London Borough of Camden

The London Borough of Camden (/ˈkæmdən/)[2] is a borough in Northwest London, and historically a part of Middlesex. Camden Town Hall, on Euston Road, lies 1.4 mi (2.3 km) north of Charing Cross.

London Borough of Camden
Official logo of London Borough of Camden
Council logo
Camden shown within Greater London
Camden shown within Greater London
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Constituent countryEngland
RegionLondon
Ceremonial countyGreater London
Created1 April 1965
Admin HQTown Hall, Judd Street, St Pancras, London
Government
 • TypeLondon borough council
 • BodyCamden London Borough Council
 • LeadershipLeader & Cabinet (Labour)
 • MayorCouncillor Maryam Eslamdoust
 • London AssemblyAndrew Dismore (Lab) AM for Barnet and Camden
 • MPs
Area
 • Total8.4 sq mi (21.8 km2)
Area rank308th (of 317)
Population
 (mid-2019 est.)
 • Total270,029
 • Rank57th (of 317)
 • Density32,000/sq mi (12,000/km2)
 • Ethnicity[1]
Time zoneUTC (GMT)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+1 (BST)
Postcodes
EC, N, NW, W, WC
Area code(s)020
ONS code00AG
GSS codeE09000007
PoliceMetropolitan Police
Websitewww.camden.gov.uk

Most of the borough is seen as part of Northwest London, but the borough’s southern (more central) areas of Bloomsbury[3][4] and Holborn are sometimes described as part of the West End of London.[5] The local authority is Camden London Borough Council.[6]

HistoryEdit

The borough was created in 1965 from the former area of the metropolitan boroughs of Hampstead, Holborn, and St Pancras, which had formed part of the County of London.[7] The borough was named after Camden Town, which had gained its name from Charles Pratt, 1st Earl Camden in 1795.[8] The transcribed diaries of William Copeland Astbury, recently made available, describe Camden and the surrounding areas in great detail from 1829–1848. Sir Jan inspired many of his art works in this area.[9]

 
Former Camden Town market (2011); was demolished in early 2015 to make room for the Hawley Wharf redevelopment project.

There are 162 English Heritage blue plaques[10] in the borough of Camden representing the many diverse personalities that have lived there.[11]

Districts and environsEdit

The borough was formed in 1965 from the merger of the metropolitan boroughs of St Pancras, Hampstead and Holborn. The first two of these had their origins in medieval Ancient Parishes of the same name, while Holborn was formed by a union of much smaller units.

The southern part of the borough is in the Central Activities Zone including Holborn, Bloomsbury and King's Cross. The northern part of the borough includes the less densely developed areas of Hampstead, Hampstead Heath and Kentish Town. Neighbouring boroughs are the City of Westminster and the City of London to the south, Brent to the west of the originally Roman Watling Street (now the A5 Road), Barnet and Haringey to the north and Islington to the east. It covers all or part of the N1, N6, N7, N19, NW1, NW2, NW3, NW5, NW6, NW8, EC1, WC1, WC2, W1 and W9 postcode areas.

PoliticsEdit

Camden London Borough CouncilEdit

 
A map showing the wards of Camden since 2002

Camden Town Hall is located in Judd Street in St Pancras. Camden London Borough Council was controlled by the Labour Party continuously from 1971 until the 2006 election, when the Liberal Democrats became the largest party. In 2006, two Green Cllrs, Maya de Souza and Adrian Oliver, were elected (to Highgate Ward) and were the first Green Party councillors in Camden. In 1985 when the borough was rate-capped, the Labour leadership joined the rebellion in which it declared its inability to set a budget in an unsuccessful attempt to force the Government to allow higher spending. Camden was the fourth to last council to drop out of the campaign, doing so in the early hours of 6 June.

Borough councillors are elected every four years. Since May 2002 the electoral wards in Camden are Belsize, Bloomsbury, Camden Town with Primrose Hill, Cantelowes, Fortune Green, Frognal and Fitzjohns, Gospel Oak, Hampstead Town, Haverstock, Highgate, Holborn and Covent Garden, Kentish Town, Kilburn, King's Cross, Regent's Park, St Pancras and Somers Town, Swiss Cottage and West Hampstead.

Between 2006 and 2010 Labour lost two seats to the Liberal Democrats through by-elections, in Kentish Town and Haverstock wards. A Labour Councillor in Haverstock ward also defected to the Liberal Democrats in February 2009. The Conservatives also lost two seats, one to the Liberal Democrats in Hampstead, and one to the Green Party, Alexander Goodman, in Highgate, taking the total number of Green Party Councillors to three. At the local elections on 6 May 2010 the Labour party regained full control of Camden council.

