and Tyne Railway in the 1850s, and also to the East Coast Main Line near Ulgham (pronounced Uffham). The railway was used by passenger trains until the Beeching Axe in 1964 closed the railway station, called Hirst railway station, which had opened in the 1870s. The railway line runs south towards the steep-sided River Wansbeck valley, originally crossed by a wooden viaduct, which was replaced by today's steel-built Black Bridge.
In 1913 the original Ashington Hospital was built. It was about 1/4 mile from the town centre. The hospital was expanded in the 1950s and '60s with large new wings. This hospital was closed in the mid 1990s and replaced by the new Wansbeck General Hospital which opened on a green-field site on the eastern edge of the town with better links to the A189 Spine Road. The last of the old buildings were demolished in 2004.
Traditionally the area to the east of the railway was called Hirst and that to the west was Ashington proper. Although collectively called Ashington, both halves had their own park: Hirst Park (opened in 1915) in the east and the People's Park in the west.
The colliery-built houses followed a grid plan. The streets in the Hirst End running north to south were named after British trees, such as Hawthorn Road, Beech Terrace, and Chestnut Street. The east-west running streets were numbered avenues, starting with First Avenue near the town centre, finishing at Seventh Avenue towards the southern end. After the 1920s houses in Ashington were built by the council and were most often semi-detached houses, such as Garden City Villas. These occupied much of the fields in the Hirst area. New estates were built in different areas. The biggest building programme was in the late 1960s and saw Ashington extend south from Seventh Avenue opposite the Technical College towards North Seaton and south eastwards towards the A189. Some of the houses at the north end of Alexandra Road were private homes. During this building programme several new schools were built, for example Coulson Park, Seaton Hirst Middle. Community shops and a social club (the Northern) were built off Fairfield Drive. The late 1970s and early 1980s saw construction of Nursery Park opposite the North Seaton Hotel. The late 1980s and 1990s saw the building of the Wansbeck Estate between the River Wansbeck and Green Lane as well as the large Fallowfield Estate.
In the late 1960s the area by the railway station was developed into Wansbeck Square, housing a supermarket, council offices and a public library, built partly over the railway line.
In 1981 the Woodhorn Pit closed and its chimney was demolished. In the late 1980s this became a museum. In 1988 Ashington Pit was closed and is now occupied by a business park. In the early 2000s maisonette flats in various parts of Hirst were demolished and parts of the Moorhouse and Woodbridge estate opposite Woodhorn Pit were demolished.
The railway was used until recently by the Alcan Aluminium plant, to transport coal to its adjacent power station in the nearby town of Lynemouth. The plant closed in late 2015. The line was put in use again from mid-2017 to transport materials to Lynemouth, for the conversion of the coal-fired power station to produce power from biomass. There have been calls to restore the railway station for passenger use with services to Newcastle. Plans are underway, but may be subject to alteration due to Brexit.
Ashington Urban District was created in 1896, covering part of the parish of Ashington and Sheepwash and part of the parish of Bothal Demesne, and incorporating Hirst. In 1900 the urban district was enlarged to include North Seaton; then Sheepwash, most of Woodhorn and the remainder of Bothal Demesne in 1935. The urban district survived until 1974, when under the Local Government Act 1972 it became part of the Wansbeck district.
Ashington is in south east Northumberland, which is a largely urban area adjacent to Newcastle. Most of the area is of flat ground formed during the Carboniferous period when ancient tropical swamp forests were buried and formed the coal seams that have given this area its significance. The local geology is of yellow sandstone. The land to the north west of the town is slightly undulating due to mining subsidence, which sometimes causes farmland to be flooded. The south east part of the town is slightly raised giving views to the north. From certain parts of town the Cheviot Hills are visible about 30 miles (48 km) to the north.
The town is roughly square in shape, lying north to south. The town centre is in the north of the town. South of this are residential areas. Farmland is on both east and west flanks. The south part is residential bordered by the River Wansbeck to the south. To the east of the town is the small coastal town of Newbiggin and to the west is the small village of Bothal, also on the River Wansbeck. South of the town is the small village of North Seaton which once had its own pit. North of the town about 2 miles is the village of Linton and north east of the town is Lynemouth.
