Romford is a large town in East London, England, 14 miles (23 km) northeast of Charing Cross. Part of the London Borough of Havering, the town is one of the major metropolitan centres of Greater London identified in the London Plan.[2]

Clockwise from top: Parish Church of St Edward the Confessor; Havering Town Hall; South Street; Havering Museum (former Ind Coope brewery); The Liberty Shopping Centre
Romford is located in Greater London
Location within Greater London
Population122,854 (2011 Census)[1]
OS grid referenceTQ510887
• Charing Cross14.1 mi (22.7 km) SW
London borough
Ceremonial countyGreater London
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Post townROMFORD
Postcode districtRM1-RM7
Dialling code01708
UK Parliament
London Assembly
List of places
51°34′36″N 0°10′48″E / 51.5768°N 0.1801°E / 51.5768; 0.1801

Historically part of the ancient parish of Hornchurch in the Becontree hundred of Essex, it has been a market town since 1247. It formed the administrative centre of the liberty of Havering until that liberty was dissolved in 1892, and became a civil parish of its own in 1849.[3][4] Good road links to London and the opening of the railway station in 1839 were key to the development of the town.[3] The economic history of Romford is characterised by a shift from agriculture to light industry and then to retail and commerce.[3]

As part of the suburban growth of London throughout the 20th century, Romford significantly expanded and increased in population, becoming a municipal borough in 1937. In 1965, following reform of local government in London, it merged with the Hornchurch Urban District to form the London Borough of Havering, and was incorporated into Greater London.[5][6][7] Today, it is one of the largest commercial, retail, entertainment and leisure districts in London and has a well-developed night-time economy.[8][9] The population of Romford, as of the 2011 census, was 122,854.[10]

History edit

Romford (parish) population
1881 9,050
1891 10,722
1901 13,656
1911 16,970
1921 19,442
1931 35,918
1941 war[N 1]
1951 76,580
1961 114,584
  1. ^ No census was held due to war
source: UK census[5][11]

Toponymy edit

Romford is first recorded in 1177 as Romfort, which is formed from Old English 'rūm' and 'ford' and means "the wide or spacious ford".[12] The naming of the River Rom is a local 'back-formation' from the name of the town; and the river is elsewhere known as the Beam. The ford most likely existed on the main London to Colchester road where it crossed that river.[12]

Economic development edit

Romford in 1851

The town developed in the Middle Ages on the main road to London and the regionally significant Romford Market was established in 1247.[3] The original site of the town was to the south, in an area still known as Oldchurch. It was moved northwards to the present site in the later medieval period to avoid the frequent flooding of the River Rom. The first building on the new site was the 1410 Chapel of St Edward[13] (since replaced by the 1850 Parish Church of St Edward the Confessor. The early history of Romford and the immediate area is agricultural and it is recorded as being the location of a number of mills used to grind corn.[3] The area was a focus of the leather industry from the 15th to the early 19th centuries and there is record of a wide range of industries such as cloth making, weaving, charcoal burning, metal working and brewing.[3] Communications played an important part in its development; the main road to London was maintained by the Middlesex and Essex Turnpike Trust from 1721 and Romford became a coaching town in the 18th century.[14]

Several failed attempts were made in the early 19th century to connect the town to the Thames via a Romford Canal.[15] It was initially intended to terminate at a basin near to the Star Brewery, to transport agricultural products to London and, eventually, to serve growing industrial sites in Romford. A later proposal included an extension to Collier Row, whereby timber from Hainault Forest could be transported to the Thames for use in the Royal Dockyards. Only two miles of canal were constructed and the canal company were unable to reach the town.[16]

The development of the town was accelerated by the opening of the railway station in 1839 which stimulated the local economy and was key to the development of the Star Brewery. Initially Eastern Counties Railway services operated between Mile End and Romford, with extensions to Brentwood and to Shoreditch in 1840. A second station was opened on South Street in 1892 by the London, Tilbury and Southend Railway on the line to Upminster and Grays, giving Romford a rail connection to Tilbury Docks. The two stations were combined into one in 1934.[14] Light industry slowly developed, reaching a peak in the 1970s with a number of factories on the edge of town, such as the Roneo Vickers office machinery company, Colvern manufacturers of wireless components, May's Sheet Metal Works and brush manufacturers Betterware.[3] Suburban expansion increased the population and reinforced Romford's position as a significant regional town centre. The Liberty Shopping Centre was constructed in the 1960s, and has been modernised and supplemented with further shopping centres throughout the town, including The Mall, opened in 1990 (as 'Liberty 2'); and The Brewery, opened in 2000 on the site of the old Star Brewery.[17]

