Religion in the United Kingdom
Religion in the United Kingdom, and in the countries that preceded it, has been dominated for over 1,000 years by various forms of Christianity. Religious affiliations of United Kingdom citizens are recorded by regular surveys, the four major ones being the national decennial census, the Labour Force Survey, the British Social Attitudes survey and the European Social Survey.
According to the 2011 Census, Christianity is the majority religion, followed by Islam, Hinduism, Sikhism, Judaism and Buddhism in terms of number of adherents. Among Christians, Anglicans are the most common denomination, followed by the Catholics, Presbyterians, Methodists and Baptists. This, and the relatively large number of individuals with nominal or no religious affiliations, has led commentators to variously describe the United Kingdom as a post-Christian, multi-faith and secularised society.
The United Kingdom was formed by the union of previously independent countries in 1707, and consequently most of the largest religious groups do not have UK-wide organisational structures. While some groups have separate structures for the individual countries of the United Kingdom, others have a single structure covering England and Wales or Great Britain. Similarly, due to the relatively recent creation of Northern Ireland in 1921, most major religious groups in Northern Ireland are organised on an all-Ireland basis.
While the United Kingdom's official religion is Protestant Christianity, the Church of England remains the state church of its largest constituent region, England. The Monarch of the United Kingdom is the Supreme Governor of the Church. Some British people and organisations in the United Kingdom, such as Humanists UK, hold the view that the UK should become a secular state, with no official or established religion.
Pre-Roman forms of religion in Britain included various forms of ancestor worship and paganism. Little is known about the details of such religions (see British paganism). Forms of Christianity have influenced religious life in what is now the United Kingdom for over 1,400 years. It was introduced by the Romans to what is now England, Wales, and Southern Scotland. The doctrine of Pelagianism, declared heretical in the Council of Carthage (418), originated with a British-born ascetic, Pelagius.
The Anglo-Saxon invasions briefly re-introduced paganism in the 5th and 6th centuries; Christianity was again brought to Great Britain by Catholic Church and Irish-Scottish missionaries in the course of the 7th century (see Anglo-Saxon Christianity).Insular Christianity as it stood between the 6th and 8th centuries retained some idiosyncrasies in terms of liturgy and calendar, but it had been nominally united with Roman Christianity since at least the Synod of Whitby of 664. Still in the Anglo-Saxon period, the archbishops of Canterbury established a tradition of receiving their pallium from Rome to symbolize the authority of the Pope.
The Roman Catholic Church remained the dominant form of Western Christianity in Britain throughout the Middle Ages, but the (Anglican) Church of England became the independent established church in England and Wales in 1534 as a result of the English Reformation. It retains a representation in the UK Parliament and the British monarch is its Supreme Governor.
In Scotland, the Presbyterian Church of Scotland, established in a separate Scottish Reformation in the sixteenth century, is recognized as the national church. It is not subject to state control and the British monarch is an ordinary member, required to swear an oath to "maintain and preserve the Protestant Religion and Presbyterian Church Government" upon his or her accession.
The adherence to the Catholic Church continued at various levels in different parts of Britain, especially among recusants and in the north of England, but most strongly in Ireland. This would expand in Great Britain, partly due to Irish immigration in the nineteenth century, the Catholic emancipation and the Restoration of the English hierarchy.
Particularly from the mid-seventeenth century, forms of Protestant nonconformity, including Congregationalists, Baptists, Quakers and, later, Methodists, grew outside of the established church. The (Anglican) Church in Wales was disestablished in 1920 and, as the (Anglican) Church of Ireland was disestablished in 1870 before the partition of Ireland, there is no established church in Northern Ireland.
The Jews in England were expelled in 1290 and only emancipated in the 19th century. British Jews had numbered fewer than 10,000 in 1800 but around 120,000 after 1881 when Russian Jews settled permanently in Britain.
The substantial immigration to the United Kingdom since the 1920s has contributed to the growth of foreign faiths, especially of Islam, Hinduism and Sikhism,Buddhism in the United Kingdom experienced growth partly due to immigration and partly due to conversion (especially when including Secular Buddhism).