The organisation's staff are led by the Chief Executive who is currently Mike Cooke. The organisation is divided into five directorates:

  • Housing and Adult Social Care
  • Children, Schools and Families
  • Culture & Environment
  • Central Services:
    • Finance
    • Legal
    • Strategy and Organisation Development
  • Chief Executives Department

The directorates are headed by a director who reports directly to the Chief Executive. Each directorate is divided into a number of divisions headed by an assistant director. They, in turn, are divided into groups which are themselves divided into services. This is a similar model to most local government in London.

London AssemblyEdit

Camden forms part of the Barnet and Camden London Assembly constituency, represented by Andrew Dismore of the Labour Party

UK ParliamentEdit

There are two parliamentary constituencies covering Camden: Hampstead and Kilburn in the north, represented by Labour's Tulip Siddiq, and Holborn and St. Pancras in the south, represented by Keir Starmer, the leader of the Labour Party.[12]

DemographicsEdit

Population
YearPop.±%
1801 96,795—    
1811 124,741+28.9%
1821 158,077+26.7%
1831 192,228+21.6%
1841 228,950+19.1%
1851 270,197+18.0%
1861 301,408+11.6%
1871 332,619+10.4%
1881 363,830+9.4%
1891 376,500+3.5%
1901 362,581−3.7%
1911 349,184−3.7%
1921 335,408−3.9%
1931 322,212−3.9%
1941 286,956−10.9%
1951 255,558−10.9%
1961 231,143−9.6%
1971 209,097−9.5%
1981 161,100−23.0%
1991 181,489+12.7%
2001 198,027+9.1%
2011 220,338+11.3%
Source: A Vision of Britain through time

In 1801, the civil parishes that form the modern borough were already developed and had a total population of 96,795. This continued to rise swiftly throughout the 19th century as the district became built up, reaching 270,197 in the middle of the century. When the railways arrived the rate of population growth slowed, for while many people were drawn in by new employment, others were made homeless by the new central London termini and construction of lines through the district. The population peaked at 376,500 in the 1890s, after which official efforts began to clear the overcrowded slums around St Pancras and Holborn.

After World War II, further suburban public housing was built to rehouse the many Londoners made homeless in the Blitz, and there was an exodus from London towards the new towns under the Abercrombie Plan for London (1944). As industry declined during the 1970s the population continued to decline, falling to 161,100 at the start of the 1980s. It has now begun to rise again with new housing developments on brownfield sites and the release of railway and gas work lands around Kings Cross. A 2017 study found that the eviction rate of 6 per 1,000 renting households in Camden is the lowest rate in London.[13]

The 2001 census gave Camden a population of 198,000, an undercount that was later revised to 202,600.[14] The projected 2006 figure is 227,500.

On 20 May 1999, the Camden New Journal newspaper documented 'Two Camdens' syndrome as a high-profile phenomenon differentiating the characteristics of education services in its constituencies. In 2006, Dame Julia Neuberger's book reported similar variation as a characteristic of Camden's children's health services. Her insider's view was corroboration – in addition to the 2001 "Inequalities" report by Director of Public Health Dr. Maggie Barker of "stark contrasts in" health and education opportunities – of earlier similar Audit Commission findings and a verification/update of the 1999 CNJ report.[15]

The following table shows the ethnic group of respondents in the 2001 and 2011 census in Camden.

EthnicityEdit

Ethnic Group 2001[16] 2011[17]
Number % Number %
White: British 104,390 52.72% 96,937 43.99%
White: Irish 9,149 4.62% 7,053 3.20%
White: Gypsy or Irish Traveller 167 0.08%
White: Other 31,357 15.84% 41,898 19.02%
White: Total 144,896 73.17% 146,055 66.29%
Asian or Asian British: Indian 4,574 2.31% 6,083 2.76%
Asian or Asian British: Pakistani 1,250 0.63% 1,489 0.68%
Asian or Asian British: Bangladeshi 12,569 6.35% 12,503 5.67%
Asian or Asian British: Chinese 3,470 1.75% 6,493 2.95%
Asian or Asian British: Other Asian 2,158 1.09% 8,878 4.03%
Asian or Asian British: Total 24,021 12.13% 35,446 16.09%
Black or Black British: African 11,795 5.96% 10,802 4.90%
Black or Black British: Caribbean 3,635 1.84% 3,496 1.59%
Black or Black British: Other Black 944 0.48% 3,762 1.71%
Black or Black British: Total 16,374 8.27% 18,060 8.20%
Mixed: White and Black Caribbean 1,654 0.84% 2,494 1.13%
Mixed: White and Black African 1,224 0.62% 1,800 0.82%
Mixed: White and Asian 1,983 1.00% 3,880 1.76%
Mixed: Other Mixed 2,568 1.30% 4,148 1.88%
Mixed: Total 7,429 3.75% 12,322 5.59%
Other: Arab 3,432 1.56%
Other: Any other ethnic group 5,023 2.28%
Other: Total 5,300 2.68% 8,455 3.84%
Black, Asian, and minority ethnic: Total 53,124 26.83% 74,283 33.71%
Total 198,020 100.00% 220,338 100.00%

