21-gun salute

A 21-gun salute is the most commonly recognized of the customary gun salutes that are performed by the firing of cannons or artillery as a military honor. As naval customs evolved, 21 guns came to be fired for heads of state, or in exceptional circumstances for heads of government, with the number decreasing with the rank of the recipient of the honor. While the 21-gun salute is the most commonly recognized, the number of rounds fired in any given salute will vary depending on the conditions. Circumstances affecting these variations include the particular occasion and, in the case of military and state funerals, the branch of service, and rank (or office) of the person to whom honors are being rendered.

The U.S. Navy Munitions Command, detachment Sewells Point, performs a 21-gun salute at Iowa Point in honor of former President Gerald R. Ford's death a few days prior.
U.S. Army howitzers render a 21-gun salute in honor of South African president Nelson Mandela during a state visit by him to the U.S. capital of Washington, D.C. in 1994. 21-gun salutes are often rendered in honor of prominent or important people, such as heads of state.

HistoryEdit

 
A Dutch man-of-war firing a salute. The Cannon Shot, painting by Willem van de Velde the Younger.

The custom stems from naval tradition in the sixteenth century, when a warship entering a foreign port would fire each of its cannons while still out of range of targets. Since cannons then required a considerable time to reload, the ship was effectively disarmed, signifying the lack of hostile intent.[1] In the earliest days, seven guns was the recognized British national salute because seven was the standard number of weapons on a vessel. In those days, gunpowder made from sodium nitrate was easier to keep on dry land than at sea. The early regulations stated that although a ship would fire only seven guns, the forts ashore would fire three shots to each one shot afloat, hence the number 21.[2]

Odd numbers were chosen, as even numbers indicated a death.[3]

By countryEdit

CanadaEdit

The prime minister, heads of foreign missions, foreign heads of government, and the Vice President of the United States are entitled to a 19 gun salute.[4]

A 17-gun salute is given to the Canadian Minister of National Defence when visiting a saluting station (limited to once a year), as well as foreign ministers of defence.[4]

Before they were abolished in 1968 by the Trudeau government, royal salutes were fired in Ottawa, the provincial capitals, and Montreal and Vancouver also on the Queen's Accession Day (6 February), the Queen's actual birthday (21 April), the Queen's Coronation Day (2 June), the Birthday of the Duke of Edinburgh (10 June), and the Birthday of Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother (4 August).[5]

DenmarkEdit

 
27-gun salute from Kronborg Castle to mark the 69th birthday of Queen Margrethe II

The day after the birth of Princess Benedikte in 1944 which took place during Nazi Germany's Occupation of Denmark, members of the Danish resistance group Holger Danske performed a salute of 21 bombs in the Ørstedsparken public park in central Copenhagen as a reference to the traditional 21-gun salute performed at the occasion of royal births.[6]

EgyptEdit

A 21 gun salute was used during the Parade of the pharaohs (Golden Parade) on April 3rd 2021. Most of the mummies belonged to the ancient New Kingdom, which ruled Egypt between 1539 BC to 1075 BC.[7] A 21 gun salute was used during the funeral of former Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak in February 2020.[8] A 21 gun salute was used after new Egyptian president Abdel Fattah el-Sisi sworn in on 8 June 2014.[9] A 21-gun salute was fired in the honor of King Farouk prior to embarking yacht Mahrousa that sailed to the king's exile in Italy in 1952. [10]

FranceEdit

 
75mm gun firing 21 shots near Les Invalides for the inauguration of François Hollande as President of the French Republic

The 21-gun is accorded to the French president, forming part of his "military honors" (honneurs militaires). The salute is given during the inauguration ceremony (by two 75mm guns) and during naval visits. These honors are extended to foreign heads of state when in State visit.

