The M25 or London Orbital Motorway is a 117 miles (188 km) long motorway, encircling almost all of Greater London, England. It is one of the most important roads in Britain, one of the busiest, and upon opening was the longest orbital road in Europe. The route does not include the Dartford Crossing, which is a short section open to some non-motorway traffic.
|London Orbital Motorway|
Junction 13 looking south
|Part of and|
|Maintained by Highways England|
|Length||117 mi (188 km)|
|Orbital around London (in conjunction with the A282)|
|South end||Darenth (Dartford Crossing southern approach)|
J3 → M20 motorway
J5 → M26 motorway
J7 → M23 motorway
J12 → M3 motorway
J15 → M4 motorway
J16 → M40 motorway
J21 → M1 motorway
J23 → A1(M) motorway
J27 → M11 motorway
|North end||Aveley (Dartford Crossing northern approach)|
|Counties||Kent, Surrey, Berkshire, Greater London, Buckinghamshire, Hertfordshire, Essex|
There had been plans to build an orbital or ring road around London since the early 20th century. A concept to build a series of ring roads around the capital was first proposed by Patrick Abercrombie in the 1944 Greater London Plan, which evolved into the London Ringways project in the early 1960s. What became the M25 was originally part of two separate projects, Ringway 3 in the north and Ringway 4 in south. Planning for the two separate ringways began around 1966, but by the time the first sections had opened in 1975, it was announced that the work would be combined into a single orbital motorway. The M25 was one of the first motorways to be constructed with environmental concerns in mind, and the project had almost 40 individual public inquiries. Although all parts of the road were built as planned, some of the proposals drew protest, including the section over the North Downs, and around Epping Forest which required the construction of Bell Common Tunnel. The final section was opened by the Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher in 1986.
Although public and government opinion of the M25 was generally positive during construction and up to opening, it quickly came apparent that the motorway had insufficient capacity to cope with the traffic. As a consequence of the public inquiries, a significant number of junctions were built to serve local roads, and new office and retail development appeared near these. This combined into attracting more traffic onto the M25 than designed, which has been a regular point of criticism. Since opening, it has been progressively widened, particularly in the stretch near Heathrow Airport, and is still frequently congested. Various management schemes, including variable speed limits and upgrades to smart motorway have been put in place to tackle this.
The M25 roughly performs a complete circuit of Greater London. The motorway passes through five counties. Junctions 1A–5 are in Kent, 6–14 are in Surrey, 15–16 are in Buckinghamshire, 17–25 are in Hertfordshire, and 26–31 are in Essex. Policing of the road is carried out by an integrated group made up of the Metropolitan, Thames Valley, Essex, Kent, Hertfordshire and Surrey forces. Primary destinations signed ahead on the motorway include the Dartford Crossing, Sevenoaks, Gatwick Airport, Heathrow Airport, Watford, Stansted Airport and Brentwood.
To the east of London the two ends of the M25 are joined to complete a loop by the non-motorway A282 Dartford Crossing of the River Thames between Thurrock and Dartford. The crossing consists of twin two-lane tunnels and the four-lane QE2 (Queen Elizabeth II) bridge. with a main span of 450 metres (1,480 ft). Passage across the bridge or through the tunnels is subject to a congestion charge, its level depending on the kind of vehicle. This stretch is not under motorway regulations which allows other traffic to cross the River Thames east of the Woolwich Ferry;[a] the only crossing further to the east is a passenger ferry between Gravesend, in Kent, and Tilbury, in Essex.
At Junction 5, the clockwise carriageway of the M25 is routed off the main north–south dual carriageway onto the main east–west dual carriageway with the main north–south carriageway becoming the A21. In the opposite direction, to the east of the point where the M25 diverges from the main east–west carriageway, that carriageway becomes the M26 motorway.
The radial distance from London (taken as Charing Cross) varies from 12.5 miles (20.1 km) in Potters Bar to 19.5 miles (31.4 km) in Byfleet. Three Greater London boroughs (Enfield, Hillingdon and Havering) have realigned their boundaries to the M25 for minor stretches; while in others, such as Essex and Surrey, the radial gap between Greater London and the motorway reaches 7.8 miles (12.6 km), neither of which coincide with the Metropolitan Green Belt. Major towns listed as destinations (right), in various counties, adjoin the M25. North Ockendon is the only settlement of Greater London situated outside the M25. In 2004, following an opinion poll, the London Assembly mooted for consultation alignment of the Greater London boundary with the M25.[b] "Inside the M25" and "outside/beyond the M25" are colloquial, looser alternatives to "Greater London" sometimes used in haulage. The Communications Act 2003 explicitly uses the M25 as the boundary in requiring a proportion of television programmes to be made outside the London area; it states a requirement of "a suitable proportion of the programmes made in the United Kingdom" to be made "in the United Kingdom outside the M25 area", defined in Section 362 as "the area the outer boundary of which is represented by the London Orbital Motorway (M25)".
The M25 was originally built mostly as a dual three-lane motorway. Much of this has since been widened to dual four lanes for almost half, to a dual five-lanes section between junctions 12 and 14 and a dual six-lane section between junctions 14 and 15. Further widening is in progress of minor sections with plans for managed motorways in many others.