Local government edit

Romford formed a chapelry in the large ancient parish of Hornchurch in the Becontree hundred of Essex; as well as the town it included the wards of Collier Row, Harold Wood, and Noak Hill.[18] Through ancient custom the area enjoyed special status and a charter in 1465 removed the parish from the Becontree hundred and the county of Essex and it instead formed the independent liberty of Havering governed from a court house in the market place.[4] Over time the vestry of Romford chapelry absorbed the local powers that would usually be held by the parish authorities in Hornchurch[18] and in 1849 Romford became a separate parish within the liberty.[19] Improvement commissioners were set up in 1819 for paving, lighting, watching, and cleansing of the marketplace and main streets.[18] As the town grew this arrangement became ineffective at controlling sanitation and in 1851 a local board of health was set up for the parish; although its area was reduced in 1855 to cover only the town ward.[18] The remainder of the parish became part of the Romford rural sanitary district in 1875. These changes and the introduction of the Romford Poor Law Union in 1836[18] eroded the powers of the liberty and it was finally abolished in 1892 and reincorporated into Essex.[4]

The Local Government Act 1894 reformed local government and created the Romford Urban District and Romford Rural District to replace the local board and sanitary district; following which the Romford parish was split into Romford Urban and Romford Rural along the lines of the urban district.[18] In 1900 the parish was recombined and the urban district expanded to cover all of the former area of the historic chapelry, except for Noak Hill which remained in the rural district and had become a parish in its own right in 1895.[18] The enlarged urban district formed part of the London Traffic Area from 1924 and the London Passenger Transport Area from 1933.[20] The suburban expansion of London caused an increase in population during the 1930s[5] and the urban district was expanded further in 1934, taking in the parishes of Havering-atte-Bower and Noak Hill.[6] It was incorporated as the Municipal Borough of Romford in 1937.[6] In 1965 the municipal borough was abolished and its former area was combined with that of Hornchurch Urban District; it was again removed from Essex and since then has formed the northern part of the London Borough of Havering in Greater London.[21] For elections to the Greater London Council, Romford was part of the Havering electoral division until 1973 and then the Romford electoral division until 1986.

Suburban expansion edit

Romford Urban District (1) absorbed Havering-atte-Bower (2) and Noak Hill (3) in 1934[6]

There was early expansion in the 1840s when 200 cottages were built in the area formerly occupied by an army barracks; it was known as New Romford.[14] To acknowledge the military connection, when in 1961 these were in turn replaced with new housing the name Waterloo Road Estate was applied.[22] To the east of the market place from 1850 middle class suburban housing was constructed with a much larger area of 200 acres (80 hectares) built-over to the south of the railway from 1851 and by 1861 the population had grown to 3790.[23] Through a gradual process of selling off former manors, houses were built radiating from the town in all directions for about a mile, and further significant growth occurred between 1910 and 1911 with the construction of Romford Garden Suburb, which included Raphael Park and Gidea Park railway station.[14] Large sections of land to the north of the town at Collier Row were developed in the interwar period and after World War II, the London County Council built the Harold Hill estate to the north east from 1948 to 1958.[14]

The right to supply electricity to the town was secured by the County of London Electricity Supply Company in 1913. Initially power was generated within the Star Brewery site, with the supply switching to Barking Power Station in 1925.[18] Gas supply began in 1825 with gas works of 25 acres (10 ha) constructed by 1938.[18] Following the Telegraph Act 1899 Romford became part of the Post Office London telephone area[24] and the Romford exchange was recorded as having 240 subscribers in 1916.[25] The town water supply initially came from the Havering Well, and 1859 a new public well and pump was built at the east end of the market.[18] The South Essex Waterworks Company started installing mains water supply in 1863 and had offices in South Street. By 1905 its supply was serving Ilford, Collier Row, Ardleigh Green, Brentwood, and Hornchurch. Sewage works were installed by the local board at Oldchurch in 1862, with further works built in Hornchurch in 1869.[18]