IndiaEdit

During the British Raj, India developed a formal hierarchical system of gun salutes. At the time of Indian independence in 1947, the hierarchy of salutes within British India stood as follows:[11]

Number of guns Recipients
101
(Imperial Salute)
  • The King-Emperor of India
31
(Royal Salute)
  • The Queen-Empress and the Members of the Royal Family
  • The Viceroy and Governor-General of India
21
  • Heads of state
  • Foreign sovereigns and members of their families
19
  • Heads of government
  • Governor-General of Portuguese India
  • Ambassadors
  • Commander-in-Chief, India (holding the rank of Field Marshal)
17
  • Governors of the Bombay, Madras and Bengal Presidencies
  • Governors of Indian Provinces
  • Governor of French India
  • Envoys Extraordinary and Ministers Plenipotentiary
  • Commander-in-Chief, India (holding the rank of General)
  • Admirals, Generals and Air Chief Marshals
15
  • Lieutenant-Governors of Indian Provinces
  • Plenipotentiaries and Envoys
  • Ministers Resident
  • Commander-in-Chief, East Indies Fleet
  • Flag Officer Commanding Royal Indian Navy (rank of Vice-Admiral)
  • Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Air Forces in India (rank of Air Marshal)
  • Army Commanders with the rank of Lieutenant-General
  • Vice-Admirals, Lieutenant-Generals and Air Marshals
13
  • Chief Commissioners of Indian Provinces
  • Residents (1st Class)
  • Residents (2nd Class)
  • Flag Officer Commanding Royal Indian Navy (rank of Rear-Admiral)
  • Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Air Forces in India (rank of Air Vice-Marshal)
  • Major Generals commanding Districts
  • Rear-Admirals, Major-Generals and Air Vice-Marshals
11
  • Political Agents
  • Consuls-General
  • Charges d'Affaires
  • Brigade Commanders (including Major-Generals if commanding a Brigade)
  • Commodores, Brigadiers and Air Commodores
9
  • Governor of Daman; Governor of Diu (Portuguese India)

Prior to Indian independence in 1947, the Viceroy of India received a unique viceregal salute of 31 guns. After 1947, the 31-gun salute was retained for honouring the Governor-General of India (1947–1950).[12]

IndonesiaEdit

 
The 17-gun saluting battery from the 7th Field Artillery Battalion of the Indonesian Army during the national Independence Day ceremony

In Indonesia, the 21-gun salute is done during the state visit of foreign heads of state visiting Indonesia.[13]

The modified 17-gun salute is executed during the commemoration of the precise seconds of the proclamation of the independence of Indonesia on the 17 of August[14] at 10:00 near the Merdeka Palace in Jakarta. It is also done in other cities in Indonesia during the independence day commemoration ceremonies. See the 17-gun salute in Indonesia here: Indonesian Independence Day 17-gun salute

IsraelEdit

In Israel the practice of gun salute has been eliminated due to the country having "suffered many terror attacks".[15]

SingaporeEdit

A 21-gun salute is carried out for National Day Parades in Singapore by the Singapore Artillery during the presidential inspection of parade contingents.[16]

In a rare occurrence, the 21-gun salute was given to the former Prime Minister and founding leader Lee Kuan Yew during his state funeral.[17][18]

Sri LankaEdit

Traditionally, the Sri Lanka Navy accords a 25-gun salute to the nation on the National day, which is 4 February each year. The salute is fired from the ceremonial naval gun battery at Colombo Lighthouse. It began with HMCyS Vijaya of the Royal Ceylon Navy, the first warship of the navy according a 25-gun salute on 4 February 1951 with its single 4-inch gun.[19]

United KingdomEdit

 
A 21-gun salute at a reception in Jersey commemorating the birthday of Queen Elizabeth II

The number of rounds fired in a salute depends on the place and occasion. The basic salute is 21 rounds. In Hyde Park and Green Park an extra 20 rounds are added because they are Royal Parks. At the Tower of London 62 rounds are fired on royal anniversaries (the basic 21, plus a further 20 because the Tower is a Royal Palace and Fortress, plus another 21 'for the City of London') and 41 on other occasions. The Tower of London probably holds the record for the most rounds fired in a single salute – 124 were fired when the late Duke of Edinburgh's birthday (62 rounds) coincided with the Saturday designated as the Queen's official birthday (also 62 rounds).[20]

 
Gun salute in progress at Hyde Park by the King's Troop, Royal Horse Artillery.
 