Two motorway service areas are on the M25, and two others are directly accessible from it. Those on the M25 are Clacket Lane between junctions 5 and 6 (in the south-east) and Cobham between junctions 9 and 10 (in the south-west). Those directly accessible from it are South Mimms off junction 23 (to the north of London) and Thurrock off junction 31 (to the east of London). Cobham services opened on 13 September 2012.
As is common with other motorways, the M25 is equipped with emergency ("SOS") telephones. These connect to two Highways England operated control centres at Godstone (for junctions 1–15 inclusive) and South Mimms (for 16–31). The Dartford Crossing has a dedicated control centre. There is an extensive network of closed circuit television on the motorway so incidents can be easily identified and located. A number of 4x4 vehicles patrol the extent of the motorway, and attempt to keep traffic moving where possible, and assisting the local police. They can act as a rolling roadblock when there are obstacles on the road.
When completed, the M25 only had street lighting for 65 miles (105 km) of its 117-mile (188 km) length. Originally, low pressure sodium (SOX) lighting was the most prominent technology used, but this has been gradually replaced with high-pressure sodium (SON) lighting. As of 2015[update] there are over 10,000 streetlights on the M25. The M25 has a number of pollution control valves along it length, which can shut off drainage in the event of a chemical or fuel spill.
The idea of a general bypass around London was first proposed early in the 20th century. An outer orbital route around the capital had first been proposed in 1913, and was re-examined as a motorway route in Sir Charles Bressey's and Sir Edwin Lutyens' The Highway Development Survey, 1937. Sir Patrick Abercrombie's County of London Plan, 1943 and Greater London Plan, 1944 proposed a series of five roads encircling the capital. The northern sections of the M25 follow a similar route to the World War II Outer London Defence Ring, a concentric series of tanks and pillboxes designed to slow down a potential German invasion of the capital. This was marked as the D Ring on Abercombie's plans. Following the war, 11 separate county councils told the Ministry of Transport that an orbital route was "first priority" for London.
Plans stalled because the route was planned to pass through several urban areas, which attracted criticism. The original D Ring through northwest London was planned to be a simple upgrade of streets. In 1951, Middlesex County Council planned a route for the orbital road through their county, passing through Eastcote and west of Bushey, connecting with the proposed M1 motorway, but it was rejected by the Ministry two years later. An alternative route via Harrow and Ealing was proposed, but this was abandoned after the council released the extent of property demolition.
In 1964, the London County Council announced the London Ringways plan, that would consist of four concentric motorway rings around London. The following year, the transport minister Barbara Castle announced that the D ring would be essential to build. The component parts of what became the M25 came from Ringway 3 / M16 motorway in the north and Ringway 4 in the south.
The Ringways plan was hugely controversial owing to the destruction required for the inner two ring roads, (Ringway 1 and Ringway 2). Parts of Ringway 1 were constructed (including West Cross Route), against stiff opposition, before the overall plan was postponed in February 1972. In April 1973, the Greater London Council elections resulted in a Labour Party victory; the party then formally announced the cancellation of the Ringways running inside Greater London. This did not affect the routes that would become the M25, because they were planned as central government projects from the outset.
There was no individual public inquiry into the M25 as a whole. Each section was presented to planning authorities in its own right and was individually justified, with 39 separate public inquiries relating to sections of the route. The need for the ministry to negotiate with local councils means that more junctions with local traffic were built than originally proposed. On the finished M25's route, 14 junctions serve only local roads. A report in 1981 showed that M25 had potential to attract office and retail development along its route, negating the proposed traffic improvements and making Central London a less desirable place to work. None of the motorway was prevented of being built by objections at the public enquiries. However, as a consequence of the backlash against the Ringways, and criticism at the public inquiries, the motorway was built with environmental concerns in mind, including additional earth mounds, cuttings and fences intended to reduce noise and over two million trees and shrubs to hide the view of the road.
Construction of parts of the two outer ring roads, Ringways 3 and 4, began in 1973. The first section, between South Mimms and Potters Bar in Hertfordshire (junction 23 to junction 24) opened in September 1975. It was provisionally known at the M16 and was given the temporary general purpose road designation A1178. A section of the North Orbital Road between Rickmansworth and Hunton Bridge was proposed in 1966, with detailed planning in 1971. The road was constructed to motorway standards, and opened as part of the A412 in October 1976. It eventually became part of the M25's route. The section to the south, from Heathrow Airport to Rickmansworth had five separate routes proposed when a public inquiry was launched in 1974. The Department of Transport sent out 15,000 questionnaires about the preferred route, with 5,000 replies. A route was fixed in 1978, with objections delaying the start of construction in 1982.
The southern section of what became the M25 through Surrey and Kent was first conceived to be an east-west road south of London to relieve the A25, and running parallel to it, with its eastern end following the route of what is now the M26. It was originally proposed as an all-purpose route, but was upgraded to motorway standard by Castle in 1966. It was the first section of the route announced as M25 from the beginning. The first section from Godstone to Reigate (junctions 6 – 8) was first planned in 1966 and opened in February 1976. A section of Ringway 3 south of the river between Dartford and Swanley (junction 1 to junction 3) was constructed between May 1974 and April 1977.
