|West London Mental Health NHS Trust|
Broadmoor in 2006
|Location||Crowthorne, Berkshire, England|
|Lists||Hospitals in England|
Broadmoor Hospital is a high-security psychiatric hospital at Crowthorne in Berkshire, England. It is the best known and oldest of the three high-security psychiatric hospitals in England, the other two being Ashworth Hospital near Liverpool and Rampton Secure Hospital in Nottinghamshire.
The Broadmoor complex houses about 210 patients, all of whom are men since the female service closed in September 2007, with most of the women moving to a new service in Southall and the remainder moving to Rampton and elsewhere. At any one time there are also approximately 36 patients on trial leave at other units. Most of the patients there have been diagnosed with severe mental illness; many also have schizophrenia and personality disorders. Most have either been convicted of serious crimes, or been found unfit to plead in a trial for such crimes. The average stay is six years, but this figure is skewed by a few patients who have stayed for over 30 years; most patients stay for considerably less time.
The hospital's catchment area consists of four National Health Service regions: London, Eastern, South East and South West.
The hospital was first known as the Broadmoor Criminal Lunatic Asylum. It was built to a design by Sir Joshua Jebb, an officer of the Corps of Royal Engineers, and covered 53 acres (210,000 square metres) within its secure perimeter. The first patient was a female admitted for infanticide on 27 May 1863. Notes described her as being 'feeble minded;' it has been suggested by an analysis of notes that she was most likely also suffering from congenital syphilis. The first male patients arrived on 27 February 1864. The original building plan of five blocks for men and one for women was completed in 1868. A further male block was built in 1902.
Due to overcrowding at Broadmoor, a branch asylum was constructed at Rampton and opened in 1912. Rampton was closed as a branch asylum at the end of 1919 and reopened as an institution for "mental defectives" rather than lunatics. During World War I Broadmoor's block 1 was also used as a Prisoner-of-war camp, called Crowthorne War Hospital for mentally ill German soldiers.
After the escape in 1952 of John Straffen, who murdered a local child, the hospital set up an alarm system, which is activated to alert people in the vicinity, as well as the public including those in the surrounding towns of Sandhurst, Wokingham, Bracknell and Bagshot, when any potentially dangerous patient escapes. It is based on World War II air raid sirens, and a two-tone alarm sounds across the whole area in the event of an escape. It is tested every Monday morning at 10 am for two minutes, after which a single tone 'all-clear' is sounded for a further two minutes. All schools in the area must keep procedures designed to ensure that in the event of a Broadmoor escape no child is ever out of the direct supervision of a member of staff. Sirens are located at Sandhurst School, Wellington College, Bracknell Forest council depot and other sites.
Following the Peter Fallon QC inquiry into Ashworth Special Hospital which reported in 1999, and found serious concerns about security and abuses resulting from poor management, it was decided to review the security at all three of the special hospitals in England. Until this time each was responsible for maintaining its own security policies. This review was made the personal responsibility of Sir Alan Langlands, who at the time was chief executive of the English National Health Service. The report that came out of the review initiated a new partnership whereby the Department of Health sets out a policy of safety, and security directions, that all three special hospitals must adhere to.
One of the longest-detained patients at Broadmoor is Albert Haines, who set a legal precedent in 2011 when his mental health tribunal hearing was allowed to be fully public, where he argued that he has never been given the type of counselling he has always sought; the panel urged the clinicians to work more collaboratively and clearly towards his psychiatric rehabilitation.
Because of its high walls and other visible security features, and the inaccurate news reporting it has received in the past, the hospital is often assumed to be a prison by members of the public. Many of its patients are sent to it via the criminal justice system, and its original design brief incorporated an essence of addressing criminality in addition to mental illness; however, the layout inside and the daily routine are designed to assist the therapy practised there rather than to meet the criteria necessary for it to be run along the lines of a prison in its daily functions. However, nearly all staff are members of the Prison Officers Association, as opposed to other health service unions such as UNISON.
Jimmy Noak, Broadmoor's director of nursing in 2011, in response to concerns about the amount of resources going into the treatment of those in the facility given the harm some of them had caused to victims or their families, commented, 'It's not fair, but what is the alternative? If these people committed crimes because they were suffering from an acute mental illness then they should be in hospital.'