Romford cemetery edit

Romford Cemetery entrance

Crow Lane or Romford Cemetery was established by the Romford Burial Board in 1871 when space ran out in the parochial cemetery. It was taken over by Romford Urban District Council in 1900 and is now run by the South Essex Crematorium. It is partially enclosed by 19th-century railings, with ragstone gate-piers and two ragstone chapels joined by a gothic porte-cochère. It contains utilitarian monuments, with older graves near the chapels. The trees in the cemetery include holly, cedar and flowering cherry, and rows of common lime and horse chestnut.[26] The cemetery contains the war graves of 118 identified Commonwealth service personnel of the First and Second World Wars.[27]

Governance edit

Romford constituency in Greater London

The Romford UK Parliament constituency consists of the Havering wards of Brooklands, Havering Park, Hylands, Mawneys, Pettits, Romford Town, and Squirrel's Heath.

The current MP is Andrew Rosindell of the Conservative Party, a native of the town. Romford forms part of the Havering and Redbridge London Assembly constituency.

Each ward elects three councillors to Havering London Borough Council. As of the 2018 council elections, all the elected councillors for the wards in Romford constituency were Conservative.[28]

Sport edit

Romford F.C., who currently play in the Essex Senior League, is the local football team. The London Raiders ice hockey team are based in Romford. Romford is home to the Romford and Gidea Park Rugby Football Club, which was established in 1927. In 2003, the club became one of the first in the country to have a ladies Rugby team.

Geography edit

The River Rom emerges from underground channels at Roneo Corner.
Map of Romford and its environs
15 mile radius map for Romford

The town centre is about 50 feet (15 m) above sea level on a gravel terrace rising from the River Thames.[14] The north of the town has developed on London Clay and is situated as much as 150 ft (46 m) above sea level. A continuous gentle rise in the eastern suburbs towards Gidea Park and Harold Wood peaks around 177 feet (54 m) around the Harold Court. On the northern side, Harold Hill peaks at 75 m (246 ft). The semi-rural area north of Collier Row and Harold Hill consists of many rolls of hills, with elevation peaking at the village of Havering-atte-Bower, 344 feet (105 m). The town centre is for the most part contained within a ring road formed of St Edwards Way, Mercury Gardens, Thurloe Gardens, Oldchurch Road and Waterloo Road. The market place and much of South Street and the High Street are pedestrianised.[8] The railway cuts through the town from east to west on a viaduct, with the bulk of the central Romford area to its north. The River Rom flows through the town in underground channels and joins the Thames after flowing through Hornchurch;[14] elsewhere along its course it is known as the River Beam[12] and forms part of the strategic waterways Blue Ribbon Network.[29] Romford has formed part of the continuously built-up area of London since the 1930s[30] and is contiguous with Rush Green to the west, Collier Row to the north, Gidea Park to the east and Hornchurch to the south east.

The Romford post town covers all of the former municipal borough and extends over a much wider area, including parts of Barking and Dagenham and Epping Forest.[31]

Neighbourhoods of Romford include: Collier Row, Gidea Park, Harold Hill, Harold Park, Harold Wood, Havering-atte-Bower, Rise Park and Rush Green.

Romford is located 14 mi (23 km) northeast of Charing Cross in central London; 4+34 mi (7.5 km) northeast of Ilford; 2+12 mi (4 km) north of Dagenham; 9 mi (14 km) northwest of Grays; 6 mi (10 km) south-west of Brentwood; 12 mi (19 km) west of Basildon; and 9 mi (14 km) southeast of Epping.

Climate edit

Climate data for Romford is taken from the nearest weather station at Greenwich, around 10 miles (16 km) southwest of the marketplace.

