Anne, Princess Royal
Anne, Princess Royal, KG, KT, GCVO, GCStJ, QSO, CD (Anne Elizabeth Alice Louise; born 15 August 1950) is the second child and only daughter of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. At the time of her birth, she was third in the line of succession to the British throne, behind her mother – then Princess Elizabeth – and elder brother, Charles. She rose to second after her mother's accession, but is 14th in line as of August 2019[update].[b]
|Princess Royal (more)|
The Princess Royal, October 2015
|Born||15 August 1950|
Clarence House, London, England
|Father||Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh|
Anne is known for her charitable work, and is a patron of over 200 organisations. She is also known for equestrian talents; she won two silver medals (1975) and one gold medal (1971) at the European Eventing Championships, and is the first member of the British Royal Family to have competed in the Olympic Games. Princess Anne has held the title of Princess Royal since 1987 and is its seventh holder.
Anne was married to Captain Mark Phillips in 1973; they divorced in 1992. They have two children and four grandchildren. In 1992, within months of her divorce, Anne married Commander (now Vice Admiral) Sir Timothy Laurence, whom she had met while he served as her mother's equerry between 1986 and 1989. Since 2012, she has held the rank of Admiral and Chief Commandant of Women in the Royal Navy.
- 1 Early life and education
- 2 First marriage
- 3 Kidnapping attempt
- 4 Second marriage
- 5 Equestrianism
- 6 Activities
- 7 Titles, styles, honours and arms
- 8 Issue
- 9 Ancestry
- 10 Notes
- 11 References
- 12 External links
Early life and educationEdit
Anne was born in the reign of her maternal grandfather George VI at Clarence House on 15 August 1950 at 11:50 am, as the second child and only daughter of Princess Elizabeth, Duchess of Edinburgh, and Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. A 21-gun salute signalled the birth in Hyde Park. Anne was baptised in the Music Room of Buckingham Palace on 21 October 1950, by Archbishop of York, Cyril Garbett.[c]
A governess, Catherine Peebles, was appointed to look after Anne and was responsible for her early education at Buckingham Palace; Peebles also served as early governess for Anne's older brother, Charles. After the death of George VI, Anne's mother ascended the throne as Queen Elizabeth II. Given her young age at the time, she did not attend the coronation.
A Girl Guides company, the 1st Buckingham Palace Company to include the Holy Trinity Brompton Brownie pack, was re-formed in May 1959, specifically so that, as her mother and aunt had done as children, Anne could socialise with girls her own age. The Company was active until 1963, when Anne went to boarding school. Anne enrolled at Benenden School in 1963. In 1968, she left school with six GCE O-Levels and two A-Levels.
In the next couple of years, Anne started dating. In 1970, her first boyfriend was Andrew Parker Bowles, who later became the first husband of Camilla Shand (subsequently the mistress and second wife of her brother, Prince Charles).
Anne first met her future husband Mark Phillips at a party for horse enthusiasts in 1968. Their engagement was announced on 29 May 1973. On 14 November 1973, Princess Anne married Mark Phillips, a lieutenant in the 1st Queen's Dragoon Guards, at Westminster Abbey in a ceremony that was televised around the world, with an estimated audience of 100 million. Following the wedding, Anne and her husband lived at Gatcombe Park. He was made acting captain by the start of 1974 when he was appointed a personal aide-de-camp to Queen Elizabeth II. As was customary for untitled men marrying into the royal family, Phillips was offered an earldom. He declined this offer leading to their children being born without courtesy titles. The couple would have two children, Peter (born 1977) and Zara Phillips (born 1981).
On 31 August 1989, Princess Anne and Mark Phillips announced their intention to separate, as the marriage had been under strain for a number of years. The couple had been rarely seen in public together, and both were romantically linked with other people. They continued to share the custody of their children, and initially announced that "there were no plans for divorce." They eventually divorced on 23 April 1992. Anne and Phillips have four grandchildren.
