County Durham (//, locally //)[N 1] is a county in North East England. The county town is Durham, a cathedral city. The largest settlement is Darlington, closely followed by Hartlepool and Stockton-on-Tees. It borders Tyne and Wear to the north east, Northumberland to the north, Cumbria to the west and North Yorkshire to the south. The county's historic boundaries stretch between the rivers Tyne and Tees, thus including places such as Gateshead, Jarrow, South Shields and Sunderland.
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|Region||North East England|
|Lord Lieutenant||Susan Snowdon|
|High Sheriff||Dr Stephen Michael Cronin (2018/19)|
|Area||2,721 km2 (1,051 sq mi)|
|• Ranked||18th of 48|
|Population (mid-2017 est.)||862,600|
|• Ranked||26th of 48|
|Density||322/km2 (830/sq mi)|
|Council||Durham County Council|
|Area||2,226 km2 (859 sq mi)|
|• Ranked||6th of 326|
|• Ranked||7th of 326|
|Density||235/km2 (610/sq mi)|
Districts of County Durham
* only the part of the borough north of the River Tees is within the ceremonial county of Durham.
|Members of Parliament||List of MPs|
Cleveland Police (part)
|Time zone||Greenwich Mean Time (UTC)|
|• Summer (DST)||British Summer Time (UTC+1)|
During the Middle Ages, the county was an ecclesiastical centre, due largely to the presence of St Cuthbert's shrine in Durham Cathedral, and the extensive powers granted to the Bishop of Durham as ruler of the County Palatine of Durham. The county has a mixture of mining, farming and heavy railway heritage, with the latter especially noteworthy in the southeast of the county, in Darlington, Shildon and Stockton  It is an area of regeneration and promoted as a tourist destination; in the centre of the city of Durham, Durham Castle and Durham Cathedral are UNESCO-designated World Heritage Sites.
Many counties are named after their principal town, and the expected form here would be Durhamshire, but this form has never been in common use. The ceremonial county is officially named Durham, but the county has long been commonly known as County Durham and is the only English county name prefixed with "County" in common usage (the practice is common in Ireland). Its unusual naming (for an English shire) is explained to some extent by the relationship with the Bishops of Durham, who for centuries governed Durham as a county palatine (the County Palatine of Durham), outside the usual structure of county administration in England.
The situation regarding the formal name in modern local government is less clear. The structural change legislation which in 2009 created the present unitary council (that covers a large part – but not all – of the ceremonial county) refers to "the county of County Durham" and names the new unitary district "County Durham" too. However, a later amendment to that legislation, refers to the "county of Durham" and the amendment allows for the unitary council to name itself "The Durham Council". In the event the council retained the name of Durham County Council. With either option, the name does not include County Durham.
The ceremonial county of Durham is administered by four unitary authorities. The ceremonial county has no administrative function, but remains the area to which the Lord Lieutenant of Durham and the High Sheriff of Durham are appointed.
- County Durham (governed by Durham County Council): the unitary district was formed on 1 April 2009 replacing the previous two-tier system of a county council providing strategic services and seven district councils providing more local facilities. It has 126 councillors. The seven districts abolished were:
- Chester-le-Street, including the Lumley, Pelton and Sacriston areas
- Derwentside, including Consett and Stanley
- City of Durham, including Durham city and the surrounding areas
- Easington, including Seaham and the new town of Peterlee
- Borough of Sedgefield, including Spennymoor and Newton Aycliffe
- Teesdale, including Barnard Castle and the villages of Teesdale
- Wear Valley, including Bishop Auckland, Crook, Willington, Hunwick, and the villages along Weardale
- The Borough of Darlington: before 1 April 1997, Darlington was a district in a two-tier arrangement with Durham County Council.
- The Borough of Hartlepool: until 1 April 1996 the borough was one of four districts in the relatively short-lived county of Cleveland, which was abolished.
- The part of the Borough of Stockton-on-Tees that is north of the centre of the River Tees. Stockton was also part of Cleveland until that county's abolition in 1996. The remainder of the borough is part of the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire.
The county is partially parished.