Salute at the Tower of London for the birthday of Prince Charles.

On 10 April 2021, a 41 gun salute was fired to mark the death of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, with the timing changed from 1 round every 10 seconds to 1 round every minute, resulting in a total duration of 41 minutes for the salute.[21]

 
Gun Salute in Gibraltar on the birth of Prince George of Cambridge

Authorized military saluting stations are:[22]

in England:

in Scotland:

in Wales:

in Northern Ireland:

Salutes are also fired in Gibraltar.[23]

United StatesEdit

The practice of firing one gun for each state in the union was not officially authorized until 1810, when the United States Department of War declared the number of rounds fired in the "National Salute" to be equivalent to the number of states—which, at the time was 17. The tradition continued until 1841 when it was reduced from 26 to 21.[24]

 
USS Constitution renders a 21-gun salute to Fort Independence during her Independence Day turnaround cruise

In 1842, the United States declared the 21-gun salute as its "Presidential Salute". While the "National Salute" had been formally established as the 21-gun salute, the current tradition holds the salute on Independence Day to be a 50 rounds—one round for each state in the union. This 'Salute to the Nation' is fired at noon on 4 July, on U.S. military installations. The U.S. Navy recognizes Presidents' Day and Memorial Day with a 21-gun salute at 1200.[25]

In April 1914, during the Mexican Revolution, the Tampico Affair occurred, and escalated as a result of a twenty-one gun salute (or more specifically, the lack of one). Nine unarmed U.S. sailors were arrested in Tampico, Tamaulipas, Mexico, for entering an off-limit area at a fuel loading station. Despite being released, the U.S. Naval commander demanded an apology and a twenty-one gun salute. The apology was provided, but not the salute, giving President Woodrow Wilson reason to order the U.S. occupation of the port of Veracruz.[26]

The gun salutes fired in the United States are as follows:[27]

Number of guns Recipients
21
19
17
15
13 Minister Resident; Rear Admiral (RADM), Major General
11
7 Consuls accredited to the U.S. Vice-consuls when in charge of a consulate.
5 Vice-consuls and consular agents.

Deaths of presidentsEdit

A U.S. presidential death also involves 21-gun salutes and other military traditions. On the day after the death of the president, a former president or president-elect—unless this day falls on a Sunday or holiday, in which case the honor will be rendered the following day—the commanders of Army installations with the necessary personnel and material traditionally order that one gun be fired every half-hour, beginning at reveille and ending at retreat.

On the day of burial, a 21-minute gun salute traditionally is fired starting at noon at all military installations with the necessary personnel and material. Guns will be fired at one-minute intervals. Also on the day of burial, those installations will fire a 50-gun salute—one round for each state—at five-second intervals immediately following lowering of the flag.

MediaEdit

Cultural referencesEdit

The title of the Green Day song "21 Guns" is a reference to a 21-gun salute.

In the song "For Those About to Rock (We Salute You)" by AC/DC, 21-gun salutes are mentioned, including the use of Napoleonic cannons.

In the animated tv-series Archer, his fictional father "Blackjack" is given a 21-gun salute by a group of ROTC students who were donated $600 by Malory Archer his mother.

The song "Move Now" by Nonpoint also includes a reference.

In the film Chitty Chitty Bang Bang, when the Grandfather sings "Posh" whilst dangling from a hot air balloon, there is a line "they 21 gun salute me".

Boston-based Celtic punk band Dropkick Murphys recorded the song "21 Guitar Salute" (originally by The Press) on their 2002 split EP Face to Face vs. Dropkick Murphys.

The 21-gun salute are also mentioned in the song "Methods to your Madness" by heavy metal band Metal Church.

Another mention is in the Clutch song "The Mob Goes Wild".

British grime artist Stormzy included a song titled "21 Gun Salute" on his debut album Gang Signs & Prayer.