As elsewhere in the western world, religious demographics have become part of the discourse on multiculturalism, with Britain variously described as a post-Christian society, as "multi-faith", or as secularised. Scholars have suggested multiple possible reasons for the decline, but have not agreed on their relative importance. Martin Wellings lays out the "classical model" of secularisation, while noting that it has been challenged by some scholars.
The familiar starting-point, a classical model of secularisation, argues that religious faith becomes less plausible and religious practice more difficult in advanced industrial and urbanized societies. The breakdown or disruption of traditional communities and norms of behavior; the spread of a scientific world-view diminishing the scope of the supernatural and the role of God; increasing material affluence promoting self-reliance and this-worldly optimism; and greater awareness and toleration of different creeds and ideas, encouraging religious pluralism and eviscerating commitment to a particular faith, all form components of the case for secularisation. Applied to the British churches in general by Steve Bruce and to Methodism in particular by Robert Currie, this model traces decline back to the Victorian era and charts in the twentieth century a steady ebbing of the sea of faith.
Although there was no UK-wide data in the 2001 or the 2011 census on adherence to individual Christian denominations, since they are asked only in the Scottish and in the Northern Irish Censuses, using the same principle as applied in the 2001 census, a survey carried out in the end of 2008 by Ipsos MORI and based on a scientifically robust sample, found the population of England and Wales to be 47.0% Anglican, 9.6% Catholic and 8.7% other Christians; 4.8% were Muslim, 3.4% were members of other religions. 5.3% were Agnostics, 6.8% were Atheists and 15.0% were not sure about their religious affiliation or refused to answer to the question.
The 2009 British Social Attitudes Survey, which covers Great Britain but not Northern Ireland, indicated that over 50 per cent would self-classify as not religious at all, 19.9 per cent were part of the Church of England, 9.3% non-denominational Christian, 8.6% Catholic, 2.2% Presbyterian/Church of Scotland, 1.3% Methodist, 0.53% Baptist, 1.17% other Protestant, 0.23% United Reformed Church/Congregational, 0.06% Free Presbyterian, 0.03% Brethren Christian and 0.41% other Christian.
In a 2016 survey conducted by BSA (British Social Attitudes) on religious affiliation; 53% of respondents indicated 'no religion' and 41% indicated they were Christians, while 6% affiliated with non-Christian religions (Islam, Hinduism, Judaism etc.)
Eurostat's Eurobarometer survey in December 2018 found that 53.6% of UK's population is Christian, while 6.2% belong to other religions and 40.2% are non-religious (30.3% Agnostics, 9.9% Atheists). The May 2019 Special Eurobarometer found that 50% were Christians (14% Protestants, 13% Catholics, 7% Orthodox and 16% other Christians), 37% non-religious (9% atheists, 28% 'nonbelievers and agnostics'), 5% Muslims (3% Sunnis, 1% Shias, 1% other Muslims), 1% Sikhs, 1% Hindus, fewer than 1% Jews, fewer than 1% Buddhists, 4% other religions, 1% didn't know, and 1% refused to answer.
The wording of the question affects the outcome of polls as is apparent when comparing the results of the Scottish census with that of the English and Welsh census. An ICM poll for The Guardian in 2006 asked the question "Which religion do you yourself belong to?" with a response of 64% stating "Christian" and 26% stating "none". In the same survey, 63% claimed they are not religious with just 33% claiming they are. This suggests that the religious UK population identify themselves as having Christian beliefs, but maybe not as active "church-goers".
Religions other than Christianity, such as Islam, Hinduism, Sikhism and Judaism, have established a presence in the United Kingdom, both through immigration and by attracting converts. Others that have done so include the Baháʼí Faith, the Rastafari movement and Neopaganism.
The European Social Survey, carried out between 2014 and 2016, found that 70% of people between 16 and 29 were not religious.