Major public or private bodiesEdit

EconomyEdit

 
Santander UK head office

Santander UK has its head office in the borough.[18][19] Atlantic Books has its headquarters in the borough.[20] Previously Forte Group had its head office in the borough.[21]

Camden has the seventh largest economy in the UK.[22]

AttractionsEdit

See also Camden parks and open spaces

British Museum British Library

EducationEdit

The London Borough of Camden is the local education authority for the borough, organised through the Children, Schools and Families directorate.

TransportEdit

 
View of the railway bridge over Camden High St. which carries the North London Line
 
St Pancras International – home to Eurostar trains
 
King's Cross St Pancras tube station served by the most tube lines on the network

There are no motorways in the borough, and few stretches of dual carriageway road, but the borough has great strategic transport significance to London, due to presence of three of the capital's most important rail termini, which are lined up along the Euston Road.

RailEdit

National RailEdit

Three of the fourteen central London's railway terminals are located in the borough. Euston, St Pancras and Kings Cross are the London termini for the West Coast, Midland and East Coast Main Lines and also High Speed 1. This connects the borough with the East of England, East Midlands, West Midlands, North East & West England, North Wales, Scotland, South East England, France, Belgium and the Netherlands.

Since 14 November 2007 when St Pancras International became the new terminus of Eurostar, a major regeneration of the area has occurred with the King's Cross Central development happening behind the station.

London Overground's North London Line services run through the borough serving Camden Road, Kentish Town West, Gospel Oak, Hampstead Heath, Finchley Road & Frognal and West Hampstead. London Overground also operates the Watford DC Line services from Euston serving South Hampstead, trains continue to Watford in Hertfordshire.

Thameslink route services serve St Pancras, Kentish Town and West Hampstead Thameslink stations. Currently the Thameslink network is undergoing a major expansion project called the Thameslink Programme. This will link more places in Southern England to the borough and to the East of England. While some services on the Great Northern network, which currently terminate at King's Cross will be diverted onto the Thameslink network, all work is due to be complete by 2016.[23]

UndergroundEdit

The three major rail termini are served by two underground stations, Euston and the combined King's Cross St Pancras station. Between them, the termini are served by the Circle, Hammersmith & City, Metropolitan, Northern, Piccadilly and Victoria lines. The Central and Jubilee lines serve other parts of the borough, as will the new Elizabeth Line, when opened.

As well as the two major termini stations, the borough's other stations are: Euston Square, Warren Street, Goodge Street, Tottenham Court Road, Holborn, Russell Square, Chancery Lane, Mornington Crescent, Camden Town, Chalk Farm, Belsize Park, Hampstead, West Hampstead, Finchley Road, Swiss Cottage and Kentish Town.

FutureEdit

The proposed High Speed 2 railway line to northern England is intended to terminate at Euston Station.[24] The proposed Crossrail 2 line, (originally referred to as the Chelsea-Hackney line) would serve Euston and Tottenham Court Road underground stations. The increase in passengers at Euston as a result of the proposed High Speed 2 services is a major driver of the proposals.[25]

The formerly proposed Cross River Tram was going to start in the borough of Camden but was scrapped by the Mayor of London in 2008.[26]

BusesEdit

All bus services are operated by Transport for London. Buses serve every suburb in the borough.

StatisticsEdit

The 2011 census found that the main forms of transport that residents used to travel to work were: underground, metro, light rail, tram, 21.5% of all residents aged 16–74; on foot, 9.2%; bus, minibus or coach, 9.2%; driving a car or van, 6.3%; work mainly at or from home, 5.2%; train, 4.1%; bicycle, 4.1%.[27]

The census also found that 61% of households had no car, 32% had one car and 7% of households had 2 or more cars. There were an estimated 46,000 cars belonging to Camden residents."Camden Borough Profile" (PDF).

Speed limitEdit

From 16 December 2013, Camden Council introduced a borough-wide speed limit of 20 miles per hour (32 km/h), except on Transport for London red routes.[28][29] This is to make roads safer for cyclists and pedestrians.

PoliceEdit

Camden is policed by the Metropolitan Police Service. There are two police stations across the borough, situated at Holborn and Kentish Town. There are various other contact points around the borough including West Hampstead, Greenland Road, Highgate Road, Station House (Swiss Cottage), West End Lane, Old Hampstead Town Hall and Kingsway College. All locations have varying opening hours with Kentish Town Police Station open to the public on a 24-hour basis.

