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Princess Anne
Princess Royal (more)
Princess Anne October 2015.jpg
The Princess Royal, October 2015
Born (1950-08-15) 15 August 1950 (age 67)
Clarence House, London, England
Spouse
Issue
Full name
Anne Elizabeth Alice Louise[note 1]
House Windsor
Father Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
Mother Queen Elizabeth II

Anne, Princess Royal, KG, KT, GCVO, QSO, CD[1][2][3] (Anne Elizabeth Alice Louise; born 15 August 1950) is the second child and only daughter of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. At the time of her birth, she was third in the line of succession to the British throne, behind her mother – then Princess Elizabeth – and elder brother, Charles. She rose to second after her mother's accession, but is currently 13th in line.[note 2]

Anne is known for her charitable work, and is patron of over 200 organisations. She is also known for equestrian talents; she won two silver medals (1975) and one gold medal (1971) at the European Eventing Championships,[4] and is the first member of the British Royal Family to have competed in the Olympic Games. Princess Anne has held the title of Princess Royal since 1987 and is its seventh holder.

Anne was married to Captain Mark Phillips in 1973; they divorced in 1992. They have two children and four grandchildren. In 1992, within months of her divorce, Anne married Commander (now Vice Admiral) Sir Timothy Laurence, whom she had met while he served as her mother's equerry between 1986 and 1989.

Contents

Early life and educationEdit

 
Princess Anne with her parents and elder brother in October 1957

Anne was born at Clarence House on 15 August 1950 at 11:50 am,[5] as the second child and only daughter of Princess Elizabeth, Duchess of Edinburgh, and Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. She is the second grandchild of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth. 21-gun salutes signalled the birth in Hyde Park.[6] Anne was baptised in the Music Room of Buckingham Palace on 21 October 1950, by Archbishop of York, Cyril Garbett.[note 3]

A governess, Catherine Peebles, was appointed to look after Anne and was responsible for her early education at Buckingham Palace;[9] Peebles also served as early governess for Anne's older brother, Charles. After the death of George VI, Anne's mother ascended the throne as Queen Elizabeth II. Given her young age at the time, she did not attend the coronation.

 
Anne and Charles at the White House with Tricia Nixon and Julie & David Eisenhower in June 1970

A Girl Guides company, the 1st Buckingham Palace Company to include the Holy Trinity Brompton Brownie pack, was re-formed in May 1959, specifically so that, as her mother and aunt had done as children, Anne could socialise with girls her own age. The Company was active until 1963, when Anne went to boarding school.[10] Anne enrolled at Benenden School in 1963. In 1968 she left school with six GCE O-Levels and two A-Levels.[9]

In the next couple of years, Anne started dating. In 1970, her first boyfriend was Andrew Parker Bowles, who later became the first husband of Camilla Shand (subsequently the mistress and second wife of her brother, Prince Charles).[11]

First marriageEdit

 
Princess Anne at Massawa, Ethiopia, in February 1973

Anne first met her future husband Mark Phillips at a party for horse lovers in 1968.[12] Their engagement was announced on 29 May 1973.[13][14] On Wednesday, 14 November 1973 (the twenty-fifth birthday of her brother, Prince Charles), Princess Anne married Mark Phillips, a lieutenant in the 1st Queen's Dragoon Guards, at Westminster Abbey in a ceremony that was televised around the world, with an estimated audience of 100 million.[15] Following the wedding, Anne and her husband lived at Gatcombe Park. He was made acting captain by the start of 1974 when he was appointed a personal aide-de-camp to Queen Elizabeth II. As was customary for untitled men marrying into the royal family, Phillips was offered an earldom. He declined this offer leading to their children being born without courtesy titles.[16] The couple would have two children, Peter and Zara Phillips.[17]

On 31 August 1989, Princess Anne and Mark Phillips announced their intention to separate, as the marriage had been under strain for a number of years.[12][18] The couple had been rarely seen in the public together, and both were romantically linked with other people.[12][19] They continued to share the custody of their children, and initially announced that "there were no plans for divorce."[20][21] They eventually divorced on 23 April 1992.[22]

Anne has four grandchildren. She first became a grandmother on 29 December 2010 when Peter and his wife Autumn had a daughter, Savannah. On 29 March 2012, the couple had another daughter, Isla. Anne's third granddaughter, Mia Grace, was born on 17 January 2014 to Zara and her husband Mike Tindall.[17] Their second daughter, Lena Elizabeth, was born on 18 June 2018.