Durham Constabulary operate in the area of the two unitary districts of County Durham and Darlington. Ron Hogg was first elected the Durham Police and Crime Commissioner for the force on 15 November 2012. The other areas in the ceremonial county fall within the police area of the Cleveland Police.
Fire service areas follow the same areas as the police with County Durham and Darlington Fire and Rescue Service serving the two unitary districts of County Durham and Darlington and Cleveland Fire Brigade covering the rest. County Durham and Darlington Fire and Rescue Service is under the supervision of a combined fire authority consisting of 25 local councillors: 21 from Durham County Council and 4 from Darlington Borough Council.
The North East Ambulance Service NHS Trust are responsible for providing NHS ambulance services throughout the ceremonial county, plus the boroughs of Middlesbrough and Redcar and Cleveland, which are south of the River Tees and therefore in North Yorkshire, but are also part of the North East England region.
County Palatine of DurhamEdit
The territory that became known as County Durham, originally a liberty under the control of the Bishops of Durham, had various names: the "Liberty of Durham", "Liberty of St Cuthbert's Land" "the lands of St. Cuthbert between Tyne and Tees" or "the Liberty of Haliwerfolc".
The bishops' special jurisdiction rested on claims that King Ecgfrith of Northumbria had granted a substantial territory to St Cuthbert on his election to the see of Lindisfarne in 684. In about 883 a cathedral housing the saint's remains was established at Chester-le-Street and Guthfrith, King of York granted the community of St Cuthbert the area between the Tyne and the Wear. In 995 the see moved again, to Durham.
Following the Norman invasion, the administrative machinery of government extended only slowly into northern England. Northumberland's first recorded Sheriff was Gilebert from 1076 until 1080 and a 12th-century record records Durham regarded as within the shire. However the bishops disputed the authority of the sheriff of Northumberland and his officials, despite the second sheriff for example being the reputed slayer of Malcolm Canmore, King of Scots. The crown regarded Durham as falling within Northumberland until the late thirteenth century. Matters came to a head in 1293 when the bishop and his steward failed to attend proceedings of quo warranto held by the justices of Northumberland. The bishop's case went before parliament, where he stated that Durham lay outside the bounds of any English shire and that "from time immemorial it had been widely known that the sheriff of Northumberland was not sheriff of Durham nor entered within that liberty as sheriff. . . nor made there proclamations or attachments". The arguments appear to have prevailed, as by the fourteenth century Durham was accepted as a liberty which received royal mandates direct. In effect it was a private shire, with the bishop appointing his own sheriff. The area eventually became known as the "County Palatine of Durham".
Sadberge was a liberty, sometimes referred to as a county, within Northumberland. In 1189 it was purchased for the see but continued with a separate sheriff, coroner and court of pleas. In the 14th century Sadberge was included in Stockton ward and was itself divided into two wards. The division into the four wards of Chester-le-Street, Darlington, Easington and Stockton existed in the 13th century, each ward having its own coroner and a three-weekly court corresponding to the hundred court. The diocese was divided into the archdeaconries of Durham and Northumberland. The former is mentioned in 1072, and in 1291 included the deaneries of Chester-le-Street, Auckland, Lanchester and Darlington.
The term palatinus is applied to the bishop in 1293, and from the 13th century onwards the bishops frequently claimed the same rights in their lands as the king enjoyed in his kingdom.
The historic boundaries of County Durham included a main body covering the catchment of the Pennines in the west, the River Tees in the south, the North Sea in the east and the Rivers Tyne and Derwent in the north. The county palatinate also had a number of liberties: the Bedlingtonshire, Islandshire and Norhamshire exclaves within Northumberland, and the Craikshire exclave within the North Riding of Yorkshire. In 1831 the county covered an area of 679,530 acres (2,750.0 km2) and had a population of 253,910. These exclaves were included as part of the county for parliamentary electoral purposes until 1832, and for judicial and local-government purposes until the coming into force of the Counties (Detached Parts) Act 1844, which merged most remaining exclaves with their surrounding county. The boundaries of the county proper remained in use for administrative and ceremonial purposes until the 1972 Local Government Act.
