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Kings Cross and St Pancras stations. North London’s emergence owed much to the arrival of the railway

North London is an informally and inexactly defined part of London, England, which covers some of the area of the capital lying north of the River Thames. It extends from Clerkenwell and Finsbury on the edge of the City of London financial district, to Greater London's boundary with Hertfordshire.

The term north London is used to differentiate the area from South London, East London and West London. Some parts of north London are also part of Central London. There is a northern postal area but this includes some areas not normally described as part of north London, while excluding many others that are.

DevelopmentEdit

The growth of London beyond its Roman northern gates was slower than in other directions, in part because of the marshy ground north of the wall, and in part because the roads through those gates were less well connected than elsewhere. The parishes that would become north London, were almost entirely rural until the mid-Victorian period.

From the mid-19th century, the development of the railway network facilitated accelerating urbanisation, promoting economic growth in the capital and allowing for the development of commuter suburbs.

This trend continued in the twentieth century and was subsequently reinforced by motorcar-based commuting until the establishment of the Metropolitan Green Belt, shortly after the Second World War, prevented London from expanding any further.

Formal UsesEdit

Planning Policy Sub-regionEdit

 
The current (post-2011) sub-regions

The 2011 iteration of the London Plan[1] included an altered 'North' sub-region, to be used for planning, engagement, resource allocation and progress reporting purposes. It consists of the London Boroughs of Barnet, Haringey and Enfield. The 2004-2008 and 2008-2011 versions of the London Plan sub-regions varied in their composition.

North Thames: Boundary Commission reportEdit

In 2017 the government asked the Boundary Commission for England to reconsider the boundaries of parliamentary constituencies. The Commission's approach was to start with existing regions of England (in this case London) and then group the local authorities within that area into sub-regions for further sub-division.

The North Thames sub-region includes all parts of London lying north of the river; the 19 boroughs which lie wholly north of the river, plus parts of cross-river Richmond upon Thames.[2]

An earlier 2013 study, whose recommendations were not adopted, took a different approach by assigning all of Richmond to the south.[3] This list includes all boroughs included in the North Thames area:

London borough Postcode areas 2011 sub-region London Assembly[4]
  Barking and Dagenham IG, RM, E East City and East
  Barnet EN, HA, N, NW North Barnet and Camden
  Brent HA, NW, W West Brent and Harrow
  Camden EC, WC, N, NW Central Barnet and Camden
  Ealing UB, W, NW West Ealing and Hillingdon
  Enfield EN, N, E North Enfield and Haringey
  Hackney E, EC, N East North East
  Hammersmith Fulham SW, W, NW West West Central
  Haringey N North Enfield and Haringey
  Harrow HA, UB, NW West Brent and Harrow
  Havering RM, CM East Havering and Redbridge
  Hillingdon HA, TW, UB, WD West Ealing and Hillingdon
  Hounslow TW, W, UB West West
  Islington EC, WC, N Central North East
  Kensington and Chelsea W, SW Central West Central
  Newham E, IG East City and East
  Redbridge E, IG, RM East Havering and Redbridge
  Waltham Forest E, IG East North East
  Westminster NW, SW, W Central West Central

ClimateEdit

North London has, like other parts of London and the UK in general, a temperate maritime climate according to the Köppen climate classification system. Long term climate observations dating back to 1910 are available for Hampstead, which also the most elevated Weather Station in the London area, at 137m. This both hilltop and urban position means severe frosts are rare.

Temperatures increase towards the Thames, firstly because of the urban warming effect of the surrounding area, but secondly due to altitude decreasing towards the river, meaning some of the hillier northern margins of North London are often a degree or so cooler than those areas adjacent to the Thames. Occasionally snow can be seen to lie towards the Chilterns while central London is snow-free.

Typically the warmest day of the year at Hampstead will average 29.3 °C (84.7 °F)[5] with around 14 days[6] in total achieving a value of 25.1 °C (77.2 °F) or higher.

The average coldest night should fall to −5.6 °C (21.9 °F).[7] On average 35.8 nights[8] will report an air frost, some 119 days[9] of the year will register at least 1mm of precipitation, and on 7.4 days[10] a cover of snow will be observed. All annual averages refer to the observation period 1971–2000.

Climate data for Hampstead 137m asl 1971–2000
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 15.7
(60.3)
18.3
(64.9)
23.1
(73.6)
26.6
(79.9)
29.8
(85.6)
33.7
(92.7)
34.4
(93.9)
37.4
(99.3)
29.4
(84.9)
28.3
(82.9)
17.9
(64.2)
15.3
(59.5)
37.4
(99.3)
Average high °C (°F) 6.8
(44.2)
7.3
(45.1)
10.1
(50.2)
12.6
(54.7)
16.4
(61.5)
19.2
(66.6)
22.0
(71.6)
21.6
(70.9)
18.2
(64.8)
14.1
(57.4)
9.7
(49.5)
7.7
(45.9)
13.8
(56.8)
Average low °C (°F) 1.6
(34.9)
1.4
(34.5)
3.1
(37.6)
4.3
(39.7)
7.4
(45.3)
10.4
(50.7)
12.8
(55.0)
12.8
(55.0)
10.6
(51.1)
7.5
(45.5)
4.0
(39.2)
2.5
(36.5)
6.5
(43.8)
Record low °C (°F) −10.8
(12.6)
−12.2
(10.0)
−6.9
(19.6)
−3.2
(26.2)
−0.6
(30.9)
1.8
(35.2)
5.6
(42.1)
4.7
(40.5)
2.4
(36.3)
−2.4
(27.7)
−5.8
(21.6)
−8.4
(16.9)
−12.2
(10.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 64.72
(2.55)
39.91
(1.57)
52.71
(2.08)
53.53
(2.11)
59.48
(2.34)
58.07
(2.29)
44.11
(1.74)
59.66
(2.35)
63.38
(2.50)
71.43
(2.81)
60.26
(2.37)
64.29
(2.53)
691.55
(27.24)
Source: Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute[11]

Associated organisationsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ London City Hall. "Policy 2.5 Sub-regions"..
  2. ^ Boundary Commission review 2017–18, see page 62 and elsewhere https://boundarycommissionforengland.independent.gov.uk/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/Final-recommendations-report.pdf
  3. ^ Boundary Commission for England, London – London 2011 amendment
  4. ^ London Assembly – London Assembly Constituency Information Archived 17 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 22 February 2008.
  5. ^ "71-00 Mean Warmest Day". KNMI.
  6. ^ "71-00 >25c days". KNMI.
  7. ^ "71-00 Mean Coldest night". KNMI.
  8. ^ "71-00 Mean Frost Incidence". KNMI.
  9. ^ "71-00 Mean Wetdays Incidence". KNMI.
  10. ^ "Raw Snow Data". weather-uk.
  11. ^ "Hampstead 1971–2000". Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute. Retrieved 23 September 2011.

External linksEdit