In 1975, following extensive opposition towards some parts of Ringway 3 through Middlesex and South London, the transport minister John Gilbert announced that the north section of Ringway 3 already planned would be combined with the southern section of Ringway 4, forming a single orbital motorway to be known as the M25, and the M16 designation was dropped. This scheme required two additional sections to join what were two different schemes, from Swanley to Sevenoaks in the southeast and Hunton Bridge to Potters Bar in the northwest. The section of Ringway 3 west of South Mimms anti-clockwise around London to Swanley in Kent was cancelled.
The section from Potters Bar to the Dartford Tunnel was constructed in stages from June 1979 onwards, with the final section between Waltham Cross (junction 25) to Theydon Garnon (junction 27) opening in January 1984. This section, running through Epping Forest attracted opposition and protests. In 1973, local residents had parked combine harvesters in Parliament Square in protest against the road, draped with large banners reading "Not Epping Likely". As a consequence of this, the Bell Common Tunnel that runs in this area is twice as long as originally proposed.
The most controversial section of the M25 was that between Swanley and Sevenoaks (junctions 3 – 5) in Kent across the Darenth Valley, Badgers Mount and the North Downs. An 1800-member group named Defend Darenth Valley and the North Downs Action Group (DANDAG) argued that the link was unnecessary, it would damage an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty and it would be primarily be used by local traffic as a bypass for the old A21 road between Farnborough and Sevenoaks. After a length inquiry process, chaired by George Dobry QC, the transport minister Kenneth Clarke announced the motorway would be built as proposed.
The section from the M40 motorway to the 1970s North Orbital Road construction (junctions 16 – 17) opened in January 1985. It used part of the Chalfont Viaduct, restricting the motorway's width to three lanes in each direction.
The Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher officially opened the M25 on 29 October 1986, with a ceremony in the section between junctions 22 – 23 (London Colney and South Mimms). To avoid the threat of road protesters, the ceremony was held a quarter of a mile from the nearest bridge. The total estimated cost of the motorway was around £1 billion. It required two million tonnes of concrete, 2.5 million tonnes of asphalt and involved the removal of 49 million cubic metres of spoil. Upon completion, it was the longest orbital motorway in the world at 117 miles (188 km).[c] At the opening ceremony, Thatcher announced that 98 of those miles had been constructed while the Conservatives were in office, calling it "a splendid achievement for Britain". A 58-page brochure was published, commemorating the completion of the motorway.
The M25 was initially popular with the public. In the 1987 general election, the Conservatives won every constituency that the motorway passed through, in particular gaining Thurrock from Labour. Coach tours were organised for a trip around the new road. However, it quickly became apparent that the M25 suffered from chronic congestion. A report in The Economist said "had taken 70 years to plan [the motorway], 12 to build it and just one to find it was inadequate". Thatcher rebuked the negative response, calling it "carping and criticism".
Traffic levels quickly exceeded the maximum design capacity. Two months before opening, the government admitted that the three-lane section between junctions 11 and 13 was inadequate, and that it would have to be widened to four. In 1990 the Secretary of State for Transport announced plans to widen the whole of the M25 to four lanes. By 1993 the motorway, designed for a maximum of 88,000 vehicles per day, was carrying 200,000. 15% of UK motorway traffic volume was on the M25 and there were plans to add six lanes to the section from Junctions 12 to 15 as well as widening the rest of the motorway to four lanes.
In parts, particularly the western third this plan went ahead, due to consistent congestion. Again, however, plans to widen further sections to eight lanes (four each way) were scaled back in 2009 in response to rising costs. The plans were reinstated in the agreed Highways Agency 2013–14 business plan.
In June 1992, the Department of Transport announced a proposal to widen the section close to Heathrow Airport to fourteen lanes by way of three additional link roads. This attracted fierce opposition from road protesters opposing the Newbury Bypass and other schemes, but also from local authorities. Surrey County Council led a formal objection to the widening scheme. It was cancelled shortly afterwards. In 1994, the Standing Advisory Committee on Trunk Road Appraisal (SACTRA) published a report saying that "the M25 experience most probably does ... serve as an example of a case where roads generate traffic" and that further improvements to the motorway were counterproductive. In April 1995, the Transport Minister, Brian Mawhinney announced that the Heathrow link roads would be scrapped.
In 1995 a contract was awarded to widen the section between Junctions 8 and 10 from six to eight lanes for a cost of £93.4 million and a Motorway Incident Detection and Automatic Signalling (MIDAS) system was introduced to the M25 from Junction 10 to Junction 15 at a cost of £13.5m in 1995. This was then extended to Junction 16 at a cost of £11.7m in 2002. This consists of a distributed network of traffic and weather sensors, speed cameras and variable-speed signs that control traffic speeds with little human supervision, and has improved traffic flow slightly, reducing the amount of start-stop driving.