The statistics for current religion (not religion of upbringing where also asked) from the 2011 census and the corresponding statistics from the 2001 census are set out in the tables below.
|Religion||England||Wales||England and Wales||Scotland||Great Britain||Northern Ireland||United Kingdom|
|Religion not stated||3,804,104||7.2||233,928||7.6||4,038,032||7.2||368,039||7.0||4,406,071||7.2||122,252||6.8||4,528,323||7.2|
|Religion||England||Wales||England and Wales||Scotland||Great Britain||Northern Ireland||United Kingdom|
|Religion not stated||3,776,515||7.7||234,143||8.1||4,010,658||7.7||278,061||5.5||4,288,719||7.5|
- Religious affiliation (%) in the UK according to the censuses 2001–2
Religious affiliations of UK citizens are recorded by regular surveys, the four major ones being the UK Census, the Labour Force Survey, the British Social Attitudes survey and the European Social Survey. The different questions asked by these surveys produced different results:
- The census for England and Wales asked the question "What is your religion?". In 2001 14.81% and in 2011 around a quarter (25.1%) of the population said they had "none" and 70% stated they were Christian.
- The census for Scotland asked the question "What religion, religious denomination or body do you belong to?". In 2001 27.55% and in 2011 36.7% selected "none" and 53.8% stated they were Christian.
- The Labour Force Survey asked the question "What is your religion even if you are not currently practising?" with a response of 15.7% selecting "no religion" in 2004 and 22.4% selecting "no religion" in 2010.
- The British Social Attitudes survey asked the question "Do you regard yourself as belonging to any particular religion?" with 53% selecting "no religion" in 2016.
- The European Social Survey asked the question "Which religion or denomination do you belong to at present?" with 50.54% of respondents selecting "no religion" in 2002 and 52.68% selecting "no religion" in 2008.
- In 1983, in a large public opinion survey, almost a third of Britons said they believed in Hell and the Devil. In Northern Ireland, 91 per cent of people said they believed in sin. This was reported in The Observer on 28 February 1983.
- In 2018, according to a study jointly conducted by London's St Mary's University's Benedict XVI Centre for Religion and Society and the Institut Catholique de Paris, and based on data from the European Social Survey 2014–2016 collected on a sample of 560, among 16 to 29 years-old British people 21% were Christians (10% Catholic, 7% Anglican, 2% other Protestant and 2% other Christian), 6% were Muslims, 3% were of other religions, and 70% were not religious. The data was obtained from two questions, one asking "Do you consider yourself as belonging to any particular religion or denomination?" to the full sample and the other one asking "Which one?" to the sample who replied with "Yes".
|Affiliation||% of UK population|
|Church of England||12|
|Christian - no denomination||9|
|Other Non-Christian faiths||3|
The British Social Attitudes surveys and the European Social Surveys are fielded to adult individuals. In contrast, the United Kingdom Census and the Labour Force Surveys are household surveys; the respondent completes the questionnaire on behalf of each member of the household, including children, as well as for themselves. The 2010 Labour Force Survey claimed that 54% of children aged from birth to four years were Christian, rising to 59% for children aged between 5 and 9 and 65% for children aged between 10 and 14. The inclusion of children with adult-imposed religions influences the results of the polls.
Other major polls agree with the British Social Attitudes surveys and the European Social Surveys, with a YouGov survey fielded in February 2012 indicating that 43% of respondents claimed to belong to a religion and 76% claimed they were not very religious or not religious at all. An Ipsos MORI survey fielded in August 2003 indicated that 18% of respondents claimed to be "a practising member of an organised religion" and 25% claimed "I am a non-practising member of an organised religion". A 2015 study estimated some 25,000 believers in Christ from a Muslim background, most of whom belong to an evangelical or Pentecostal community.
Religious affiliation (%) in England, Scotland and Wales according to the Annual Population Survey 2007-2016Edit
The Annual Population Survey is a combined statistical survey of households in Great Britain which is conducted quarterly by the Office for National Statistics and combines results from the Labour Force Survey and the English, Welsh and Scottish Labour Force Survey, gathers information about the religious affiliation, reported in the table below. The change in the religious affiliation between the 2010 APS and the 2011 APS is due to a question change, which significantly influenced the final results.