As Princess Anne and Mark Phillips were returning to Buckingham Palace on 20 March 1974, from a charity event on Pall Mall, their Princess IV car was forced to stop on the Mall by a Ford Escort. The driver of the Escort, Ian Ball, jumped out and began firing a pistol. Inspector James Beaton, Anne's personal police officer, responded by getting out of the car in order to shield her and to attempt to disarm Ball. Beaton's firearm, a Walther PPK, jammed, and he was shot by the assailant, as was Anne's chauffeur, Alex Callender, when he tried to disarm Ball. Brian McConnell, a nearby tabloid journalist, also intervened, and was shot in the chest. Ball approached Anne's car and told her of his kidnapping plan, which was to hold her for ransom, the sum given by varying sources as £2 million or £3 million, which he claimed he intended to give to the National Health Service. Ball then directed Anne to get out of the car, to which she replied: "Not bloody likely!", and reportedly briefly considered hitting Ball. Eventually, she exited the other side of the limousine as had her lady-in-waiting, Rowena Brassey. A passing pedestrian, a former boxer named Ron Russell, punched Ball in the back of the head and then led Anne away from the scene. At that point, Police Constable Michael Hills happened upon the situation; he too was shot by Ball, but not before he called for police backup. Detective Constable Peter Edmonds, who had been nearby, answered and gave chase, finally arresting Ball.
Beaton, Hills, Callender and McConnell were hospitalised, and all recovered from their wounds. For his defence of Princess Anne, Beaton was awarded the George Cross by the Queen, who was visiting Indonesia when the incident occurred; Hills and Russell were awarded the George Medal, and Callender, McConnell and Edmonds were awarded the Queen's Gallantry Medal. Anne later visited Beaton in hospital and thanked him for his assistance. Later in 1984 the princess spoke about the event on TV to Parkinson saying she was 'scrupulously polite' to her would-be kidnapper as she thought it would be 'silly to be too rude at that stage'.
Ball pleaded guilty to attempted murder and kidnapping. He was still detained under the Mental Health Act as of January 2011, at Broadmoor. The incident was the closest in modern times that any individual has come to kidnapping a member of the Royal Family, and prompted higher security levels for the family. It also served as the focus of the 2006 Granada Television produced docu-drama To Kidnap a Princess and inspired story lines in the Tom Clancy novel Patriot Games.
Anne met Timothy Laurence while he was serving on the Royal Yacht Britannia. Their relationship developed in early 1989, three years after he was appointed as an equerry to the Queen. In 1989, the existence of private letters from Laurence to the Princess was revealed by The Sun newspaper. Anne married Laurence, then a Commander in the Royal Navy, at Crathie Kirk, near Balmoral Castle, on 12 December 1992. Around 30 guests were invited for the private marriage service. The couple chose to marry in Scotland as the Church of England did not at that time allow divorced persons whose former spouses were still living to remarry in its churches. The Church of Scotland does not consider marriage to be a sacrament, and thus not binding forever, and has no moral objection to the remarriage of divorced persons. In participating in this ceremony, Anne became the first royal divorcée to remarry since Victoria, Grand Duchess of Hesse and by Rhine, granddaughter of Queen Victoria, married Grand Duke Cyril Vladimirovich of Russia in 1905. For the wedding ceremony, Anne wore a white jacket over a "demure, cropped-to-the-knee dress" and a spray of white flowers in her hair. Her engagement ring is made of "a cabochon sapphire flanked by three small diamonds on each side". Following the marriage service, the couple and guests headed to Craigowan Lodge for a private reception. Like Phillips before him, Laurence received no peerage, and the couple leased a flat in Dolphin Square, London. They later gave up this city home and now reside between an apartment at St James's Palace and Gatcombe Park. Anne has no children by Laurence.
|Representing United Kingdom|
|1971 Burghley||Individual eventing|
|1975 Luhmuhlen||Team eventing|
|1975 Luhmuhlen||Individual eventing|
At the age of 21, Anne won the individual title at the European Eventing Championship, and was voted the BBC Sports Personality of the Year in 1971. For more than five years, she also competed with the British eventing team, winning a silver medal in both individual and team disciplines in the 1975 European Eventing Championship, riding the home-bred Doublet. The following year, Anne participated in the 1976 Olympic Games in Montreal as a member of the British team, riding the Queen's horse, Goodwill. Anne assumed the Presidency of the Fédération Équestre Internationale from 1986 until 1994. On 5 February 1987, she became the first member of the Royal Family to appear as a contestant on a television quiz-show when she competed on the BBC panel game A Question of Sport.