The first medical superintendent was John Mayo. His assistant, William Orange CB, MD, FRCP, LSA, succeeeded him. Orange established "a management style that was greatly admired". He also advised the Home office on how to approach criminal insanity. Orange was in charge from 1870-1886.
From its opening, until 1948, Broadmoor was managed by a Council of Supervision, appointed by and reporting to the Home Secretary. Thereafter, the Criminal Justice Act of 1948 transferred ownership of the hospital to the Department of Health (and the newly formed NHS) and oversight to the Board of Control for Lunacy and Mental Deficiency established under the Mental Deficiency Act 1913. It also renamed the hospital Broadmoor Institution. The hospital remained under direct control of the Department of Health - a situation which reportedly 'combined notional central control with actual neglect' until the establishment of the Special Hospitals Service Authority in 1989, with Charles Kaye as its first chief executive.
Alan Franey ran the hospital from 1989 to 1997, having been recommended for the post by his friend Jimmy Savile. His leadership was undermined by persistent rumours of sexual impropriety on the hospital grounds. Allegedly he ignored at least three sexual assaults that he had been informed about.
The Special Hospitals Service Authority was abolished in 1996, being replaced by individual special health authorities in each of the high-security hospitals. The Broadmoor Hospital Authority was itself dissolved on 31 March 2001.
On 1 April 2001 West London Mental Health (NHS) Trust took over the responsibility for the hospital. The trust reports to the NHS Executive through NHS England London. The former director, who then became the CEO of the Trust, quit in 2009 after Healthcare Commission/Care Quality Commission findings of serious failures to ensure patient safety at Broadmoor. In 2014 the director of specialist and forensic services resigned (and was employed elsewhere in the NHS) just prior to the conclusions of an investigation a bullying culture. The next permanent CEO retired in 2015 in the wake of poor Care Quality Commission findings and other problems in the Trust.
Meanwhile, the trust allowed ITV to film a two-part documentary within Broadmoor in 2014. Press releases stated that on average there are four 'assaults' per week on staff. Psychiatrist Amlan Basu, clinical director of Broadmoor since March 2014, promoted the documentary but then decided to leave the NHS in 2015 amidst funding and staffing problems despite the Trust having just highlighted investment in his skills through its 'prestigious initiative to improve the quality of patient care in the NHS.'
Much of Broadmoor's architecture is still Victorian, including the gatehouse, which has a clock tower.
Following long-standing reports that the old buildings were unfit for purpose (for therapy or safety), planning permission was granted in 2012 for a £242 million redevelopment, involving a new unit comprising 10 wards to adjoin the existing 6 wards of the modern Paddock Unit, resulting in total bed numbers of 234. Building company Kier reported in 2013 a sum of £115m for the new unit of 162 beds, ready to accept patients by the start of 2017, and £43m for a separate new medium secure unit for men nearby.
A new unit called the Paddock Centre already opened on 12 December 2005 to contain and treat patients classed as having a 'dangerous severe personality disorder' (DSPD). This was a new and much debated category invented on behalf of the UK government, based on an individual being considered a 'Grave and Immediate Danger' to the general public, and meeting some combination of criteria for personality disorders and/or high scores on the Hare Psychopathy Check list – Revised. The Paddock Centre was designed to eventually house 72 patients, but never opened more than four of its six 12-bedded wards. The Department of Health and Ministry of Justice National Personality Disorder Strategy published in October 2011 concluded that the resources invested in the DSPD programme should instead be used in prison based treatment programmes and the DSPD service at Broadmoor was required to close by 31 March 2012.
Misconduct by staffEdit
From at least 1968 the television presenter and disc jockey Jimmy Savile undertook voluntary work at the hospital and was allocated his own room, supported by the CEO Pat McGrath who thought it would be good publicity.
In 1987 a minister in the Department of Health and Social Security (DHSS), Jean Lady Trumpington, appointed Savile to the management board in charge of Broadmoor. He was now being referred to as 'Dr Savile' by both the DHSS and Broadmoor, despite Savile having no medical qualifications or training. In August 1988, following a recommendation by Cliff Graham, the senior civil servant in charge of mental health at the DHSS, Savile was appointed by the Department's health minister Edwina Currie to chair an interim task force overseeing the management of the hospital following the suspension of its board. Currie privately supported Savile's attempts to 'blackmail' the Prison Officers Association and publicly declared her 'full confidence' in him.