Society in the United Kingdom is markedly more secular than it was in the past and the number of churchgoers fell over the second half of the 20th century. The Ipsos MORI poll in 2003 reported that 18% were "a practising member of an organised religion". The Tearfund Survey in 2007 found that only 7% of the population considered themselves as practising Christians. Some 10% attended church weekly and two-thirds had not gone to church in the past year. The Tearfund Survey also found that two-thirds of UK adults (66%) or 32.2 million people had no connection with the Church at present (nor with another religion). These people were evenly divided between those who have been in the past but have since left (16 million) and those who have never been in their lives (16.2 million).
A survey in 2002 found Christmas attendance at Anglican churches in England varied between 10.19% of the population in the diocese of Hereford, down to just 2.16% in Manchester. Church attendance at Christmas in some dioceses was up to three times the average for the rest of the year. Overall church attendance at Christmas has been steadily increasing in recent years; a 2005 poll found that 43 per cent expected to attend a church service over the Christmas period, in comparison with 39% and 33% for corresponding polls taken in 2003 and 2001 respectively.
A December 2007 report by Christian Research showed that the services of the Catholic Church had become the best-attended services of Christian denominations in England, with average attendance at Sunday Mass of 861,000, compared to 852,000 attending Anglican services. Attendance at Anglican services had declined by 20% between 2000 and 2006, while attendance at Catholic services, boosted by large-scale immigration from Poland and Lithuania, had declined by only 13%. In Scotland, attendance at Church of Scotland services declined by 19% and attendance at Catholic services fell by 25%. British Social Attitudes Surveys have shown the proportion of those in Great Britain who consider they "belong to" Christianity to have fallen from 66% in 1983 to 43% in 2009.
In 2012 about 6% of the population of the United Kingdom regularly attended church, with the average age of attendees being 51; in contrast, in 1980, 11% had regularly attended, with an average age of 37. It is predicted that by 2020 attendance will be around 4%, with an average age of 56. This decline in church attendance has forced many churches to close down across the United Kingdom, with the Church of England alone closing 1,500 churches between 1969 and 2002. Their fates include dereliction, demolition, and residential, artistic and commercial conversion. In October 2014 weekly attendance at Church of England services dropped below 1 million for the first time. At Christmas 2014, 2.4 million attended. For that year baptisms were 130,000, down 12% since 2004; marriages were 50,000, down 19%; and funerals 146,000, down 29%. The Church estimated that about 1% of churchgoers were lost to death each year; the Church's age profile suggested that attendances would continue to decline.
One study showed that in 2004 at least 930,000 Muslims attended a mosque at least once a week, just outnumbering the 916,000 regular churchgoers in the Church of England. Muslim sources claim the number of practising Muslims is underestimated as nearly all of them pray at home.
"Do you consider yourself as belonging to any particular religion or denomination?"
There is a disparity between the figures for those identifying themselves with a particular religion and for those proclaiming a belief in a God:
- In a 2011 YouGov poll, 34% of UK citizens said they believed in a God or gods.
- A Eurobarometer opinion poll in 2010 reported that 37% of UK citizens "believed there is a God", 33% believe there is "some sort of spirit or life force" and 25% answered "I don't believe there is any sort of spirit, God or life force".
- The 2008 European Social Survey suggested that 46.94% of UK citizens never prayed and 18.96% prayed daily.
- A survey in 2007 suggested that 42% of adults resident in the United Kingdom prayed, with one in six praying daily.
Jedi census phenomenonEdit
In the 2001 census, 390,127 individuals (0.7 per cent of total respondents) in England and Wales self-identified as followers of the Jedi faith. This Jedi census phenomenon followed an internet campaign that claimed, incorrectly, that the Jedi belief system would receive official government recognition as a religion if it received enough support in the census. An email in support of the campaign, quoted by BBC News, invited people to "do it because you love Star Wars ... or just to annoy people". The Office for National Statistics revealed the total figure in a press release entitled "390,000 Jedi there are".
The United Kingdom was formed by the union of previously autonomous states in 1707, and consequently most of the largest religious groups do not have UK-wide organisational structures. While some groups have separate structures for the individual countries of the United Kingdom, others have a single structure covering England and Wales or Great Britain. Similarly, due to the relatively recent creation of Northern Ireland in 1921, most major religious groups in Northern Ireland are organised on an all-Ireland basis.