Kidnapping attemptEdit

 
Princess Anne in a visit to Washington, Tyne and Wear, 1974

As Princess Anne and Mark Phillips were returning to Buckingham Palace on 20 March 1974, from a charity event on Pall Mall, their Princess IV car was forced to stop on the Mall by a Ford Escort.[23] The driver of the Escort, Ian Ball, jumped out and began firing a pistol. Inspector James Beaton, Anne's personal police officer, responded by getting out of the car in order to shield her and to attempt to disarm Ball. Beaton's firearm, a Walther PPK, jammed, and he was shot by the assailant, as was Anne's chauffeur, Alex Callender, when he tried to disarm Ball.[24] Brian McConnell, a nearby tabloid journalist, also intervened, and was shot in the chest.[25] Ball approached Anne's car and told her of his kidnapping plan, which was to hold her for ransom, the sum given by varying sources as £2 million[26] or £3 million, which he claimed he intended to give to the National Health Service.[23] Ball then directed Anne to get out of the car, to which she replied: "Not bloody likely!", and reportedly briefly considered hitting Ball.[27] Eventually, she exited the other side of the limousine as had her lady-in-waiting, Rowena Brassey. A passing pedestrian, a former boxer named Ron Russell, punched Ball in the back of the head and then led Anne away from the scene. At that point, Police Constable Michael Hills happened upon the situation; he too was shot by Ball, but not before he called for police backup. Detective Constable Peter Edmonds, who had been nearby, answered and gave chase, finally arresting Ball.[24]

Beaton, Hills, Callender and McConnell were hospitalised, and all recovered from their wounds. For his defence of Princess Anne, Beaton was awarded the George Cross by the Queen, who was visiting Indonesia when the incident occurred;[28] Hills and Russell were awarded the George Medal, and Callender, McConnell and Edmonds were awarded the Queen's Gallantry Medal.[23][29] Anne later visited Beaton in hospital and thanked him for his assistance; she also spoke about the event on TV to Parkinson in 1974 saying she was 'scrupulously polite' to her would-be kidnapper as she thought it would be 'silly to be too rude at that stage'.[28]

Ball pleaded guilty to attempted murder and kidnapping. He was still detained under the Mental Health Act as of January 2011, at Broadmoor.[30] The incident was the closest in modern times that any individual has come to kidnapping a member of the Royal Family, and prompted higher security levels for the family. It also served as the focus of the 2006 Granada Television produced docu-drama To Kidnap a Princess and inspired story lines in the Tom Clancy novel Patriot Games.[31]

Second marriageEdit

Anne met Timothy Laurence while he was serving on the Royal Yacht Britannia, and their relationship developed in early 1989, three years after he was appointed as an equerry to the Queen.[32] In 1989, the existence of private letters from Laurence to the Princess was revealed by The Sun newspaper.[19] Anne married Laurence, then a Commander in the Royal Navy, at Crathie Kirk, near Balmoral Castle, on 12 December 1992.[33] Around 30 guests were invited for the private marriage service.[34] The couple chose to marry in Scotland as the Church of England did not at that time allow divorced persons whose former spouses were still living to remarry in its churches.[35][36] The Church of Scotland does not consider marriage to be a sacrament, and thus not binding forever, and has no moral objection to the remarriage of divorced persons.[37] In participating in this ceremony, Anne became the first royal divorcée to remarry since Victoria, Grand Duchess of Hesse and by Rhine, granddaughter of Queen Victoria, married Grand Duke Cyril Vladimirovich of Russia in 1905. For the wedding ceremony, Anne wore a white jacket over a "demure, cropped-to-the-knee dress" and a spray of white flowers in her hair.[38] Her engagement ring is made of "a cabochon sapphire flanked by three small diamonds on each side".[39] Following the marriage service, the couple and guests headed to Craigowan Lodge for a private reception.[33] Like Phillips before him, Laurence received no peerage, and the couple leased a flat in Dolphin Square, London. They later gave up this city home and now reside between an apartment at St James's Palace and Gatcombe Park.[40] Anne has no children by Laurence nor does he have any children from a previous relationship or marriage.