After an ITV1 documentary Exposure: The Other Side of Jimmy Savile in October 2012, allegations of sexual abuse by Savile were made or re-made by former patients and staff. The civil servant who first proposed Savile's appointment to the task force at Broadmoor, Brian McGinnis, who ran the mental health division of the DHSS in 1987 before Cliff Graham, has since been investigated by police and prevented from working with children. A Department of Health investigation led by former barrister Kate Lampard into Savile's activities at Broadmoor and other hospitals and facilities in England, with Bill Kirkup leading the Broadmoor aspects, reported in 2014 that Savile had use of a personal set of keys to Broadmoor from 1968 to 2004 (not formally revoked until 2009), with full unsupervised access to some wards. 11 allegations of sexual abuse were known, thought to be a substantial under-estimate due to how psychiatric patients in particular were disbelieved or put off from coming forward. In five cases the identity of the alleged victim could not be traced, but of the other six it was concluded they had all been abused by Savile, repeatedly in the case of two patients.
The investigation also concluded that 'the institutional culture in Broadmoor was previously inappropriately tolerant of staff–patient sexual relationships,' and that when there were female patients they were required to undress and bathe in front of staff and sometimes visitors. A 'shocking' failure to ensure a safe or therapeutic environment for female patients had already been revealed in a 2002 inquiry prior to Broadmoor becoming male-only.
In 2010 a female charge nurse received a suspended prison sentence for engaging in sexual activity with a patient at the hospital.
Violating patient confidentialityEdit
Journalists invading the privacy of patients or reporting false information about them have been the subject of dozens of complaints from Broadmoor. Healthcare assistant Robert Neave took payments from The Sun for several years to provide them with information, including copies of psychiatric reports, which has subsequently been investigated by Operation Elveden. Mental health nurse Kenneth Hall was imprisoned in June 2015 for having repeatedly sold stories to the tabloids based on stolen medical notes and fabricated documents.
Notable patients - past and presentEdit
- Bronson, Charlie; Etherington, Lorraine (2015). Broadmoor - My Journey Into Hell. John Blake Publishing. ISBN 978-1784181178.
- Trainor, Terry (2012). Bedlam. St. Mary of Bethlehem. Terry Trainor. ISBN 978-1471714245.
- Berkshire Record Office catalogue of Broadmoor Hospital records, introduction
- Not Panicking Ltd (12 May 2013). "h2g2 - The Broadmoor Siren - Edited Entry". bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 27 September 2015.
- The Broadmoor siren. WLMHT. Accessed 1 July 2012
- Fallon, Peter; Bluglass, Robert; Edwards, Brian; Daniels, Granville (January 1999) Report of the Committee of Inquiry into the Personality Disorder Unit, Ashworth Special Hospital. published by the Stationery Office. Accessed 12 November 2007
- Langlands, Alan (22 May 2000). Report of the review of security at the high security hospitals. Department of Health. Accessed 12 November 2007
- "Broadmoor Hospital's £298m revamp approved by NHS bosses". BBC News Berkshire. BBC. 23 July 2012. Retrieved 27 September 2015.
- The fine art of starting over The Guardian, 2006
- Broadmoor patient Albert Haines loses appeal bid The Independent, Jerome Taylor, 26 October 2011 Archived 30 December 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
- Press Complaints Commission (9 Jan 2009) Broadmoor Hospital Archived 9 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed 1 March 2009
- Lemlij, Maia (November 2005) Broadmoor Hospital: Prison-like hospital or hospital-like prison? A study of a high security mental hospitals within the context of generic function. pages 155, 156. Space Syntax Laboratory, UK. Accessed 21 February 2009
- Charles Kaye and Alan Franey (1998). Managing High Security Psychiatric Care. Jessica Kingsley. pp. 31, 40. ISBN 9781853025815. Retrieved 28 October 2012.
- Feilden, Tom (9 May 2011). "Inside Broadmoor". BBC Online. United Kingdom. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
- Stevens, Mark (25 February 2011). "Broadmoor revealed: The Victorian asylum". The National Archives.
- "William Orange CB, MD, FRCP, LSA: A Broadmoor pioneer". Retrieved 28 September 2017.
- "Lives of the fellows". Royal College of Physicians. Retrieved 28 September 2017.
- "Ashworth Special Hospital: Report of the Committee of Inquiry". official-documents.co.uk. Retrieved 27 September 2015.