After Labour won a landslide victory in the 1997 election, the road budget was cut from £6 billion to £1.4 billion. However, the Department of Transport announced new proposals to widen the section between Junction 12 (M3) and Junction 15 (M4) to twelve lanes. At the Heathrow Airport Terminal 5 public inquiry a Highways Agency official said that the widening was needed to accommodate traffic to the proposed new terminal, however the transport minister said that no such evidence had been given. Environmental groups objected to the decision to go ahead with a scheme that would create the widest motorways in the UK without holding a public inquiry. Friends of the Earth cynically claimed the real reason for the widening was to support Terminal 5. The decision was again deferred. A decision to go-ahead was given for a ten-lane scheme in 1998 and the £148 million 'M25 Jct 12 to 15 Widening' contract was awarded to Balfour Beatty in 2003. The scheme was completed in 2005 as dual-five lanes between Junctions 12 and 14 and dual-six lanes from Junctions 14 to 15.
In 2007, Junction 25 (A10/Waltham Cross) was remodelled to increase capacity. The nearby Holmesdale Tunnel was widened to three lanes in an easterly direction, and additional left-turn lane added from the A10 onto the motorway. The total cost was £75 million.
Work to widen the exit slip-roads in both directions at Junction 28 (A12 road/A1023) was completed in 2008. It was designed to reduce the amount of traffic queueing on the slip roads at busy periods, particularly traffic from the clockwise M25 joining the northbound A12 where the queue extended onto the inside lane of the motorway. In 2018, a new scheme was proposed as the junction had reached capacity at over 7,500 vehicles per hour. This would involve building a two-lane link road between the M25 and the A12. The work is expected to be completed around 2021/22.
Design, Build, Finance and Operate (DBFO) contractEdit
In 2006 the Highways Agency proposed to widen 63 miles (101 km) of M25 from six to eight lanes, between junctions 5–6 and 16–30 as part of a Design, Build, Finance and Operate (DBFO) project. A shortlist of contractors was announced in October 2006 for the project which was expected to cost £4.5 billion. Contractors were asked to resubmit their bids in January 2008 and in June 2009 the new transport minister indicated that the cost had risen to £5.5 billion and the benefit to cost ratio had dropped considerably. In January 2009 the government announced that plans to widen the sections from Junction 5–7 and from 23–27 had been 'scrapped' and that hard shoulder running would be introduced instead. However widening was reinstated to four lanes in the 2013–14 Highways Agency Business Plan.
In 2009 a £6.2 billion M25 DBFO private finance initiative contract was awarded to Connect Plus to widen the sections between junctions 16 and 23 and between junctions 27 and 30 and maintain the M25 and the Dartford Crossing for a 30-year period.
Works to widen the section between Junctions 16 (M40) and 23 (A1(M)) to dual four lanes started in July 2009 at an estimated cost of £580 million. The Junction 16 to 21 (M1) section was completed by July 2011 and the Junction 21 to 23 by June 2012. Works to widen the Junctions 27 (M11) to 30 (A13) section to dual four lanes also started in July 2009. The Junction 27 to 28 (A12) section was completed in July 2010, the Junction 28 to 29 (A127) in June 2011 and finally the Junction 29 to 30 (A13) section opened in May 2012.
Works to introduce managed motorway technology and permanent hard shoulder running on two sections of the M25 began in 2013. The first section between Junctions 5 (A21/M26) and 7 (M23) started construction in May 2013 with the scheme being completed and opened in April 2014. The second section, between Junctions 23 (A1/A1(M)) and 27 (M11), began construction in February 2013 and was completed and opened in November 2014.
In December 2016, Highways England completed the capacity project at Junction 30 (Thurrock) as part of the Thames Gateway Delivery Plan. The £100m scheme included widening the M25 to four lanes, adding additional link roads, and improvements to drainage.
The M25 is one of Europe's busiest motorways. In 2003, a maximum of 196,000 vehicles a day were recorded on the motorway just south of London Heathrow Airport between junctions 13 and 14. The stretch between Junctions 14 and 15 outside Heathrow Airport consistently records the highest number of daily traffic counts on the British strategic road network with the average flow in 2017 of 211,059 counts (lower than the record peak measured in 2014 of 262,842 counts).
Traffic on the M25 is monitored by Connect Plus Services on behalf of Highways England. The company operate a series of transportable closed circuit television cameras that can be easily moved into congestion hotspots. This allows operators to see a clear view of the motorway and what can be done to tackle individual areas of congestion. Prior to its liquidation, Carillion was subcontracted to manage traffic on the M25, delivering live alerts from body-worn cameras via 3G, 4G and Wi-Fi.
Since 1995, sections of the M25 have been equipped with variable speed limits. These purposefully slow traffic down in the event of congestion or an obstruction and help manage the traffic flow. The scheme was originally trialled between junctions 10 and 16, and was made a permanent fixture in 1997.
The Dartford Crossing is the only fixed vehicle crossing of the Thames east of Greater London. It is also the busiest crossing in the United Kingdom, and consequently puts pressure on M25 traffic. Users of the crossing do not pay a toll, but rather a congestion charge; the signs at the crossing are the same deployed over the London Congestion Charge zone. In 2009 the Department for Transport published options for a new Lower Thames Crossing to add capacity to the Dartford Crossing or create a new road and crossing linking to the M2 and M20 motorways. Plans for this stalled, and were cancelled by the Mayor of London, Boris Johnson in 2013, to be replaced by the Gallions Reach Crossing. Initially a straight ferry replacement for the Woolwich Ferry, this was later changed to be a possible bridge or tunnel.