Anne undertakes a number of duties and engagements on behalf of her mother, in support of her role as sovereign of the Commonwealth realms. Kevin S. MacLeod, the Canadian Secretary to the Queen, said of Anne in 2014: "Her credo is, 'Keep me busy. I'm here to work. I'm here to do good things. I'm here to meet as many people as possible'." It was revealed in December 2017 that the Princess Royal had undertaken the most official engagements that year out of all the royal family, her mother included.
Anne travels abroad on behalf of the United Kingdom up to three times a year. She began to undertake overseas visits upon leaving secondary school, and accompanied her parents on a state visit to Austria in the same year. Her first tour of Australia was with her parents in 1970, since which she has returned on numerous occasions to undertake official engagements as a colonel-in-chief of an Australian regiment, or to attend memorials and services, such as the National Memorial Service for victims of the Black Saturday bushfires in Melbourne, Australia, on 22 February 2009. In 1990 she was the first member of the Royal Family to make an official visit to the Soviet Union when she went there as a guest of President Mikhail Gorbachev and his government.
Following the retirement of the Queen Mother in 1981, Anne was elected by graduates of the University of London as that institution's Chancellor. Throughout May 1996, Anne served as Her Majesty's High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, and held the post again in 2017. In 2007, she had the honour of being appointed by the Queen as Grand Master of the Royal Victorian Order, a position her grandmother had also held.
Anne is involved with over 200 charities and organisations in an official capacity. She works extensively for Save the Children, of which she has been president since 1970, and she initiated The Princess Royal Trust for Carers in 1991; her work for the charity takes her all over the world, including many poverty stricken African nations. Anne is the patron of Transaid, a charity founded by Save the Children and the Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport which aims to provide safe and sustainable transport in developing countries. She is also the Royal Patron of WISE, an organisation that encourages young women to pursue careers in science, engineering and construction. Her extensive work for St. John Ambulance as Commandant-in-Chief of St. John Ambulance Cadets has helped to develop many young people, as she annually attends the Grand Prior Award Reception. She is Patron of St. Andrew's First Aid. She is a British representative in the International Olympic Committee as an administrator, and was a member of the London Organising Committee for the Olympic Games. She was President of BAFTA from 1973 to 2001. She maintains a relationship with student sport and is the Patron of British Universities and Colleges Sport. She has been Patron of the Royal National Children's Foundation since 2002 and the industrial heritage museum, Aerospace Bristol, since 2016.
She is also a Royal Fellow of the Royal Society and the Academy of Medical Sciences. Royal Fellows are members of the Monarchy who are recommended and elected by the Society's Council. The Royal Society has only five Royal Fellows, including the Princess Royal herself, the Duke of Edinburgh, the Prince of Wales, the Duke of Kent, and the Duke of Cambridge. She is the Academy of Medical Sciences' first Royal Fellow.
Likewise, she accepted in 2011 the roles of President of City and Guilds of London Institute, Master of the Corporation of Trinity House and President of the Royal Society of Arts, also in succession to her father. She is also Patron of the Royal College of Occupational Therapists, Edinburgh University's Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, Royal Holloway, University of London, International Students House, London, Acid Survivors Trust International, Townswomen's Guilds and Citizens Advice.