Court sanctionsEdit

Anne received a fine of £400 for speeding in March 2001, by Cheltenham Magistrates’ Court.[41] In 2002, her dog Dotty attacked two children in Windsor Great Park. She was fined £500 by Berkshire Magistrates' Court under the Dangerous Dogs Act 1991, and ordered to give Dotty more training.[42]

EquestrianismEdit

Medal record
Representing   United Kingdom
Equestrian
European Championships
  1971 Burghley Individual eventing
  1975 Luhmuhlen Team eventing
  1975 Luhmuhlen Individual eventing

At the age of 21, Anne won the individual title at the European Eventing Championship,[43] and was voted the BBC Sports Personality of the Year in 1971.[44] For more than five years, she also competed with the British eventing team, winning a silver medal in both individual and team disciplines in the 1975 European Eventing Championship, riding the home-bred Doublet.[45] The following year, Anne participated in the 1976 Olympic Games in Montreal as a member of the British team, riding the Queen's horse, Goodwill.[46] Anne assumed the Presidency of the Fédération Équestre Internationale from 1986 until 1994.[47] On 5 February 1987, she became the first member of the Royal Family to appear as a contestant on a television quiz-show when she competed on the BBC panel game A Question of Sport.[45]

ActivitiesEdit

Anne undertakes a number of duties and engagements on behalf of her mother, in support of her role as sovereign of the Commonwealth realms. Kevin S. MacLeod, the Canadian Secretary to the Queen, said of Anne in 2014: "Her credo is, 'Keep me busy. I'm here to work. I'm here to do good things. I'm here to meet as many people as possible'."[48] It was revealed in December 2017 that the Princess Royal had undertaken the most official engagements that year out of all the royal family, her mother included.[49][50]

Anne began to undertake overseas visits upon leaving secondary school,[9] and accompanied her parents on a state visit to Austria in the same year.[51] She also travels abroad on behalf of the United Kingdom up to three times a year; she was the first member of the Royal Family to make an official visit to the Soviet Union when she went there as a guest of the government in 1990.[51]

 
Anne (left) with her parents during their tour of Australia in 1970

Her first tour of Australia was with her parents in 1970, since which she has returned on numerous occasions to undertake official engagements as a colonel-in-chief of an Australian regiment, or to attend memorials and services, such as the National Memorial Service for victims of the Black Saturday bushfires in Melbourne, Australia, on 22 February 2009.[52]

Following the retirement of the Queen Mother in 1981, Anne was elected by graduates of the University of London as that institution's Chancellor.[53] Throughout May 1996, Anne served as Her Majesty's High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, and held the post again in 2017.[54] In 2007, she had the honour of being appointed by the Queen as Grand Master of the Royal Victorian Order, a position her grandmother had also held.[55]

Anne is involved with over 200 charities and organisations in an official capacity. She works extensively for Save the Children, of which she has been president since 1970,[56] and she initiated The Princess Royal Trust for Carers in 1991;[57] her work for the charity takes her all over the world, including many poverty stricken African nations.[56] Anne is the patron of Transaid, a charity founded by Save the Children and the Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport which aims to provide safe and sustainable transport in developing countries.[58] She is also the Royal Patron of WISE, an organisation that encourages young women to pursue careers in science, engineering and construction.[59] Her extensive work for St. John Ambulance as Commandant-in-Chief of St. John Ambulance Cadets has helped to develop many young people, as she annually attends the Grand Prior Award Reception.[60][61] She is Patron of St. Andrew's First Aid.[62][63] She is a British representative in the International Olympic Committee as an administrator,[64] and was a member of the London Organising Committee for the Olympic Games.[65] She was President of BAFTA from 1973 to 2001.[66] She maintains a relationship with student sport and is the Patron of British Universities and Colleges Sport.[67] She has been Patron of the Royal National Children's Foundation since 2002[68][69] and the industrial heritage museum, Aerospace Bristol, since 2016.[70]

 
The Princess Royal visits USNS Comfort on 11 July 2002, while the vessel docked at Southampton, UK

She is also a Royal Fellow of the Royal Society[71] and the Academy of Medical Sciences.[72] Royal Fellows are members of the Monarchy who are recommended and elected by the Society's Council. The Royal Society has only five Royal Fellows, including the Princess Royal herself, the Duke of Edinburgh, the Prince of Wales, the Duke of Kent, and the Duke of Cambridge.[73] She is the Academy of Medical Sciences' first Royal Fellow.[72]

She was elected Chancellor of the University of Edinburgh effective 31 March 2011, succeeding her father, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, who stepped down from the role in 2010.[74]