Presbyterianism, Congregationalism and other ReformedEdit
In Scotland, the Church of Scotland (informally known by its Scots language name, "the Kirk"), is recognised as the national church. It is not subject to state control and the British monarch is an ordinary member, required to swear an oath to "maintain and preserve the Protestant Religion and Presbyterian Church Government" upon his or her accession. Splits in the Church of Scotland, especially in the 19th century, led to the creation of various other Presbyterian churches in Scotland, including the Free Church of Scotland, which claims to be the constitutional continuator of the Church in Scotland and was founded in 1843. The Free Presbyterian Church of Scotland was formed in 1893 by some who left the Free Church over alleged weakening of her position and likewise claims to be the spiritual descendant of the Scottish Reformation. The Evangelical Presbyterian Church in England and Wales was founded in the late 1980s and organized themselves as a presbytery in 1996. As of 2016[update] they had 15 churches in the UK. The Presbyterian Church in Ireland is the largest Protestant denomination and second largest church in Northern Ireland. The Free Presbyterian Church of Ulster was founded on 17 March 1951 by the cleric and politician Ian Paisley. It has about 60 churches in Northern Ireland. The Presbyterian Church of Wales seceded from the Church of England in 1811 and formally formed itself into a separate body in 1823. The Non-subscribing Presbyterian Church of Ireland has 31 congregations in Northern Ireland, with the first Presbytery being formed in Antrim in 1725.
The United Reformed Church (URC), a union of Presbyterian and Congregational churches, consists of about 1383 congregations in England, Scotland and Wales. There are about 600 Congregational churches in the United Kingdom. In England there are three main groups, the Congregational Federation, the Evangelical Fellowship of Congregational Churches, and about 100 Congregational churches that are loosely federated with other congregations in the Fellowship of Independent Evangelical Churches, or are unaffiliated. In Scotland the churches are mostly member of the Congregational Federation and in Wales which traditionally has a larger number of Congregationalists, most are members of the Union of Welsh Independents.
The Methodist movement traces its origin to the evangelical awakening in the 18th century. The British Methodist Church, which has congregations throughout the nation, has around 188,000 members, and 5,900 churches, though only around 3,000 members in 50 congregations are in Scotland. In the 1960s, it made ecumenical overtures to the Church of England, aimed at church unity. Formally, these failed when they were rejected by the Church of England's General Synod in 1972. However, conversations and co-operation continued, leading on 1 November 2003 to the signing of a covenant between the two churches.
The Methodist Church in Ireland covers the whole of the island of Ireland, including Northern Ireland where it is the fourth-largest denomination.
The Baptist Union of Great Britain, despite its name, covers just England and Wales. There is a separate Baptist Union of Scotland and the Association of Baptist Churches in Ireland is an all-Ireland organisation. Other Baptist associations also exist in England, such as the Grace Baptist association and the Gospel Standard Baptists.
Charismatics and PentecostalismEdit
Assemblies of God in Great Britain are part of the World Assemblies of God Fellowship with over 600 churches in Great Britain. Assemblies of God Ireland cover the whole of the island of Ireland, including Northern Ireland. The Apostolic Church commenced in the early part of the 20th century in South Wales and now has over 110 churches across the United Kingdom. Elim Pentecostal Church as of 2013[update] had over 500 churches across the United Kingdom.
There is also a growing number of independent, charismatic churches that encourage Pentecostal practices as part of their worship. These are broadly grouped together as the British New Church Movement and could number up to 400,000 members. The phenomenon of immigrant churches and congregations that began with the arrival of the HMT Empire Windrush from the West Indies in 1948 stands as a unique trend. West Indian congregations that started from this time include the Church of God, New Testament Assembly and New Testament Church of God.
Africans began to arrive in the early 1980s and established their own congregations. Foremost among these are Matthew Ashimolowo from Nigeria and his Kingsway International Christian Centre in London that may be the largest church in Western Europe.
The Britain Yearly Meeting is the umbrella body for the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) in Great Britain, the Channel Isles and the Isle of Man. It has 14,260 adult members. Northern Ireland comes under the umbrella of the Ireland Yearly Meeting.