The 2000 U.S. Open Golf Championship, held at the famed Pebble Beach Golf Links, saw a unique twist on the 21-gun salute. The tournament's defending champion, Payne Stewart, had died in a plane crash the previous October. Before the tournament began, a ceremony was held in Stewart's memory in which 21 golfers lined up on the 18th fairway and hit drives into the Pacific Ocean.[28]

in the C. S. Forester novel The Happy Return, the megalomaniacal rebel leader El Supremeo demands to be honoured with a 23-gun salute. When informed that even a king only receives a 21-gun salute, he declares such is why he deserves a greater one.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Gun Salutes
  2. ^ "Origin of the 21-Gun Salute".
  3. ^ "Maritime Gun Salutes". Archived from the original on 6 September 2014. Retrieved 28 September 2014.
  4. ^ a b "The Honours, Flags and Heritage Structure of the Canadian Forces" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 March 2009. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
  5. ^ Toporoski, Richard. "Royal Birthday Salute". Canadian Royal Heritage Trust. Archived from the original on 15 May 2015. Retrieved 18 May 2015.
  6. ^ Peter Øvig Knudsen: Efter drabet (s. 191), forlaget Press, Oslo 2003, ISBN 82-7547-119-2
  7. ^ "Egypt's royal mummies are on the move, and it's not their first road trip". History. 2 April 2021.
  8. ^ Walsh, Declan (26 February 2020). "Mubarak's Three-Decade Rule Is Brushed Aside in War-Hero Burial". The New York Times.
  9. ^ "New Egypt president sworn in, calls for stability". www.cbsnews.com.
  10. ^ Bowker, Bob. "Egypt's Revolution and the Lessons for Today".
  11. ^ The India Office and Burma Office List: 1945. Harrison & Sons, Ltd. 1945. pp. 44–45.
  12. ^ "Swearing-in Ceremony of President-Elect and Ministers" (PDF). Archive – Press Information Bureau of India.
  13. ^ "Aquino welcomed with 21-gun salute in Indonesia", Philip C. Tubeza, Inquirer.net, 8 March 2011, retrieved 13 June 2017
  14. ^ "17 Cannon Shots by the Indonesian Army Accompanied the seconds of Proclamation". Pos Kota (in Indonesian). poskotanews.com. 17 August 2016. Retrieved 13 June 2017.[permanent dead link]
  15. ^ "Presidential Ceremonies and Protocol". President of Israel. State of Israel. Archived from the original on 19 December 2009. Retrieved 19 October 2019.
  16. ^ "The National Day Parade Through The Years, 1966-2012". Singapore National Archives. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  17. ^ "The State Funeral Procession and Funeral Service for the late Mr Lee Kuan Yew" (PDF) (Press release). Government of Singapore. 27 March 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 April 2015. Retrieved 10 April 2015.
  18. ^ "21-gun salute to bid Mr Lee Kuan Yew farewell on Sunday: Ng Eng Hen". Channel News Asia. Archived from the original on 28 March 2015. Retrieved 27 March 2015.
  19. ^ Gun salutes by the Sri Lanka Navy
  20. ^ "Gun Salutes". royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 17 March 2015. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
  21. ^ "'We're heartbroken': mourners pay respects to Prince Philip as gun salutes mark his death". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 April 2021.
  22. ^ "Queen's Regulations for the Army" (PDF). QR Army July 2013, paragraph 8.062. Retrieved 14 June 2016.
  23. ^ www.mod.uk Archived 13 November 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  24. ^ Kaur, Harmeet (19 January 2021). "Trump reportedly wants a 21-gun salute for his departure. The military honor has a fascinating history". CNN.
  25. ^ http://navyadvancement.tpub.com/14325/css/Gun-Salutes-254.htm
  26. ^ "The Border – 1914 The Tampico Affair and the Speech from Woodrow Wilson". PBS. Retrieved 27 November 2014.
  27. ^ "Cannon or Gun Salute". Sizes.com. 29 August 2012. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
  28. ^ "Payne Stewart honored with 21-ball salute". Sportsillustrated.cnn.com. 14 June 2000. Retrieved 12 February 2014.

External linksEdit