Likewise she accepted in 2011 the roles of President of City and Guilds of London Institute,[75] Master of the Corporation of Trinity House[76][77] and President of the Royal Society of Arts, also in succession to her father. She is also Patron of the Royal College of Occupational Therapists,[78] Edinburgh University's Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies,[79] Royal Holloway, University of London,[80][81] International Students House, London,[82][83] Acid Survivors Trust International,[84] and Townswomen's Guilds.[85]

She represented Great Britain in the International Olympic Committee at the 2014 Sochi Winter Olympics in Russia.[86] In September 2016, the Princess suffered from chest infection and was required to cancel official engagements.[87] In late October 2016, Princess Anne visited the Malaysian state of Sarawak for a two-day study tour.[88] In 2017, she became Prime Warden of the Worshipful Company of Fishmongers and a Governor of Gresham's School.[89] On 21 May 2018, she became the Royal Patron of St Andrew's First Aid Australia.[90]

Titles, styles, honours and armsEdit

Titles and stylesEdit

 
Royal Monogram
  • 1950–1952: Her Royal Highness Princess Anne of Edinburgh[91]
  • 1952–1973: Her Royal Highness The Princess Anne
  • 1973–1987: Her Royal Highness The Princess Anne, Mrs Mark Phillips
  • 1987–present: Her Royal Highness The Princess Royal

Anne is the seventh Princess Royal,[92] an appellation given only to the eldest daughter of the sovereign, the last holder being George V's daughter, Princess Mary, Countess of Harewood.

HonoursEdit

 
The Princess Royal processing at the Garter Service, Windsor, with her brothers, Charles, Andrew and Edward on 19 June 2006

CommonwealthEdit

ForeignEdit

AppointmentsEdit

Fellowships
Civic
Academic
Academic degrees

Honorary military appointmentsEdit

As with other senior royals, Princess Anne holds a number of honorary appointments in the armed forces of several Commonwealth realms:

  Australia
 
The Princess Royal at a parade on the 75th anniversary of the Royal Australian Corps of Signals, 5 July 2000.
  Canada
  New Zealand
  United Kingdom

ArmsEdit

Personal flag for CanadaEdit

 
Flag of the Princess Royal for use in Canada

Since 2013, the Princess Royal has a personal heraldic flag for use in Canada. It is the Royal Arms of Canada in banner form defaced with a blue roundel surrounded by a wreath of gold maple leaves, within which is a depiction of an "A" surmounted by a coronet. Above the roundel is a white label of three points, the centre one charged with a red heart and the other two with red crosses.[127][128]

Other honoursEdit

In February 2015, the Princess Royal became one of the first female honorary members of the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews.[129]

IssueEdit

Name Birth Marriage Issue
Peter Phillips 15 November 1977 17 May 2008 Autumn Kelly Savannah Phillips
Isla Phillips
Zara Phillips 15 May 1981 30 July 2011 Mike Tindall Mia Tindall
Lena Tindall

AncestryEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Anne does not normally use a surname, but, if required, her premarital surname was Mountbatten-Windsor.
  2. ^ The Perth Agreement and the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 reformed the line of succession to the British throne to absolute primogeniture. However this was applied only to those born after the Agreement, so neither the Princess Royal nor her descendants at the time were moved ahead in the line.
  3. ^ Her godparents were the Queen (later Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother; her maternal grandmother); the Princess Margarita, Hereditary Princess of Hohenlohe-Langenburg (her paternal aunt); Princess Andrew of Greece and Denmark (her paternal grandmother); Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma (her paternal great-uncle); and Andrew Elphinstone (her first cousin once removed).[7][8]

ReferencesEdit

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External linksEdit

Anne, Princess Royal
Born: 15 August 1950
Lines of succession
Preceded by
Lady Louise Windsor
Line of succession to the British throne
13th position
Followed by
Peter Phillips
British royalty
Vacant
Title last held by
Princess Mary, Countess of Harewood
Princess Royal
1987–present
Incumbent
Academic offices
Preceded by
Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother
Chancellor of the University of London
1981–present
Incumbent
Preceded by
The Duke of Edinburgh
Chancellor of the University of Edinburgh
2011–present
New creation Chancellor of the University of the Highlands and Islands
2012–present
Chancellor of Harper Adams University
2013–present
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother
Grand Master of the Royal Victorian Order
2007–present
Incumbent
Preceded by
Henry Cooper
BBC Sports Personality of the Year
1971
Succeeded by
Mary Peters
Orders of precedence in the United Kingdom
Preceded by
The Countess of Wessex
Ladies
HRH The Princess Royal
Followed by
The Duchess of Cambridge