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 16.8
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 8.5
Daily mean °C (°F) 5.9
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 3.4
Record low °C (°F) −12.7
Average precipitation mm (inches) 43.9
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 10.5 9.2 7.9 8.1 7.9 7.8 7.1 8.2 7.9 10.3 10.6 10.2 105.6
Mean monthly sunshine hours 44.4 66.1 109.7 152.9 198.7 198.6 209.2 198.0 140.6 99.7 58.5 50.1 1,526.4
Source 1: Met Office[32][33][34]
Source 2: Starlings Roost Weather[35][36]

Demography edit

Romford compared (2001 Census)
Statistic Romford
Brooklands[38] Havering[37] London[37] England[37]
Ethnic group
White 12,247 11,987 213,421 5,103,203 44,679,361
Asian 388 374 4,088 866,693 2,248,289
Black 234 389 3,139 782,849 1,132,508
Mixed 200 161 2,298 226,111 643,373
Chinese/Other 131 113 1,302 193,235 435,300
Total 13,200 13,024 224,248 7,172,091 49,138,831
Density(/hectare) 46.05 31.00 19.97 45.62 3.77
Households 5,829 5,361 91,722 3,015,997 20,451,427

The Havering committee area for Romford is defined as the wards of Romford Town and Brooklands.[39] Demographic data is produced by the Office for National Statistics for these wards. In 2001 the population of Romford Town was 13,200[37] and Brooklands was 13,024,[38] giving a total population of 26,224. In contrast, the approximate population of the area within the 2005 Romford Urban Strategy was estimated to be 36,500.[8] 71.52% in Romford Town and 70.48% in Brooklands report their religion as Christian, compared to 76.13% for Havering, 58.23% in London and 71.74% in England. 15.71% in Romford Town and 16.62% in Brooklands report having no religion, compared to 13.18% in Havering, 15.76% in London and 14.59% in England.[37][38]

In 2011, the Romford Parliament constituency was 82% White British, 5.8% Asian, 5% Other White and 4.7% Black out of a total population of 95,894. The constituency is predominantly Christian with 64% of the residents reporting that religion.[40]

Out of the wards that make up Romford overall, the highest male life expectancy was in Squirrel's Heath (80.7 years) while the highest female expectancy was in Romford Town (85.7 years). The lowest were Heaton (76.2 years) and Heaton and Gooshays (both 81.3 years) respectively.[41]

The average house price as of 2014 was £225,000 in Romford Town ward. In the Pettits ward, 87.5% of houses were owned by households; the lowest figure, and the only minority one, was Gooshays ward with 48.6%.[41]

Economy edit

The market place
The market place

Romford is recognised in the London Plan as one of 13 regionally significant metropolitan centres in Greater London, with a considerable catchment area.[8] The total commercial floorspace in the town was 353,258 m2 (3,802,440 sq ft) in 2002, of which 147,627 m2 (1,589,040 sq ft) was retail space and 63,357 m2 (681,970 sq ft) was offices. The retail space is growing and in 2005 consisted of 190,000 m2 (2,000,000 sq ft).[17] The retail economy is complemented by a central business district close to the railway station, where the offices of employers such as Aon are located. Employment in the town centre was categorised in 2002 as approximately 40% commercial office, 40% comparison retail, 10% hospitality, 5% public sector, 2.5% service retail and 2.5% arts and entertainment.[8] Compared to the similar east London areas of Ilford, Stratford and Barking, there is more comparison retail and commercial office employment in Romford and less public sector work.[8] The total turnover of £413,395,000 in 2002 for Romford was larger than any other comparable town centre in east London and approximately 70% came from the commercial office businesses.[8][needs update]

There is a developed night time economy, greater than in any other metropolitan centre in Greater London, with 8,360 m2 (90,000 sq ft) of cinemas, theatres and concert hall space; 9,530 m2 (102,600 sq ft) of bars and pubs; 5,510 m2 (59,300 sq ft) of cafés and restaurants; and 2,680 m2 (28,800 sq ft) of fast food and take away venues.[9] The night time economy is almost as significant as the day economy with around 12,000 visits to Romford during the day and 11,000 visits to pubs, clubs and bars at night.[8]

As of 2012, Romford has 207,025 m2 (2,228,400 sq ft) of total town centre floorspace (retail, leisure and vacant), placing it fifth in Greater London only behind the West End, Croydon, Kingston upon Thames and Stratford for "town centre vitality and viability".[42]

Transport edit

Railway edit

Romford railway station

The town is served by Romford railway station; it is situated on the Great Eastern Main Line and the Elizabeth line, in London fare zone 6.[43] Elizabeth line trains call at the station, formed of high-frequency services between London Paddington and Shenfield.[44] Services will extend through central London to Reading when the line is opened fully.