To the north of the town is Queen Elizabeth II Country Park which contains a lake surrounded by pine woodland plantation. The original Ashington Colliery was on the north west of the town and the smaller Woodhorn Pit was on the north east.
Climate and soilEdit
The climate is cool temperate. Summers are drier than on the west coast of Britain, but cooler than southerly areas. Winters are cold at times, sometimes with snow. The soil is of a dark brown colour, free draining and gritty. It is very good for growing vegetables. Tender perennials are rare; some palms will grow, but need winter protection. Although Phormiums (New Zealand flax) grow in displays in Newbiggin, salt-laden winds may afford them some protection. The most exposed part of the town is to the east. High trees in Hirst Park give considerable shelter. The west part is much more sheltered, especially the wooded valley of the River Wansbeck. Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, and there is adequate rainfall year-round. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb" (Marine West Coast Climate/Oceanic climate).
|Climate data for Ashington, UK|
|Average high °C (°F)||6
|Average low °C (°F)||3
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||61
Environs and villages surrounding AshingtonEdit
Working in a clockwise direction from the north west of Ashington are the following places.
- Linton, a small village, originally developed for mineworkers at the Linton Colliery. This village looks unusual from the air: it is almost square and its streets are in a parallel grid-plan.
- Ellington, a newer village which was located next to Ellington Colliery.
- Lynemouth, close to the coast; this village is next to the Alcan Lynemouth Aluminium Smelter and Lynemouth Power Station.
- Woodhorn, a tiny hamlet with a church on the road to Newbiggin. Some of the area of Ashington adjacent to Woodhorn pit museum is also called Woodhorn.
- Newbiggin-by-the-Sea, a small town or village, this is a former seaside resort, visited by locals. It has a beach and, following coastal erosion, a large sea wall was built in the late 1980s. Newbiggin offers bed and breakfasts, cafes and some shops.
- Cambois (pronounced Cammus) is a small village south of the River Wansbeck. It is quite spread out. Cambois has some fishing cottages at the mouth of the river. It has a beach and views along the coast towards north Blyth and Blyth.
- North Seaton, a village on the north banks of the River Wansbeck. It was formerly a mining village, but most of its population moved to Ashington. North Seaton had its own small colliery.
- Stakeford, originally a small village south of the River Wansbeck, this is mainly an area of residential estates.
- Guide Post, a residential village on the road towards Morpeth, it has a school and some shops.
- Sheepwash, a crossing point on the River Wansbeck before it flows west towards Bothal.
- Bothal, a quaint, historic village on the wooded banks of the River Wansbeck. Bothal has cottages and a 14th Century castle, Bothal Castle. Riverside walks can be taken along the wooded riverbank.
- Pegswood, village on the main East Coast Main Line. The village has a train station served by local trains.
- Longhirst, a small hamlet on the East Coast Main Line.
Until the Beeching Axe of the 1960s, Ashington was on the British Rail passenger network, with passenger trains to Newbiggin and Newcastle. The railway is used now by goods trains, but there have been calls for the railway station to re-open. The line has been identified as a priority for reopening to passenger use by Campaign for Better Transport. The nearest mainline railway station is Pegswood on the East Coast Main Line, about 3 miles from the town centre. Local services from here go to Newcastle, Cramlington, Morpeth, and Alnmouth.
At the east end of the main shopping street is the bus station, with local Arriva North East and Go North East buses linking to the rest of Northumberland and to Newcastle. National Express services also arrive and depart from the bus station.
Ashington is well served by roads. The A189 (Spine Road) to the east of Ashington runs south via Blyth and North Tyneside to Newcastle, and via the A19 Tyne Tunnel to South Tyneside and the A1(M). The A189 also runs north along the coast to Alnwick and Berwick. The A196 runs west towards Morpeth and the A1 which goes north to Scotland and Edinburgh or south to the A1(M) near Newcastle on towards Durham and Yorkshire and the South.
The nearest airport is Newcastle Airport, which provides scheduled domestic flights, flights covering many major cities in Europe, long haul international flights and holiday charter flights. There is a port in nearby North Shields with passenger services to IJmuiden in the Netherlands.