- Rigby, Nic (1 July 2014). "Ex-Broadmoor manager's 'Savile scapegoat' claims". BBC News Beds, Herts & Bucks. BBC News. Retrieved 27 September 2015.
- Andrew Gregory; Tom Pettifor (26 June 2014). "Nine Jimmy Savile victims had abuse complaints IGNORED by Leeds General Infirmary staff". Mirror Online. Mirror. Retrieved 27 September 2015.
- National Archives, Office of Public Sector Information. Broadmoor Hospital Authority (Abolition) Order 2001 Archived 12 November 2007 at the Wayback Machine.. ISBN 0-11-029108-5. Accessed 14 June 2007
- "Broadmoor chief quits ahead of criticisms in patient death report". Retrieved 2016-08-16.
- "Concern over Broadmoor 'failings'". BBC. 2009-07-21. Retrieved 2016-08-16.
- Andy Weir: Bullying case NHS boss leaves with £170,000 Exclusive: Broadmoor chief landed new job before the end of investigation prompted by whistleblower] Paul Gallagher, The Independent
- Gallagher, Paul (27 June 2015). "Chief of NHS mental health trust that controls Broadmoor leaves post amid string of controversies". The Independent. Retrieved 16 August 2016.
- Prince William, Kate Middleton 'upset' after bodyguard quits March 2013, Digital Spy
- Broadmoor: ITV doc offers first ever look inside highest-security psychiatric hospital November 2014, The Independent
- "New clinical director at Broadmoor Hospital - West London Mental Health Trust". 2014-02-28. Retrieved 2016-08-16.
- Basu, Amlan (2014-11-12). "Broadmoor hospital: why we opened our doors to a film crew". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2016-08-16.
- "Broadmoor's clinical director joins NHS quality improvement initiative - West London Mental Health Trust". 2015-07-09. Retrieved 2016-08-16.
- "Broadmoor attacks fuel fears that cuts put public and staff at risk". 2015-08-15. Retrieved 2016-08-16.
- "Broadmoor Hospital". Historic England. Retrieved 25 May 2018.
- "Broadmoor Hospital's £298m revamp approved by NHS bosses - BBC News". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2018-05-25.
- Hayman, Allister (2013-06-28). "Kier bags £285m Broadmoor revamp | News". Building. Retrieved 2018-05-25.
- "Kier given go-ahead for two Broadmoor hospitals | SGP". Web.archive.org. Retrieved 2018-05-25.
- "Kier Group - Kier gets go ahead for £158m healthcare projects". Kier.co.uk. 2013-12-24. Retrieved 2018-05-25.
- "Kier Group - Kier preferred for £115m Broadmoor Hospital redevelopment". Kier.co.uk. Retrieved 2018-05-25.
- "Dangerous & Severe Personality Disorder Programme". National Personality Disorder Organisation (UK). Archived from the original on 24 February 2007. Retrieved 15 May 2007.
- "Offender personality disorder – consultation response". Department of Health and Ministry of Justice. 21 October 2011. Retrieved 25 May 2018.
- Daily Telegraph, "Broadmoor staff said Jimmy Savile was a 'psychopath' with a 'liking for children'", 1 November 2012. Accessed 1 November 2012
- Adam Sweeting (29 October 2011). ""Sir Jimmy Savile obituary" at guardian.co.uk". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 1 October 2012.
- Jimmy Savile Institutions Victims Abuse The Guardian, June, 2014
- Fielding, James (2014-04-12). "Documents reveal how pervert Jimmy Savile was called 'doctor' by staff". Retrieved 2016-08-16.
- Jimmy Savile: detailed investigation reveals reign of abuse across NHS June 2014 The Guardian
- The Earl of Dundee (7 November 1988). "Mentally Ill Offenders: Treatment". Hansard (Lords). HL Deb 7 November 1988 vol 501 c525. Retrieved 13 October 2012.
- "Edwina Currie - 'nothing to hide' on Savile". BBC News. 21 October 2012. Retrieved 21 October 2012.
- Evans, Martin (11 October 2012). "Sir Jimmy Savile: fourth British TV personality accused in sex allegations". The Telegraph. London. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
- Addley, Esther; O'Carroll, Lisa (12 October 2012). "Jimmy Savile scandal: government could face civil claims". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 13 October 2012.