Hampstead Heath, situated within the London Borough of Camden and managed by the City of London Corporation, has its own Constabulary who deal with everyday incidents on the Heath, however, all serious criminal offences are passed to the Metropolitan Police to investigate.

With a large London Underground network and major railway stations such as King's Cross, St Pancras and Euston, Camden also has a much larger presence of British Transport Police (BTP) than many other London boroughs. BTP are responsible for policing Great Britain's railway network.

London Fire BrigadeEdit

The area has four fire stations: Belsize, Euston, Kentish Town and West Hampstead) and they are operated by London Fire Brigade in the borough of Camden. None of these fire stations are home to any specialist units; only pumping appliances and a rescue tender.[30][31]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 2011 Census: Ethnic group, local authorities in England and Wales, Office for National Statistics (2012). See Classification of ethnicity in the United Kingdom for the full descriptions used in the 2011 Census.
  2. ^ https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/camden?q=Camden
  3. ^ Atkins, Peter J. "How the West End was won: the struggle to remove street barriers in Victorian London." Journal of Historical Geography 19.3 (1993): 265.
  4. ^ How the West End was won: the struggle to remove street barriers in Victorian London. Atkins, P J. Journal of Historical Geography; London Vol. 19, Iss. 3, (Jul 1, 1993): 265.
  5. ^ https://www3.camden.gov.uk/westendproject/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/Project-Overview-for-website-1.pdf LBC website describing improvements in a part of the borough they refer to as 'West End'
  6. ^ "Camden Council: About the Council". www.camden.gov.uk. Retrieved 28 July 2010.
  7. ^ Vision of Britain – Camden LB Archived 27 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ Mills, A., Oxford Dictionary of London Place Names, (2001)
  9. ^ https://www.facebook.com/pages/William-Copeland-Astbury/133515880158978?fref=ts
  10. ^ https://www.london.gov.uk/in-my-area/camden Camden
  11. ^ "Search Blue Plaques". Blue plaques search – Camden. English Heritage. Retrieved 7 March 2018.
  12. ^ Article reporting Keir Starmer's victory in the Labour party leadership contest. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-52164589
  13. ^ "London's Poverty Profile". Trust for London. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
  14. ^ Camden Council – Camden Key Facts 2001–2016[permanent dead link]
  15. ^ see the DFES Children Act report (2000); The Health Divide by Voluntary Action Camden; Health Inequalities in Camden Dr. Maggie Barker, a public Health Report; "Seen But Not Heard" an Audit Commission report based on research carried out mainly in Camden; and The Moral State We're In by Dame Julia Neuberger, former chair of Camden Community Health Services NHS Trust, et al.
  16. ^ "KS006 - Ethnic group". NOMIS. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
  17. ^ "Ethnic Group by measures". NOMIS. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
  18. ^ "Ward Map." London Borough of Camden. Retrieved on 28 May 2014.
  19. ^ "Registered Office details" (Archive). Santander UK. Retrieved on 28 May 2014. "Santander UK plc. Registered Office: 2 Triton Square, Regent’s Place, London NW1 3AN. United Kingdom"
  20. ^ "Contact Us Archived 14 January 2013 at Archive.today." Atlantic Books. Retrieved on 9 November 2012. "Atlantic Books, Ormond House, 26–27 Boswell Street, London, WC1N 3JZ"
  21. ^ "Contact Information." Forte Group. Retrieved on 2 August 2001. "166 High Holborn London WC1V 6TT United Kingdom"
  22. ^ https://www.london.gov.uk/in-my-area/camden Camden
  23. ^ Thameslink Programme: About the project Archived 5 May 2010 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 27 July 2010
  24. ^ Overview of changes at Euston station https://www.hs2.org.uk/stations/london-euston/
  25. ^ FT article includes HS2 emphasising the importance of CR2 to their plans https://www.ft.com/content/b4af0eea-9ee3-11e7-9a86-4d5a475ba4c5
  26. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/london/7712002.stm
  27. ^ "2011 Census: QS701EW Method of travel to work, local authorities in England and Wales". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 23 November 2013. Percentages are of all residents aged 16–74 including those not in employment. Respondents could only pick one mode, specified as the journey’s longest part by distance.
  28. ^ "20mph speed limit in Camden – Camden Council". Camden Council. Archived from the original on 30 December 2013. Retrieved 30 December 2013.
  29. ^ "Speed limits – Camden Council". Camden Council. Retrieved 30 December 2013.
  30. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 October 2008. Retrieved 9 July 2008.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) London Fire Brigade – Camden Profile
  31. ^ London Fire Brigade – Camden Profile Archived 3 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine

External linksEdit

Coordinates: 51°32′N 0°10′W / 51.533°N 0.167°W / 51.533; -0.167