On 16 December 1988, several vehicles were stolen and used as getaway for acts of murder and robbery, using the M25 to quickly move between targets. Three men, including Raphael Rowe were tried and sentenced to life imprisonment in 1990, but maintained their innocence. They became known as the M25 Three. Rowe studied journalism while in prison and has since become an investigative journalist for the BBC.
The orbital nature of the motorway, in common with racetracks, lent itself to unofficial, and illegal, motor racing. At the end of the 1980s, before the advent of speed enforcement devices, owners of supercars would meet at night at service stations such as South Mimms and conduct time trials. Times below 1 hour were achieved – an average speed of over 117 mph (188 km/h), which included coming to a halt at the Dartford Tunnel road user charge payment booths. The winner of the race received champagne rather than any money. The Enfield Gazette had an advertisement saying "M25 club", and posters appeared near the M25 advertising the "First London Cannonball Run". Boris Johnson found out about the illegal racing while a junior reporter for The Times. The racing had mostly disappeared by the end of the 1980s, but could no longer be done at all after speed cameras were introduced on the M25.
In November 2014, during overnight roadworks, a 16-foot (4.9 m) piece of road surface near junction 9 at Leatherhead failed to set correctly because of rain. This created a 1-foot (0.30 m) pothole in the road and caused a 12 miles (19 km) tailback. The Minister for Transport, John Hayes criticised the work and the resulting traffic problems.
The M25 and the Dartford Crossing are known for its frequent traffic jams. These have been the subject of so much comment from such an early stage that even at the official opening ceremony Margaret Thatcher complained about "those who carp and criticise". The jams have inspired jokes (e.g., "the world's first circular car park", "the London Orbital Car Park", "the biggest Car Park in Europe") and songs (e.g., Chris Rea's "The Road to Hell").
The M25 plays a role in the comedy-fantasy novel Good Omens, as "evidence for the hidden hand of Satan in the affairs of Man". The demon character, Crowley, had manipulated the design of the M25 to resemble a Satanic sigil, and tried to ensure it would anger as many people as possible to drive them off the path of good. The lengthy series of public inquiries for motorways throughout the 1970s, particularly the M25, influenced the opening of The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, where the Earth is destroyed to make way for a hyperspace bypass.
The M25 enjoyed a more positive reputation among ravers in the late 1980s, when this new orbital motorway became a popular route to the parties that took place around the outskirts of London. This use of the M25 for these raves inspired the name of electronic duo Orbital.
Data from driver location signs provide carriageway identifier information. The numbers on the signs are kilometres from a point on the north side of the Dartford Crossing, while the letter is "A" for the clockwise carriageway and "B" for the anticlockwise. They are spaced every 500 metres (1,600 ft). The table below gives details of each junction, including the roads interchanged and the destinations that are signed from the motorway on the blue advance direction signs. Figures in kilometres are from the driver location signs; figures in miles are derived from them.
|A282 – Dartford Crossing (Kent)(M25)|
|miles||km||Clockwise exits (A carriageway)||Junction||Anti-clockwise exits (B carriageway)||Opening date|
|Dartford Crossing South
Queen Elizabeth II Bridge (Toll)
|Dartford Crossing North
Dartford Tunnels (Toll)
|November 1963 (west tunnel)|
May 1980 (east tunnel)
|3.5||5.7||Erith A206||J1A||Erith A206, Swanscombe (A226)||September 1986|
|4.7||7.5||Dartford A225||J1B||Exit via J2 – Dartford (A225)||September 1986|
|M25 motorway – London Orbital|
|5.5||8.8||London (SE & C), Bexleyheath A2 (W), Canterbury (M2) A2 (E) Ebbsfleet International, Gillingham||J2||London (SE & C), Bexleyheath A2, Canterbury (M2), Dartford (A225) Ebbsfleet International, Bluewater, Gillingham
Dover, Chnl Tnl (M20)
|September 1986 (northbound)|
April 1977 (southbound)
|8.7||14.0||London (SE & C) A20
Maidstone, Channel Tunnel, Folkestone M20
|J3||Maidstone, Channel Tunnel M20
London (SE & C), Lewisham A20
|April 1977 (northbound)|
February 1986 (southbound)
|J4||Bromley, London (SE & C) A21
|Sevenoaks, Royal Tunbridge Wells, Hastings A21||J5||Maidstone, Channel Tunnel, Dover M26 (M20)