Museums and librariesEdit
A reasonable-sized public library is based in the Leisure Centre on Lintonville Terrace at the northern fringes of the town. The local museum is at Woodhorn pit. It is mainly a museum of the town's mining history with pictures and models. There are also various arts exhibits in the museum, including a permanent exhibition of the Pitmen Painters' paintings, and information on local history.
Ashington has several sports facilities and numerous sports clubs. A new leisure centre was erected on the former Asda site in the town centre, it opened in December 2015.
Hirst Park provides two good quality bowling greens as well as tennis and basketball courts. Ashington A.F.C. now play at Woodhorn Lane having moved from Portland Park to make way for the new Asda superstore in 2008. Rugby is played at a ground on the north west edge of the town and cricket is played off Kenilworth Road not far from the town centre.
In recent years a new community facility has been created from the former Miners Welfare centre on Alexandra Road. The Hirst Welfare Centre is a multi-use community facility with training facilities, office space, a cafe, community hall, gym and dance studio. The Centre also has an external all-weather, floodlight synthetic football pitch with additional grass pitches.
There are some bed and breakfasts in Ashington. To the north side of Queen Elizabeth lake is a motel with pub and restaurant and located on the site of the QE2 is a Premier Inn hotel/restaurant. There is also a holiday centre/caravan site near Sandy Bay off the A189 about 3 miles to the south east of the town centre.
Parks walks and green spacesEdit
Riverside Park provides a peaceful riverside setting in which to relax or take walks. The park runs along the Wansbeck River. There are public footpaths and bridleways from here towards the quaint village of Bothal with its photogenic castle above the river.
The People's Park near the leisure centre off Institute Road is a large green field suitable for recreation. Hirst Park is located off Hawthorn Road; locally, it has traditionally been known as The Flower Park, due to its summer floral displays. It has bowling greens, basketball and tennis courts, play areas and is sheltered by tall trees. To the north of the park is a large sports field, where historically, the town hosted fun fairs.
At Woodhorn is the Queen Elizabeth II Park. This is surrounded by pine wood, including the Ashington Community Woods, connecting the park to Ashington, and has a large lake with a narrow-gauge railway connecting the main car park to the Woodhorn Museum. Walks from here head out towards Linton and eastwards towards the seaside town of Newbiggin following the old railway line.
Ashington enjoys a good location within Northumberland allowing good access to the countryside. The town is situated near the coast, enabling short journey times to beaches such as Druridge Bay and Cresswell. Northumberland National Park is close by.
The previous system of first school, middle school and high school used in Ashington was phased out in September 2015, with Bothal Middle School and Hirst Park Middle School closing. First schools became primary schools while Ashington High School became a full secondary school. Schools were first built by the Ashington coal company, but many have since been replaced.
There are many General Practitioner (GP) surgeries in Ashington. The main Wansbeck General Hospital in Ashington is located at the north east of the town near Woodhorn. Major treatments are provided at hospitals in Newcastle. A&E services are provided at the Northumbria Specialist Emergency Care Hospital in nearby Cramlington.
There are several radio regional stations providing local broadcasts.
As of 2010[update] the local member of parliament is Ian Lavery of the Labour party. Ashington elects six County Councillors (One with part of West Newbiggin) to Northumberland County Council as of 2014, these seats are held by Labour Party candidates. Ashington Town Council is made up of six wards each electing three councillors, as of 2014 seventeen of these are held by the Labour Party.
Industry and employmentEdit
Until 1988 the majority of the town's male population was employed in the mining industry. The closure of the pits led to large scale unemployment. However limited coal mining was carried out until recently at Ellington Colliery and opencast coal extraction is carried out at Butterwell Opencast.
The former site of Ashington Colliery became part of a regeneration project and saw the development of Wansbeck Business Park. This park now houses a number of companies with local, national and international profiles. These include Polar Krush NICC Ltd, Thermacore Ltd and Sugarfayre Ltd. The park includes a variety of wildlife with a large pond at its centre.
Ashington's close proximity to Newcastle upon Tyne makes it an ideal commuter town for people working in the city.