She represented Great Britain in the International Olympic Committee at the 2014 Sochi Winter Olympics in Russia. In August 2016, she returned to the country to visit the Russian city of Arkhangelsk for the 75th anniversary of Operation Dervish, which was one of the first Arctic convoys of World War II. In September 2016, the Princess suffered from chest infection and was required to cancel official engagements. In late October 2016, she visited the Malaysian state of Sarawak for a two-day study tour. In 2017, she became Prime Warden of the Worshipful Company of Fishmongers and a Governor of Gresham's School.
Titles, styles, honours and armsEdit
Titles and stylesEdit
- 1950–1952: Her Royal Highness Princess Anne of Edinburgh
- 1952–1973: Her Royal Highness The Princess Anne
- 1973–1987: Her Royal Highness The Princess Anne, Mrs Mark Phillips
- 1987–present: Her Royal Highness The Princess Royal
- 1969: Royal Family Order of Queen Elizabeth II
- 2009: Dame Grand Cross of the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of St John of Jerusalem (GCStJ)
- 1971–2009: Dame of Justice of the Most Venerable Order of St John of Jerusalem (DJStJ)
- 1974: Dame Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order (GCVO) – (Grand Master from 20 April 2007)
- 23 April 1994: Royal Knight of the Most Noble Order of the Garter (KG)
- 30 November 2000: Extra Knight of the Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle (KT)
- 2 June 1953: Queen Elizabeth II Coronation Medal
- 6 February 1977: Queen Elizabeth II Silver Jubilee Medal
- 6 February 2002: Queen Elizabeth II Golden Jubilee Medal
- 6 February 2012: Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal
- 1982: Canadian Forces Decoration (CD)
- 1990: Extra Companion of the Queen's Service Order (QSO)
- 7 June 2005: Commemorative Medal for the Centennial of Saskatchewan
- 29 September 2005: Chief Grand Companion of the Order of Logohu (GCL)
- 1969: Grand Decoration of Honour in Gold with Sash for Services to the Republic of Austria
- 1969: Commander Grand Cross of the Order of the White Rose of Finland
- 1971: Grand Cordon of the Order of the Precious Crown
- 1971: Commemorative Medal of the 2500th Anniversary of the founding of the Persian Empire
- 1972: Grand Cross of the Order of the House of Orange
- 1972: Grand Cross of the Order of the Oak Crown
- 1972–1992: Member 1st Class of the Order of the Yugoslav Flag
- 2017: Order of Isabella the Catholic
- 2017: Grand Cross 2nd Class of the National Order of Madagascar
- 1986: Fellow of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons (FRCVS)
- 1987: Royal Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS)
- 1999: Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh (FRSE)
- 2011: President of the Royal Society of Arts (RSA)
- 2012: Royal Fellow of the Academy of Medical Sciences (FMedSci)
- 2017: Honorary Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of England (FRCS)
- 1994: Master, Worshipful Company of Woolmen
- 2017: Prime Warden, Worshipful Company of Fishmongers
- 1981: University of London, Chancellor
- 2011: University of Edinburgh, Chancellor
- 2012: University of the Highlands and Islands, Chancellor
- 2013: Harper Adams University, Chancellor
- Honorary academic degrees
- 2004: University of Regina, Saskatchewan, Doctor of Laws (LLD)
- 2010: Memorial University of Newfoundland, Doctor of Laws (LLD)
- 2011: Cranfield University, Doctor of Science (DSc)
Honorary military appointmentsEdit
As with other senior royals, Princess Anne holds a number of honorary appointments in the armed forces of several Commonwealth realms:
- Colonel-in-Chief of the Royal Australian Corps of Signals
- Colonel-in-Chief of the Royal Australian Corps of Transport
- Colonel-in-Chief of the Grey and Simcoe Foresters (11 June 1977 – present)
- Colonel-in-Chief of the 8th Canadian Hussars (Princess Louise's)
- Colonel-in-Chief of the Royal Canadian Hussars (11 November 2014 – present)
- Colonel-in-Chief of the Communications and Electronics Branch (11 June 1977 – present)
- Colonel-in-Chief of the Royal Canadian Medical Service
- Colonel-in-Chief of The Royal Regina Rifles
- Colonel-in-Chief of Royal Newfoundland Regiment
- Commodore-in-Chief of the Royal Canadian Navy (Fleet Pacific) (2015 – present)