Sevenoaks, Hastings A21
|21.0||33.8||Clacket Lane services||Services||Clacket Lane services||1993|
|25.8||41.6||East Grinstead, Eastbourne, Caterham, Godstone A22
Redhill, Westerham (A25)
|J6||East Grinstead, Eastbourne, Caterham, Godstone A22
Redhill, Westerham (A25)
|November 1979 (eastbound)|
February 1976 (westbound)
|28.6||46.0||Gatwick Airport, Crawley, Brighton, Croydon M23||J7||Gatwick Airport, Crawley, Brighton, M23(S), Croydon M23(N)||February 1976|
|31.9||51.4||London (S & SW), Reigate, Sutton A217
|J8||London (S & SW), Reigate, Sutton A217
|February 1976 (eastbound)|
October 1985 (westbound)
|Leatherhead A243, Dorking, (A24)||J9||Leatherhead A243, Dorking (A24)||October 1985|
|Cobham services||Services||Cobham services||September 2012|
|45.0||72.4||London (SW & C), Guildford, Portsmouth A3||J10||London (SW & C), Guildford, Kingston A3||October 1985 (eastbound)|
December 1983 (westbound)
|49.8||80.2||Chertsey A317, Woking A320||J11||Woking A320, Chertsey A317||December 1983 (southbound)|
October 1980 (northbound)
|52.1||83.8||Basingstoke, Southampton, Richmond M3||J12||Basingstoke, Southampton, Richmond M3||October 1980 (southbound)|
December 1976 (northbound)
|55.2||88.8||London (W & C), Hounslow, Staines A30||J13||London (W & C), Hounslow, Staines A30||November 1981 (southbound)|
August 1982 (northbound)
|57.0||91.8||Heathrow Airport (Terminals 4, 5 and Cargo) A3113||J14||Heathrow Airport (Terminals 4, 5 and Cargo) A3113||August 1982 (southbound)|
September 1985 (northbound)
|59.0||95.0||The WEST, Slough, Reading, London (W & C), Heathrow Airport (Terminals 2 and 3) M4||J15||The WEST, Slough, Reading M4(W)
London (W & C), Heathrow Airport (Terminals 2 & 3) M4(E)
|63.8||102.6||The NORTH, Birmingham, Oxford, Uxbridge, London (W & C) M40||J16||Birmingham, Oxford M40(W)
Uxbridge, London (W & C) M40(E)
|September 1985 (southbound)|
January 1985 (northbound)
|68.7||110.5||Rickmansworth, Maple Cross (A412)||J17||Rickmansworth, Maple Cross A412||January 1985 (southbound)|
February 1976 (northbound)
|69.9||112.5||Chorleywood, Amersham A404||J18||Chorleywood, Amersham A404||February 1976|
|71.5||116.4||Watford A41||J19||Exit via J20 – Watford A41||September 1976|
|73.5||118.2||Hemel Hempstead, Aylesbury A41||J20||Hemel Hempstead, Aylesbury, Watford A41||August 1986|
|76.3||122.8||The North, Luton & Luton Airport M1||J21||The North, Luton & Luton Airport M1||August 1986|
Harrow (M1 South)
|J21A||St Albans A405
London (NW & C) (M1 (South))
|80.6||129.7||London Colney A1081||J22||St Albans A1081||August 1986|
|83.3||134.0||Hatfield A1(M), London (NW & C) A1, Barnet A1081
South Mimms services
|J23||Hatfield A1(M), London (NW & C) A1, Barnet A1081
South Mimms services
|August 1986 (westbound)|
September 1975 (eastbound)
|85.9||138.2||Potters Bar A111||J24||Potters Bar A111||September 1975 (westbound)|
June 1981 (eastbound)
|91.4||147.1||Enfield Town, Hertford A10||J25||Enfield, Hertford, London (N & C) A10||June 1981 (westbound)|
January 1984 (eastbound)
|94.9||152.7||Waltham Abbey, Loughton A121||J26||Waltham Abbey, Loughton A121||January 1984|
|99.2||159.7||London (NE & C), Stansted Airport, Harlow, Cambridge M11||J27||London (NE & C) M11(N), Stansted Airport, Harlow, Cambridge M11(S)||January 1984 (westbound)|
April 1983 (eastbound)
|107.1||172.4||Chelmsford, Witham, Colchester A12
|J28||Chelmsford, Romford A12
|109.9||176.8||Romford, Basildon, Southend A127||J29||Basildon, Southend, Romford A127||April 1983 (northbound)|
December 1982 (southbound)
|115.2||185.4||Tilbury, Thurrock, Lakeside A13(E), London (E & C) A13(W)
|J30||London (E & C), Barking, Tilbury, Basildon, Dagenham, Rainham A13||December 1982|
|A282 Road – Dartford Crossing|
|115.9||186.6||Exit via J30 – Purfleet (A1090), South Ockendon, Thurrock services A1306||J31||Thurrock (Lakeside), Thurrock services A1306, Purfleet (A1090), West Thurrock (A126)||December 1982|
|Dartford Crossing South
Queen Elizabeth II Bridge (Toll)
|Dartford Crossing North
Dartford Tunnels (Toll)
|1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi|
- Pedestrians and cyclists cannot directly use the Dartford Crossing, but a shuttle service is available for the latter.
- This move would be bound to be resisted by the communities affected, including such major towns as Watford, Loughton and Epsom. The M25 is called “The Worst Road To Go To” according to many Londoners and Visitors.
- Since the completion of the M25, the Berlinger Ring has been opened at a slightly longer 196 km (122 mi)
- Hamilton 2015, p. 24.