Until the 15th century the most important administrative officer in the Palatinate was the steward. Other officers included the sheriff, the coroners, the Chamberlain and the chancellor. The palatine exchequer originated in the 12th century. The palatine assembly represented the whole county, and dealt chiefly with fiscal questions. The bishop's council, consisting of the clergy, the sheriff and the barons, regulated judicial affairs, and later produced the Chancery and the courts of Admiralty and Marshalsea.
A Norman army captured Durham city in 1069. A rebellion took place against the new Norman earl, Robert de Comines, who was killed (January 1069). However, County Durham largely missed the Harrying of the North (1069–1070) that the Normans designed to subjugate such rebellions. The best remains of the Norman period include Durham Cathedral and the castle, and also some few parish churches, such as those at Pittington and Norton in Stockton. The Early English period has left the eastern portion of the cathedral, the churches of Darlington, Hartlepool, and St Andrew, Auckland, Sedgefield, and portions of a few other churches.
The prior of Durham ranked first among the bishop's barons. He had his own court, and almost exclusive jurisdiction over his men. There were ten palatinate barons in the 12th century, most importantly the Hyltons of Hylton Castle, the Bulmers of Brancepeth, the Conyers of Sockburne, the Hansards of Evenwood, and the Lumleys of Lumley Castle. The Nevilles owned large estates in the county. John Neville, 3rd Baron Neville de Raby rebuilt Raby Castle, their principal seat, in 1377.
Edward I's quo warranto proceedings of 1293 showed twelve lords enjoying more or less extensive franchises under the bishop. The repeated efforts of the Crown to check the powers of the palatinate bishops culminated in 1536 in the Act of Resumption, which deprived the bishop of the power to pardon offences against the law or to appoint judicial officers. Moreover, indictments and legal processes were in future to run in the name of the king, and offences to be described as against the peace of the king, rather than that of the bishop. In 1596 restrictions were imposed[by whom?] on the powers of the chancery, and in 1646 the palatinate was formally abolished. It was revived, however, after the Restoration, and continued with much the same power until 5 July 1836, when the Durham (County Palatine) Act 1836 provided that the palatine jurisdiction should in future be vested in the Crown.
During the 15th-century Wars of the Roses, Henry VI passed through Durham. On the outbreak of the Great Rebellion in 1642 Durham inclined to support the cause of the Parliament, and in 1640 the high sheriff of the palatinate guaranteed to supply the Scottish army with provisions during their stay in the county. In 1642 the Earl of Newcastle formed the western counties into an association for the King's service, but in 1644 the palatinate was again overrun by a Scottish army, and after the Battle of Marston Moor (2 July 1644) fell entirely into the hands of the parliament.
In 1614 a bill was introduced in parliament for securing representation to the county and city of Durham and the borough of Barnard Castle. The bishop strongly opposed the proposal as an infringement of his palatinate rights, and the county was first summoned to return members to parliament in 1654. After the Restoration of 1660 the county and city returned two members each. In the wake of the Reform Act of 1832 the county returned two members for two divisions, and the boroughs of Gateshead, South Shields and Sunderland acquired representation. The boroughs of Darlington, Stockton and Hartlepool returned one member each from 1868 until the Redistribution Act of 1885.
Modern local governmentEdit
The Municipal Corporations Act 1835 reformed the municipal boroughs of Durham, Stockton on Tees and Sunderland . In 1875 Jarrow was incorporated as a municipal borough, as was West Hartlepool in 1887. At a county level, the Local Government Act 1888 reorganised local government throughout England and Wales. Most of the county came under control of the newly-formed Durham County Council in an area known as an administrative county. Not included were the county boroughs of Gateshead, South Shields and Sunderland. However, for purposes other than local government the administrative county of Durham and the county boroughs continued to form a single county to which the Crown appointed a Lord Lieutenant of Durham.
Over its existence, the administrative county lost territory, both to the existing county boroughs, and also because two municipal boroughs became county boroughs: West Hartlepool in 1902 and Darlington in 1915. The county boundary with the North Riding of Yorkshire was adjusted in 1967: that part of the town of Barnard Castle historically in Yorkshire was added to County Durham, while the administrative county ceded the portion of the Borough of Stockton-on-Tees in Durham to the North Riding. In 1968, following the recommendation of the Local Government Commission, Billingham was transferred to the county borough of Teesside, in the North Riding. In 1971 the population of the county - including all associated county boroughs (an area of 2,570 km2 (990 sq mi)) - was 1,409,633, with a population outside the county boroughs of 814,396.