Some Greater Anglia services to/from Southend Victoria and Colchester Town also call at the station. A branch line shuttle on the Romford to Upminster Line is operated by London Overground.[44]

Buses edit

Romford is a hub of the London Buses network, with services to Canning Town, Stratford, Leytonstone and Dagenham; there are also feeder services from the large housing developments at Collier Row and Harold Hill.[45] There are night bus services to Stratford, Harold Hill and Paddington.[46] Romford town centre has a very high Public Transport Accessibility Level score of 6.[8]

There is a proposal that Romford will be served by a future extension of the East London Transit.[47]

Roads edit

The A12 trunk road passes to the north of Romford, while the A118 road from Stratford connects with it at Gallows Corner at the start of the A127 road to Southend.[48]

Culture edit

Welcome sign at Roneo Corner with the coat of arms and motto of Havering London Borough Council
Brookside Theatre entrance

Havering Council's urban strategy aims to make Romford a cultural destination, whilst recognising that Hornchurch forms the main cultural hub of the borough with a large theatre and arts spaces.[8] As a former market and coaching town, Romford is well served by public houses and two that are located in the market place are listed buildings.[49] The market and adjacent streets also form a conservation area.[8][50]

Mass entertainment facilities in the town include the Brookside Theatre, Romford Greyhound Stadium, one of the few remaining dog racing tracks in London;[51] 2 multi-screen cinemas;[8] and until April 2013 Romford Ice Arena, which was home to the local Romford Raiders ice hockey team.[52][53] The Dolphin Centre was a popular swimming and leisure facility located in the town from 1982 to 1995, but the site was redeveloped into the current Axis residential tower block and Asda superstore in the mid-2000s. There is also a Romford F.C. associated with the town.[54] Romford Bowls Club is based in Lodge Farm Park. 1980s Post Punk bands Department S and Purple Hearts both have origins in Romford. The town is strongly associated with the electronic music group Underworld, who cite Romford in their hit "Born Slippy", affiliated to the movie Trainspotting.[55]

Ride the sainted rhythms on the midnight train to Romford

— Dirty Epic on dubnobasswithmyheadman, Underworld (1994)[55]

Romford's position as a focus for electronic music production was reinforced by the presence of the Strictly Underground and Suburban Base record labels, with Suburban Base developing from the Boogie Times record store.[56] According to a Billboard article in 1992, Romford-produced dance music formed part of a trend favouring suburban and provincial "bedroom" record labels over those in central London.[57] In 2013, the film Death Walks was filmed in Romford over a four-month period. The cult TV series Garth Marenghi's Darkplace was set in the fictional Darkplace Hospital, in Romford.

The local newspapers for the town and the borough of Havering are the Romford Recorder, Romford and Havering Post and Romford Yellow Advertiser.

Two radio stations are located in the area: Time 107.5[58] and Bedrock Radio (a community health and hospital radio station).[59] A proposed new community service, Radio Romford, is planned to launch in 2024.[60]

In April 2023, hoodies were banned from the town centre. Ski masks and motorcycle helmets were also forbidden in an initiative by Romford Business Improvement District, backed by Havering councillors and local Metropolitan Police officers, as a measure against antisocial behaviour.[61]

Premier Cinemas, located within the Mercury Mall, has served as the venue for the Romford Film Festival since 2017, the Romford Horror Film Festival since 2020, and the East London LGBTQ+ Film Festival since 2023.[62][63][64]