- "Traffic Signs Manual Chapter 2 : Primary Routes" (PDF). Department of Transport. Retrieved 14 May 2019.
- "Tunnel Test 2004 – Dartford Tunnel". AA Motoring Trust. September 2004. p. 3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 January 2017. Retrieved 22 May 2010.
- "Thames Bridges Heights". Port of London Authority. Retrieved 7 August 2016.
- Bishop, Peter (2008). Bridge. Reaktion Books. p. 26. ISBN 978-1-861-89346-8.
- "Get across the Dartford crossing by bike". HM Government. Retrieved 13 May 2019.
- "Walk on to cross the water". Kent Online. 23 August 2013. Retrieved 14 May 2019.
- "M25 in South East Region". The Motorway Archive. 2009. (Select "M25" from list of motorways, then "M25 interchanges, tunnels and bridges"). Retrieved 18 April 2013.
- Grid reference Finder Generic map measurement tools
- "The M25 : We're on the road to nowhere". The Independent. 17 October 2006. Retrieved 11 May 2019.
- "Poll says M25 is London's "natural boundary". London Assembly. 2 March 2004. Archived from the original on 9 October 2008.
- "Communications Act 2003". The National Archive. 2003. Retrieved 5 September 2011.
- Hamilton 2015, p. 25.
- Business Plan 2013–14 Archived 15 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine Highways Agency
- "M25 MSA New Barn Farm Cobham". Highways Agency. Archived from the original on 3 March 2010. Retrieved 14 August 2010.
- "Cobham M25 service station opened". BBC News. 13 September 2012. Retrieved 13 September 2012.
- Ridley, Nicholas (6 February 1986). "Roads (Lighting and Signs)". Hansard. Retrieved 13 May 2019.
- Hamilton 2015, p. 26.
- Bramley 1946, p. 146.
- Smith 2001, p. 148.
- John Henry Forshaw, Sir Patrick Abercrombie (1943). "County of London plan". London County Council: 13.
- Hamilton 2015, p. 19.
- Asher 2018, p. 113.
- Asher 2018, p. 43,112.
- Asher 2018, p. 103.
- Asher 2018, p. 111.
- Asher 2018, p. 116.
- Asher 2018, p. 117.
- Asher 2018, p. 118.
- Hamilton 2015, p. 11.
- Moran 2009, pp. 208–209.
- Asher 2018, p. 115.
- "M25 : London Orbital Motorway – Dates". UK Motorway Archive. Retrieved 11 May 2019.
- Calder, Simon (25 September 2010). "How London got its Ring Road". The Independent. Retrieved 11 May 2019.
- Asher 2018, p. 119.
- Asher 2018, p. 121.
- Asher 2018, p. 120.
- "M25: The best of Britain's most hated motorway". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 11 May 2019.
- Moran 2009, p. 209.
- Hamilton 2015, p. 20.
- Hamilton 2015, p. 14.
- Asher 2018, p. 122.
- "Hansard 3 December 1990 Written Answers (Commons) Transport".
- "The bluffer's briefing on: The M25". The Independent. London. 24 March 1993. Retrieved 12 May 2010.
- "M25 (Widening)". Hansard.
- Webster, Ben (25 June 2009). "Rising costs put the brakes on dozens of roadbuilding projects". The Times. London. Retrieved 12 May 2010.
- Asher 2018, p. 126.
- Wolmar, Christian (4 April 1995). "The roadblock that became a bandwagon". The Independent. London. Retrieved 12 May 2010.
- Cohen, Nick (2 April 1995). "Pointless lies that reveal so much". The Independent. London. Retrieved 12 May 2010.
- Asher 2018, p. 127.
- "M25 scoop for Balfour in Surrey". Construction News. Retrieved 12 May 2019.
- "Case Study – M25 Controlled Motorway". Highways Agency. Archived from the original on 11 February 2010.
- Wolmar, Christian (21 March 1997). "Minister gives green light to widen M25". The Independent. London. Retrieved 12 May 2010.
- "Plans to widen M25 to 12 lanes under attack". Archived from the original on 5 April 2012.
- "BAA makes plans for Terminal 5 despite inquiry".
- "M25 Junctions 12 – 15 Widening". Archived from the original on 5 September 2011.
In 2003, Balfour Beatty Civil Engineering was awarded the £148 million contract to widen the 10-mile stretch of the M25, between Junction 12 (the M3 Interchange) and Junction 15 (the M4 Interchange).
- "M25 Jct 12 to 15 Widening". Highways Agency. Archived from the original on 26 September 2008.
- "£75 MILLION REFURBISHMENT FOR M25 HOLMESDALE TUNNEL AND JUNCTION 25 IMPROVEMENT WORK STARTS ON SATURDAY 6 May". Highways Agency. Archived from the original on 6 November 2008.
- "M25 Junction 25 Improvement". Highways England. Retrieved 13 May 2019.
- "M25 Junction 28 / A12 / Brook Street Interchange". Highways Agency. Archived from the original on 26 September 2008.
- "A12 junction to get major overhaul". East Anglian Daily Times. 5 December 2018. Retrieved 13 May 2019.