- Donnelly, Laura (27 October 2012). "Jimmy Savile's relatives speak of their turmoil". The Telegraph. London. Retrieved 30 October 2012.
- John Pring. "Department of Health probes abuse law concerns over former civil servant". Disability News Service. Retrieved 27 September 2015.
- "Jimmy Savile scandal: Kate Lampard to lead NHS investigation". BBC News. BBC. 17 October 2012. Retrieved 17 October 2012.
- Davies, Caroline; Mason, Rowena (2014-06-27). "Jimmy Savile: detailed investigation reveals reign of abuse across NHS". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2016-08-16.
- Slevin, Jennie (2014-06-26). "Report reveals full extent of Jimmy Savile's sexual abuse at Broadmoor Hospital". Retrieved 2016-08-16.
- "Scale of Jimmy Savile's abuse at Broadmoor revealed". Bracknell News. Retrieved 2016-08-16.
- "Broadmoor women faced sex abuse". BBC. 2003-03-07. Retrieved 2016-08-16.
- "Care worker who assaulted Broadmoor man changes plea to guilty". Crown Prosecution Service.[dead link]
- "Broadmoor was a 'goldmine for stories' conspiracy trial of the Sun six told – Press Gazette". www.pressgazette.co.uk. Retrieved 2016-08-16.
- "Broadmoor nurse who sold stories about killers is jailed". BBC News. Retrieved 2016-08-16.
- Daily Times of Pakistan, Euro judges rule that terror suspect wanted in America CAN'T be deported from Britain to the U.S. because it would be bad for his mental health
- Facts related in non-fictional book Savage Grace by Natalie Robins and Steven M.L. Aronson [1985, ISBN 978-0-688-04373-5], and more recently in the Tom Kalin's film Savage Grace (2007)
- "Richard Dadd: Masterpieces of the asylum". independent.co.uk. 30 August 2011.
- "Broadmoor revealed in online book". 25 November 2011 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
- Daily Times of Pakistan, Terrorists planning chemical hit on European targets Archived 2 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine., 19 December 2002
- "BBC NEWS - UK - England - Devon - Failed bomber's recruiters hunted". BBC News. Retrieved 27 September 2015.
- The New York Times, 17 December 1897, p. 3
- Dell, Susanne; Graham Robertson (1988). Sentenced to hospital: offenders in Broadmoor. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-712156-X. OCLC 17546264. Dewey Class 365/.942294 19. Sum: authors describe the treatment of some Broadmoor patients and together with their psychiatric and criminal histories.
- Partridge, Ralph (1953). Broadmoor: A History of Criminal Lunacy and its Problems. London: Chato and Windus. OCLC 14663968.
- The Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health (2006).First steps to work – a study at Broadmoor Hospital (119KB). Accessed 2007-06-15
- Stevens, Mark (2011). Broadmoor Revealed: Victorian Crime and the Lunatic Asylum. Broadmoor Revealed. Accessed 2011-07-15
- Official website
- Berkshire Record Office's Broadmoor History pages Accessed 2011-04-18
- Fallon, Peter; Bluglass, Robert; Edwards, Brian; Daniels, Granville (January 1999) Report of the Committee of Inquiry into the Personality Disorder Unit, Ashworth Special Hospital. published by The Stationery Office. Accessed 2007-11-12
- Paddock centre. DSPD service. West London Mental Health Trust. Accessed 2007-05-15
- Home Office. National offenders management service. Dangerous People with Severe Personality Disorder Programme. Accessed 2007-06-07
- All in the mind (Wednesday 3 March 2004, 5.00 pm). BBC – Live chat:The rehabilitation of the mentally ill in Broadmoor and elsewhere. Accessed 2007-05-19
- BBC News background on Broadmoor Hospital
- Landscapes & Gardens (2002) Architectural listing for Broadmoor Hospital. University of York. Accessed 2007-05-19
- BBC News story on scandals and controversy regarding Broadmoor and other secure hospitals
- "NHS in England". Broadmoor Hospital Site Summary Information. Archived from the original on 27 April 2006. Retrieved 26 March 2006.
- Together-UK Independent Patients' Advocacy Service, for Broadmoor Hospital. Accessed 2007-06-15
- Fallon, Peter; Bluglass, Robert; Edwards, Brian; Daniels, Granville (January 1999) - overview of the History of the Hospitals in the context of the Ashworth Inquiry  Accessed June 2008