Arts and cultureEdit
In 1934 some of the Ashington miners enrolled in painting classes as an alternative pastime and then began to produce paintings to sell at local markets to supplement their poor wages. They achieved unexpected success and approval from the art community and were given prestigious gallery exhibitions during the 1930s and 1940s under the name "The Pitmen Painters", although the group had called themselves the "Ashington Group". In the 1970s the group's work was "rediscovered" and popularised as "workers' art" and given international exhibitions. On 26 October 2006 a new £16m museum housing the work was opened in Ashington by The Princess Royal.
The book The Pitmen Painters by William Feaver, recording the development of the Ashington Group, 1934 to 1984, has been made into a stage play by Lee Hall, well known for Billy Elliot. The play premiered at the Live Theatre, Newcastle upon Tyne, in 2007 and subsequently was produced at the Royal National Theatre, London in 2008 and 2009. A German translation by Michael Raab premiered at the Volkstheater in Vienna, Austria, in April 2009. In 2011 Oscar/BAFTA award-winning Film Director Jon Blair made a film for ITV1's Perspectives Arts series, entitled Robson Green and The Pitmen Painters giving an insight into the lives and work of the Ashington Group including rare film footage of the group in their Hut including interviews with Oliver Kilbourn and Harry Wilson.
Ashington has appeared in various films and TV programmes, such as Spender starring Jimmy Nail, Our Friends in the North in 1996, The Fast Show on BBC2 and the Alcan chimneys were seen in the movie, Billy Elliot.
We Never Had It So Good by David Williams published by Zymurgy is a collection of short stories about a young boy growing up in Ashington in the late 1950s.
Sammy is a novel by Ashington-based writer, Vince Gledhill, which tells the story of a destitute boy who walks 200 miles to get to Ashington in 1910 when the coal was King and the town was a place of enterprise, ambition and opportunity.
- John Ashenden, 14th-century astrologer
- Ian Lavery, President of the National Union of Mineworkers
- William Timlin, author and architect
Ashington has produced a number of professional footballers, notably Jack Milburn, Jackie Milburn, Mark Cullen, Jimmy Adamson, Jackie Charlton, Bobby Charlton, Cecil Irwin, Colin Ayre, David Thompson, Chris Adamson, Martin Taylor, Peter Ramage and Ray Blackhall. Premier League referee Michael Oliver, the youngest in the league's history, was born in the town. Semi Professional footballer Paul Chow, who holds the record for scoring the fastest goal in Wembley Stadium history (19 Seconds) in the 2010 FA Vase Final, was born in Ashington. Property developer Sir John Hall, former Chairman and Life President of Newcastle United Football Club, was born in North Seaton village on the outskirts of the town in 1933.
- "Town population 2011". Archived from the original on 26 June 2015. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
- Kirkup, Mike (1993). The Biggest Mining Village in the World.
- Kirkup Mike, 2003 Hirst-Recollections of an Ashington Community
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2 June 2008. Retrieved 3 January 2009.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link), South east Northumberland Rail Users Group
- Ashington Tn/CP Northumberland through time | Administrative history of Parish-level Unit: hierarchies, boundaries Archived 30 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- "Mining village pit plan approved". BBC Tyne News. 7 October 2008. Retrieved 7 October 2008.
- "Ashington, England Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase.
- "Weatherbase.com". Weatherbase. 2013. Retrieved on 11 July 2013.
- "Reopen these rail lines and put 500,000 people in reach of the railways". Campaign for Better Transport.
- Wainwright, Martin (27 October 2006). "Pitmen Painters get royal seal of approval - and a gallery of their own". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- "Ashington - Heritage". Archived from the original on 27 June 2007. Retrieved 29 June 2009.
- Tourism, Northumberland. "Ashington tourist information - Visit Northumberland". www.visitnorthumberland.com.
- McCullough Thew, Linda (31 October 1985). The Pit Village and the Store: Portrait of a Mining Past. Pluto Press. ISBN 978-0-7453-0069-6.
- Kirkup, Mike (1993). The Biggest Mining Village in the World. ISBN 0-946098-30-1.
- Kirkup, Mike (2003). Hirst - Recollections of an Ashington Community. ISBN 1-902527-49-6.
- Williams, David (2007). We never had it so good. ISBN 978-1-903506-28-8.
- Charlton, Cissie, with Vince Gledhill (1988). Cissie - Football's most famous mother Cissie Charlton tells her story. Bridge Studios. ISBN 0-9512630-4-8.
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