- Colonel-in-Chief of the Royal New Zealand Corps of Signals
- Colonel-in-Chief of the Royal New Zealand Army Nursing Corps
- Colonel-in-Chief of the King's Royal Hussars
- Colonel-in-Chief of the Worcestershire and Sherwood Foresters Regiment (29/45 Foot)
- Colonel-in-Chief of the Royal Corps of Signals
- Colonel-in-Chief of the Royal Logistic Corps
- Colonel-in-Chief the Royal Army Veterinary Corps
- Colonel of the Blues and Royals
- Royal Colonel of the Royal Scots Borderers, 1st Battalion Royal Regiment of Scotland
- Royal Colonel of the 52nd Lowland, 6th Battalion Royal Regiment of Scotland
- Royal Honorary Colonel of the University of London OTC
- Commandant-in-Chief of the First Aid Nursing Yeomanry (Princess Royal's Volunteer Corps)
- Honorary Air Commodore of RAF Lyneham (relinquished 30 September 2011)
- Honorary Air Commodore of RAF Brize Norton (from 1 October 2011)
- Honorary Air Commodore of the University of London Air Squadron
- Admiral and Chief Commandant for Women in the Royal Navy
- Commodore-in-Chief of HMNB Portsmouth
Personal flag for CanadaEdit
Since 2013, the Princess Royal has a personal heraldic flag for use in Canada. It is the Royal Arms of Canada in banner form defaced with a blue roundel surrounded by a wreath of gold maple leaves, within which is a depiction of an "A" surmounted by a coronet. Above the roundel is a white label of three points, the centre one charged with a red heart and the other two with red crosses.
|Peter Phillips||15 November 1977||17 May 2008||Autumn Kelly||Savannah Phillips |
|Zara Phillips||15 May 1981||30 July 2011||Mike Tindall||Mia Tindall |
|Ancestors of Anne, Princess Royal|
- As a British princess, Anne does not usually use a maiden surname; but when one is needed, it is Mountbatten-Windsor.
- The Perth Agreement and the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 reformed the line of succession to the British throne to absolute primogeniture. However this was applied only to those born after the Agreement, so neither the Princess Royal nor her descendants at the time were moved ahead in the line.
- Her godparents were the Queen (later Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother; her maternal grandmother); the Princess Margarita, Hereditary Princess of Hohenlohe-Langenburg (her paternal aunt); Princess Andrew of Greece and Denmark (her paternal grandmother); Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma (her paternal great-uncle); and Andrew Elphinstone (her first cousin once removed).
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Although HRH The Princess Royal and HRH Princess Alexandra are both female they are actually included with the Royal Knights Companions and they bear the post-nominal letters KG (not LG).
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Andrew is also a close friend of the Princess Anne, and dated her in 1970.
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Until Elizabeth gave her the title, Anne's correct form of address had been a mouthful, 'Her Royal Highness the Princess Anne, Mrs Mark Phillips'.
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|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Anne, Princess Royal|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Anne, Princess Royal.|
- The Princess Royal at the Royal Family website
- Anne, the Princess Royal at the Encyclopædia Britannica
- Princess Anne Building Bridges with Students
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Anne, Princess RoyalBorn: 15 August 1950
|Lines of succession|
Lady Louise Windsor
| Line of succession to the British throne
Title last held byPrincess Mary, Countess of Harewood
| Princess Royal
Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother
| Chancellor of the University of London
The Duke of Edinburgh
| Chancellor of the University of Edinburgh|
|New creation|| Chancellor of the University of the Highlands and Islands|
| Chancellor of Harper Adams University|
Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother
| Grand Master of the Royal Victorian Order
| BBC Sports Personality of the Year
|Orders of precedence in the United Kingdom|
The Countess of Wessex
HRH The Princess Royal
The Duchess of Cambridge