In 1974 the Local Government Act 1972 abolished the administrative county and the county boroughs, reconstituting County Durham as a non-metropolitan county. The reconstituted County Durham lost territory to the north-east (around Gateshead, South Shields and Sunderland) to Tyne and Wear and to the south-east (around Hartlepool) to Cleveland. At the same time it gained the former area of Startforth Rural District from the North Riding of Yorkshire. The area of the Lord Lieutenancy of Durham was also adjusted by the Act to coincide with the non-metropolitan county (which occupied 3,019 km2 (1,166 sq mi) in 1981).
In 1996, as part of the 1990s UK local government reform, Cleveland was abolished and its districts were reconstituted as unitary authorities. Hartlepool and Stockton-on-Tees (north of the River Tees) were returned to Durham for the purposes of Lord Lieutenancy. The change in area for Lord Lieutenancy purposes to reflect the abolition of Cleveland was confirmed by the Lieutenancies Act 1997. Cleveland was adopted as a postal county in 1974 and by the time of its abolition, the Royal Mail had abandoned the use of postal counties altogether. Since 1996 the use of a county address line is permitted but not mandatory and can be however a writer wishes.
In 1997 Darlington became a unitary authority and was separated from the shire county.
As part of the 2009 structural changes to local government in England initiated by the Department for Communities and Local Government, the seven district councils within the County Council area were abolished. The County Council assumed their functions and became a unitary authority. The changes came into effect on 1 April 2009.
Modern national governmentEdit
|Climate chart (explanation)|
The following climate figures were gathered at the Durham weather station between 1971 and 2000.
County Durham contains a small area of green belt in the north of the county, surrounding primarily the city of Durham, Chester-le-Street and other communities along the shared county border with Tyne and Wear, to afford a protection from the Wearside conurbation. There is a smaller portion of belt separating Urpeth, Ouston, Pelton, and Perkinsville from Birtley in Tyne and Wear. A further small segment by the coast separates Seaham from the Sunderland settlements of Beckwith Green and Ryhope. It was first drawn up in the 1990s.
152 species of birds are recorded as breeding; however, not all are considered regular breeders.
The Office for National Statistics estimated in 2016 that the Durham County Council area had a population of 522,100, the Borough of Darlington a population of 105,600, the Borough of Hartlepool a population of 92,800, and the part of the Borough of Stockton-on-Tees in County Durham (the other part being in North Yorkshire) a population of 137,300[N 2]. This gives the total estimated population of the ceremonial county at 857,800.
At the 2001 Census, Easington and Derwentside districts had the highest proportion (around 99%) in the county council area of resident population who were born in the UK. 13.2% of the county council area's residents rate their health as not good, the highest proportion in England. This table shows the historic population of the current remit of Durham County Council between 1801 and 2001.
|Source: A Vision of Britain through Time.|
The proportion of the population working in agriculture fell from around 6% in 1851 to 1% in 1951; currently less than 1% of the population work in agriculture. There were 15,202 people employed in coal mining in 1841, rising to a peak of 157,837 in 1921. As at 2001, Chester-le-Street district has the lowest number of available jobs per working-age resident (0.38%).
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The economic history of the county centres round the growth of the mining industry, which at its heights employed almost the whole of the non-agricultural population, with large numbers of pit villages being founded throughout the county. Stephen possessed a mine in Durham which he granted to Bishop Pudsey, and in the same century colliers are mentioned at Coundon, Bishopwearmouth and Sedgefield. Cockfield Fell was one of the earliest Landsale collieries in Durham. Richard II granted to the inhabitants of Durham licence to export the produce of the mines, the majority being transported from the Port of Sunderland complex which was constructed in the 1850s.