The Church of England is the established church in England. Its most senior bishops sit in the national parliament and the Queen is its supreme governor. It is also the "mother church" of the worldwide Anglican Communion. The Church of England separated from the Catholic Church in 1534 and became the established church by Parliament in the Act of Supremacy, beginning a series of events known as the English Reformation. Historically it has been the predominant Christian denomination in England and Wales, in terms of both influence and number of adherents.
The Scottish Episcopal Church, which is part of the Anglican Communion (but not a "daughter church" of the Church of England), dates from the final establishment of Presbyterianism in Scotland in 1690, when it split from the Church of Scotland. In the 1920s, the Church in Wales became disestablished and independent from the Church of England, but remains in the Anglican Communion.
The Catholic Church has separate national organisations for England, Wales, and Scotland, which means there is no single hierarchy for the Catholic Church in the United Kingdom. Catholicism is the second largest denomination in England and Wales, with around five million members, mainly in England. There is, however, a single apostolic nuncio to Great Britain, presently Archbishop Edward Joseph Adams. Catholicism is also Scotland's second largest Christian denomination, representing a fifth of the population. The apostolic nuncio to the whole of Ireland (both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland) is Jude Thaddeus Okolo. Eastern Rite Catholics in the United Kingdom are served by their own clergy and do not belong to the Latin Church dioceses but are still in full communion with the Bishop of Rome.
Orthodox Christianity is a relatively minor faith in the United Kingdom when compared to Protestantism and Catholicism; most Orthodox churches cater to immigrants from Eastern Europe, the Balkans and The Middle East and is a relatively minor faith among Britons themselves. In 2013 there were roughly 464,000 members of Orthodox churches in the UK.
Adherents of Eastern Orthodox Christianity in the United Kingdom are traditionally organized in accordance with patrimonial ecclesiastical jurisdictions. The Russian Orthodox Church has a Diocese of Sourozh, which covers Great Britain and Ireland, and the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia also has a diocese in the same territory. The Greek Orthodox Church is represented by the Ecumenical Patriarchate, which has established the Archdiocese of Thyateira and Great Britain, that covers England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland as well as Malta. The Patriarchate of Antioch has several parishes and missions within the Diocese of the British Isles and Ireland. Other Eastern Orthodox Churches represented in the United Kingdom include the Georgian Orthodox Church, the Romanian Orthodox Church, the Bulgarian Orthodox Church and the Serbian Orthodox Church.
Adherents of Oriental Orthodox Christianity in the United Kingdom are also traditionally organized in accordance with their patrimonial ecclesiastical jurisdictions, each community having its own parishes and priests. The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria has two regional Dioceses in the United Kingdom: the Diocese of Ireland, Scotland, North East England, and the Diocese of the Midlands. Other Oriental Orthodox Churches represented in the United Kingdom include the Syriac Orthodox Church, the Armenian Apostolic Church, the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church and the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church. The homegrown British Orthodox Church and Celtic Orthodox Church, although both minor, are also represented.
Other Trinitarian denominationsEdit
The first missionaries from the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints to proselytise in the British Isles arrived in 1837. By 1900 as many as 100,000 converts had joined the faith, but most of these early members soon emigrated to the United States to join the main body of the church. From the 1950s emigration to the United States began to be discouraged and local congregations grew more rapidly. Today the church claims just over 186,000 members across the United Kingdom, in over 330 local congregations, known as 'wards' or 'branches'. The church also maintains two temples in England, the first opening in the London area in 1958, and the second completed in 1998 in Preston and known as the Preston England Temple. Preston is also the site of the first preaching by LDS missionaries in 1837, and is home to the oldest continually existing Latter Day Saint congregation anywhere in the world. Restored 1994–2000, the Gadfield Elm Chapel in Worcestershire is the oldest extant chapel of the LDS Church.
Other non-Trinitarian denominationsEdit
Jehovah's Witnesses had 137,631 "publishers" (a term referring to members actively involved in preaching) in the United Kingdom in 2015. The Church of Christ, Scientist is also represented in the UK.