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Romford is made up of 9 wards in the London Borough of Havering: Brooklands, Gooshays, Harold Wood, Havering Park, Heaton, Mawneys, Pettits, Romford Town, and Squirrel's Heath. "2011 Census Ward Population Estimates | London DataStore". Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
  2. ^ Mayor of London (February 2008). "London Plan (Consolidated with Alterations since 2004)" (PDF). Greater London Authority. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 October 2012. Retrieved 6 August 2009.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Powell, W.R. (Edr.) (1978). Romford: Economic History, A History of the County of Essex: Volume 7. Victoria County History. British History Online. Retrieved 6 August 2009.
  4. ^ a b c Powell, W.R. (Edr.) (1978). The liberty of Havering-atte-Bower, A History of the County of Essex: Volume 7. Victoria County History. British History Online. Retrieved 16 August 2009.
  5. ^ a b c Great Britain Historical GIS / University of Portsmouth, Romford parish (created 1900) population. Retrieved {{{accessdate}}}.
  6. ^ a b c d Great Britain Historical GIS / University of Portsmouth, Romford UD/MB (historic map). Retrieved {{{accessdate}}}.
  7. ^ Young, K. & Garside, P. (1982). Metropolitan London: Politics and Urban Change 1837-1981. Edward Arnold. ISBN 9780713163315.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Urban Practitioners & Allies and Morrison (July 2005). "Romford Urban Strategy". Havering London Borough Council. Archived from the original on 8 June 2011. Retrieved 14 August 2009.
  9. ^ a b Mayor of London (June 2006). "Managing the Night Time Economy" (PDF). Greater London Authority. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 14 August 2009.
  10. ^ "2011 Census Ward Population Estimates | London DataStore". Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
  11. ^ Great Britain Historical GIS / University of Portsmouth, Romford parish (abolished 1894) population. Retrieved {{{accessdate}}}.
  12. ^ a b c Mills, A.D. (2001). Dictionary of London Place Names. Oxford.
  13. ^ Weinreb, Ben; Hibbert, Christopher (1992). The London Encyclopaedia (reprint ed.). Macmillan. p. 675.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g Powell, W.R. (Edr.) (1978). Romford: Introduction, A History of the County of Essex: Volume 7. Victoria County History. British History Online. Retrieved 6 August 2009.
  15. ^ "Navigable cut from Rainham to Romford". The London Gazette. No. 16409. 2 October 1810. p. 1539.
  16. ^ Gill, Jonathan. "The Romford Canal Essex". Oxford Archaeology Unit. Retrieved 18 February 2022.
  17. ^ a b Havering London Borough Council. "Romford Town Centre". Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 6 August 2009.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Powell, W.R. (Edr.) (1978). Romford: Local government, A History of the County of Essex: Volume 7. Victoria County History. British History Online. Retrieved 6 August 2009.
  19. ^ Great Britain Historical GIS / University of Portsmouth, Havering atte Bower liberty. Retrieved {{{accessdate}}}.
  20. ^ Robson, William (1939). The Government and Mis-government of London. London: Allen & Unwin.
  21. ^ Great Britain Historical GIS / University of Portsmouth, Havering LB (historic map). Retrieved {{{accessdate}}}.
  22. ^ Foley, Michael (2009). "The Early Barracks". Essex at war through time. Stroud: Amberly. ISBN 9781445624983.
  23. ^ Bradshaw, George (2015). 1861 Bradshaws Handbook. Bishopbriggs: Collins. Section IV p.32. ISBN 978-0-00-794195-7.
  24. ^ Crang, Crang & May (1999). Virtual Geographies. Routledge.
  25. ^ "London Telephone Area in 1916". Private Line. Archived from the original on 14 December 2006. Retrieved 14 August 2008.
  26. ^ "Romford Cemetery (also known as Crow Lane Cemetery)". 2023. Retrieved 30 April 2023.
  27. ^ CWGC. "Romford Cemetery | Cemetery Details". CWGC. Retrieved 19 September 2023.
  28. ^ "Your Councillors". Retrieved 16 October 2020.
  29. ^ Mayor of London (2004). "The blue ribbon network". Greater London Authority. Archived from the original on 31 May 2010. Retrieved 14 August 2009.