- "Prequalification Document". Highways Agency. Archived from the original on 7 November 2008. Retrieved 20 January 2008.
- "Highways Agency announces shortlist for £4.5bn M25 DBFO". Contract Journal. Archived from the original on 16 January 2016. Retrieved 20 January 2008.
- Andrea Klettner (16 January 2008). "Highways Agency calls for M25 widening bids to be resubmitted". Construction Journal. Retrieved 20 January 2008.[dead link]
- "Cost escalation hits M25 widening benefit to cost ratios".
- Helm, Toby (18 January 2009). "Ministers scrap plan to widen motorways". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 12 May 2010.
- Webster, Ben (20 May 2009). "PFI deal for M25 agreed despite price rise". The Times. London. Retrieved 12 May 2010.
- "£6.2 billion M25 Design, Build, Finance and Operate (DBFO) contract awarded". Highways Agency. Archived from the original on 15 November 2009.
- "M25 Jct 16 to 23 Widening". Archived from the original on 22 September 2009.
- "M25 widening to four lanes begins". BBC News. 8 July 2009. Retrieved 12 May 2010.
- "Highways Agency Timetable". Archived from the original on 26 September 2008.
- "Weekly Summary of Roadworks in M25 Sphere – 30 September 2009". Archived from the original on 2 October 2009. Retrieved 11 October 2009.
- "M25 Jct 27 to 30 Widening". Archived from the original on 4 October 2009.
- "M25 Junctions 5 to 7 Managed Motorways". Archived from the original on 8 September 2012. Retrieved 11 October 2009.
- "M25 Junctions 23 to 27 Managed Motorways". Archived from the original on 17 August 2012. Retrieved 10 December 2008.
- "M25 Junction 30 A13 corridor relieving congestion scheme". Highways England.
- "M25 junction officially open after £100million upgrade". Highways Industry. Retrieved 12 May 2019.
- "Motorway traffic up 4% on 2003". BBC News. 12 August 2004. Retrieved 3 January 2009.
- "GB Road Traffic Counts". data.gov.uk.
- "Connect Plus M25 Traffic Management". WCCTV. Retrieved 14 May 2019.
- "Carillion Traffic Management – Body Worn Cameras". WCCTV. Retrieved 14 May 2019.
- Marshall, Chris. "Smart Motorways". roads.org.uk. Retrieved 14 May 2019.
- Report (HC 15, 2004–05): Tackling congestion by making better use of England's motorways and trunk roads (Full Report) (PDF) (Report). National Audit Office. 26 November 2004. p. 21. Retrieved 17 September 2009.
- Morris, Thom (14 May 2014). "Dartford Crossing to get tunnel and bridge closures as Dart Charge introduced and gantries installed near QEII bridge". Kent Messenger. Retrieved 2 July 2014.
- Woodman, Peter (22 May 2012). "Dartford-Thurrock River Crossing toll charges to rise". The Independent. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
- "Dart Charge". Transport for London. Retrieved 14 May 2019.
- "Dartford River Crossing Study into Capacity Requirement" (PDF). Department for Transport. 20 April 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 July 2009. Retrieved 26 April 2009.
- "London to get new road tunnel under River Thames within decade, promises Boris Johnson". Daily Telegraph. 12 January 2012. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
- Andrew Adonis (11 June 2013). "Boris can't put off a new Thames crossing in the east". London Evening Standard. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
- Hamilton 2015, p. 15.
- Moran 2009, p. 163.
- May, James (20 October 2007). "Speed, Greed And The M25". BBC Radio 4.
- "Programme Information – Network Radio Week 43" (Press release). BBC Press Office.
- Moran 2009, p. 164.
- Hamilton 2015, p. 27.
- Hamilton 2015, p. 6.
- Lezard, Nicholas (21 September 2002). "Meandering round the M25". The Guardian.
- "Chris Rea interviewed by Will Hodgkinson, The Guardian, Friday 13 September 2002". London. 13 September 2002. Retrieved 31 January 2009.
- "Good Omens Annotations".
- Pratchett, Terry; Gaiman, Neil (1993). Good Omens. London: Corgi Books. p. 19. ISBN 0552137030.
- Neil Gaiman (11 April 2003). "Neil Gaiman's Journal". HarperCollins. News Corp. Retrieved 25 March 2017.
- Hamilton 2015, p. 10.
- "Orbital information". Archived from the original on 15 February 2011. Retrieved 28 January 2011.
- "M25 Road Network Driver Location Signs" (PDF). Highways Agency. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 9 June 2009.
- Asher, Wayne (2018). Rings Around London: Orbital motorways and the battle for homes before roads. Capital History. ISBN 978-1854144218.
- Bramley, J. F. (1946). Roads for Britain: a digest of plans of future highways (2nd ed.). Staples Press.
- Hamilton, Ray (2015). M25: A Circular Tour of the London Orbital. Summersdale Publishers. ISBN 978-1-783-72656-1.
- Moran, Joe (2009). On Roads : A Hidden History. Profile Books. ISBN 978-1-846-68052-6.
- Smith, Denis (2001). London and the Thames Valley. Thomas Telford. ISBN 978-0-727-72876-0.