Among other early industries lead-mining was carried on in the western part of the county, and mustard was extensively cultivated. Gateshead had a considerable tanning trade and shipbuilding was undertaken at Sunderland, which became the largest shipbuilding town in the world – constructing a third of Britain's tonnage.
|Gross Value Added (GVA) (£m)|
|Agriculture, hunting and forestry||45||33||48|
|Industry, including energy and construction||1,751||1,827||1,784|
Postal Rates from 1801 were charged depending on the distance from London. Durham was allocated the code 263 the approximate mileage from London. From about 1811, a datestamp appeared on letters showing the date the letter was posted. In 1844 a new system was introduced and Durham was allocated the code 267. This system was replaced in 1840 when the first postage stamps were introduced.
The culture of coal mining found expression in the Durham Miners' Gala, which was first held in 1871, developed around the culture of trade unionism. Coal mining continued to decline and pits closed. The UK miners' strike of 1984/5 caused many miners across the county to strike. Today no deep-coal mines exist in the county and numbers attending the Miners' Gala decreased over the period between the end of the strike and the 21st century. However recent years have seen numbers significantly grow, and more banners return to the Gala each year as former colliery communities restore or replicate former banners to march at the Gala parade.
Individuals such as Tom Lamb have been able to turn their mining career into a career in art. Lamb's artworks depict scenes of life underground experienced daily by miners, through this people are able to understand and experience the mining culture of County Durham.
Since the Local Government Act 1972, some settlements within the historic county boundaries now lie within other administrative counties. These include:
|Tyne and Wear||Birtley, Blaydon, Boldon, Felling, Gateshead, Hebburn, Houghton-le-Spring, Jarrow, Ryton, South Shields, Sunderland, Washington, Whickham|
However a small number of settlements, such as Startforth, are now included within County Durham as opposed to Yorkshire.
Durham LEA has a comprehensive school system with 36 state secondary schools (not including sixth form colleges) and five independent schools (four in Durham and one in Barnard Castle). Easington district has the largest school population by year, and Teesdale the smallest with two schools. Only one school in Easington and Derwentside districts have sixth forms, with about half the schools in the other districts having sixth forms.
Places of interestEdit
|Accessible open space|
||Museum (free/not free)|
- County Hall
- Apollo Pavilion, Peterlee, controversial piece of concrete art designed by Victor Pasmore in 1969.
- Auckland Castle, Bishop Auckland
- Barnard Castle
- Beamish Museum, in Stanley
- Binchester Roman Fort
- Bowes Museum, in Barnard Castle
- Castle Eden, a castle with adjoining village, famous for the Castle Eden Brewery.
- Castle Eden Dene, Nature reserve with coal mining heritage.
- Causey Arch, near Stanley
- Crook Hall and Gardens
- Durham Cathedral and Castle, a World Heritage Site
- Durham Dales
- Durham Light Infantry Museum, Aykley Heads, Near Durham
- Escomb Saxon Church, near Bishop Auckland
- Finchale Priory, near Durham city
- Hamsterley Forest
- Hardwick Hall Country Park near Sedgefield
- High Force and Low Force waterfalls, on the River Tees
- Ireshopeburn – oldest Methodist chapel in the world to have held continuous services. Site of the 'Weardale Museum'
- Killhope Wheel, part of the North of England Lead Mining Museum in Weardale
- Longovicium Roman Fort, Lanchester – ruined auxiliary fort.
- Oriental Museum, Durham City – Asian artefacts and information.
- Raby Castle, near Staindrop
- Seaham Hall
- Sedgefield – St. Edmund's Church has notable Cosin woodwork. Home to Sedgefield Racecourse.
- Locomotion railway museum, in Shildon
- Tanfield Railway, in Tanfield
- Ushaw College, Catholic Seminary of great religious heritage.
- Weardale Railway, at Stanhope, County Durham, Wolsingham and Bishop Auckland
- North of England Institute of Mining and Mechanical Engineers, Newcastle
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to County Durham.|
|Wikisource has the text of a 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article about County Durham.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for County Durham.|
- County Durham at Curlie
- Durham County Council
- Hotels in Co Durham
- One North East guides & brochures
- Guided Walks Programme from Durham County Councill
- Visit County Durham
- The North East Forum
- Images of Durham at the English Heritage Archive
- "Durham", Historical Directories, UK: University of Leicester