  30. ^ Robson, William (1939). The Government and Mis-government of London. London: Allen & Unwin. pp. 26–27.
  31. ^ Royal Mail (2004). Address Management Guide. Royal Mail Group. p. 168.
  32. ^ "Greenwich 1991–2020 averages". Met Office. Retrieved 20 November 2018.
  33. ^ "Hot Spell - August 2003". Met Office. Retrieved 17 December 2018.
  34. ^ "Record Breaking Heat and Sunshine - July 2006". Met Office. Retrieved 17 December 2018.
  35. ^ "Monthly Extreme Maximum Temperature". Starlings Roost Weather. Retrieved 3 February 2023.
  36. ^ "Monthly Extreme Minimum Temperature". Starlings Roost Weather. Retrieved 3 February 2023.
  37. ^ a b c d e f Neighbourhood Statistics (2001). "2001 Census: Census Area Statistics, Area: Romford Town (Ward)". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 14 August 2008.
  38. ^ a b c Neighbourhood Statistics (2001). "2001 Census: Census Area Statistics, Area: Brooklands (Ward)". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 14 August 2008.
  39. ^ Romford Area Committee (June 2009). "Romford Area Committee (Brooklands and Romford Town Wards) Agenda". Havering London Borough Council. Archived from the original on 8 June 2011. Retrieved 14 August 2008.
  40. ^ "UK Polling Report".
  41. ^ a b "Ward Profiles and Atlas – London Datastore".
  42. ^ "2013 London Town Centre Health Check Analysis Report" (PDF). Greater London Authority. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
  43. ^ Transport for London (March 2009). "High frequency services" (PDF). Greater London Authority. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 November 2007. Retrieved 14 August 2008.
  44. ^ a b Romford Rail Station Transport for London
  45. ^ Transport for London (September 2008). "Buses from Romford" (PDF). Greater London Authority. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 August 2011. Retrieved 6 August 2009.
  46. ^ Transport for London (June 2009). "Night buses in north east London" (PDF). Greater London Authority. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 September 2008. Retrieved 13 August 2009.
  47. ^ Transport for London. "East London Transit". Greater London Authority. Retrieved 6 August 2009.
  48. ^ "Map of Havering". Havering London Borough Council. Retrieved 16 August 2008.
  49. ^ "Listed buildings in Romford". Havering London Borough Council. Archived from the original on 8 June 2011. Retrieved 4 January 2010.
  50. ^ Planning Department (2006). "Romford Conservation Area". Havering London Borough Council. Archived from the original on 8 June 2011. Retrieved 21 September 2009.
  51. ^ BBC News (19 May 2008). "Walthamstow race track to close". BBC. Retrieved 16 August 2009.
  52. ^ "Hockey is Back!". Romford Ice Arena. Archived from the original on 6 April 2008. Retrieved 14 August 2009.
  53. ^ "Skaters left without a home as doors close on ice rink". Romford Recorder. 31 January 2013. Retrieved 31 March 2013.
  54. ^ Romford Football Club. "History". Retrieved 14 August 2009.
  55. ^ a b Ben Thompson (25 August 2000). "On top of the Underworld". The Independent. London. Retrieved 14 August 2009.
  56. ^ Shapiro, Peter (1999). Drum 'n' bass: the rough guide. Rough Guides.
  57. ^ Sexton, Paul (August 1992). UK indies step outside london for dance hits. Billboard.
  58. ^ "Time FM". Time 107.5.
  59. ^ "Bedrock (Hospital Radio)". Bedrock (Hospital Radio).
  60. ^ "Radio Romford". Radio Romford.
  61. ^ Tapper, James (30 April 2023). "'Stupid!' Uproar in Romford as hoodies banned in shopping areas". The Observer.
  62. ^ "Film festival returns to Romford next year with no fees for student filmmakers". Romford Recorder. Retrieved 16 February 2024.
  63. ^ "Romford's First Horror Film Festival to take place this June and it promises to be truly Horrhiffic!". The Havering Daily. 1 June 2021. Retrieved 16 February 2024.
  64. ^ "Kaleidoscope to host Romford's first LGBTQ+ Film Festival". The Havering Daily. The Havering Daily. 30 June 2023. Retrieved 16 February 2024.

Further reading edit

External links edit