The General Assembly of Unitarian and Free Christian Churches is the umbrella organisation for Unitarian, Free Christian and other liberal religious congregations in the United Kingdom. The Unitarian Christian Association was formed in 1991.
There are an estimated 18,000 Christadelphians in the UK.
Estimates in 2009 suggested a total of about 2.4 million Muslims over all the United Kingdom. According to Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life, the number of Muslims in Britain could be up to 3 million. The vast majority of Muslims in the United Kingdom live in England and Wales: of 1,591,126 Muslims recorded at the 2001 Census, 1,546,626 were living in England and Wales, where they form 3 per cent of the population; 42,557 were living in Scotland, forming 0.8 per cent of the population; and 1,943 were living in Northern Ireland. Between 2001 and 2009 the Muslim population increased roughly 10 times faster than the rest of society.
Most Muslim immigrants to the United Kingdom came from former colonies. The biggest groups of Muslims are of Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Indian and Arab origins, with the remainder coming from Muslim-dominated areas such as Southwest Asia, Somalia, Malaysia, and Indonesia. During the 18th century, lascars (sailors) who worked for the British East India Company settled in port towns with local wives. These numbered only 24,037 in 1891 but 51,616 on the eve of World War I. Naval cooks, including Sake Dean Mahomet, also came from what is now the Sylhet Division of Bangladesh. From the 1950s onwards, the growing Muslim population has led to a number of notable Mosques being established, including East London Mosque, London Central Mosque, Manchester Central Mosque, London Markaz, and the Baitul Futuh of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community. According to Kevin Brice, a researcher at the University of Wales, Trinity Saint David, thousands convert to Islam annually and there are approximately 100,000 converts to Islam in Britain, where they run two mosques.
According to a Labour Force Survey estimate, the total number of Muslims in Great Britain in 2008 was 2,422,000, around 4 per cent of the total population. Between 2004 and 2008, the Muslim population grew by more than 500,000. In 2010, The Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life estimated 2,869,000 Muslims in Great Britain. The largest age-bracket within the British Muslim population were those under the age of 4, at 301,000 in September 2008. The Muslim Council of Britain and the Islamic Forum of Europe are the umbrellas organisations for many local, regional and specialist Islamic organisations in the United Kingdom, although it is disputed how representative this organisation is of British Muslims as a whole.
Muslims also happen to be the most disproportionately represented religious group facing arrest, trial and imprisonment, with 13.1% of prisoners being Muslims while the community represents 4% of those aged 15 years or older within the general population.
Hinduism in the United Kingdom resulted from the British rule in India. There are 835,394 Hindus in Great Britain according to the 2011 census constituting 1.32% of the population. About half of all British Hindus live in London metropolitan area. Small Hindu Communities are also found in Scotland (0.31%) and in Wales (0.34%).
According to United Kingdom's Office of National Statistics, of all ethnic minorities in Britain, the British Hindus had the highest rate of economic activity. Hindus are more likely than the general population to have higher education and Hindu men are more likely than the general population to be entrepreneurs . British Hindus also have the third highest poverty level and the lowest rates of arrest, trial or imprisonment. Hindus constitute less than 0.5% of the total Prison population in Britain.
There are 432,429 Sikhs in the United Kingdom constituting 0.7% of the population, according to the 2011 Census. While England is home to the majority of Sikhs in the United Kingdom, small communities also exist in Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales.
The first recorded Sikh settler in the United Kingdom was Maharaja Duleep Singh, dethroned and exiled in 1849 at the age of 14, after the Anglo-Sikh wars. During the reign of King Edward VII the first Sikh society in the UK was founded in 1908, it was called The Khalsa Jatha. The first Sikh Gurdwara (temple) was established in 1911, in Shepherds Bush, Putney, London. The first wave of Sikh migration came in the 1940s, mostly of men from the Punjab seeking work in industries such as foundries and textiles. These new arrivals mostly settled in London, Birmingham, Wolverhampton, the Midlands and West Yorkshire. Thousands of Sikhs from East Africa followed later.
The Jewish Naturalisation Act, enacted in 1753, permitted the naturalisation of foreign Jews, but was repealed the next year. The first graduate from the University of Glasgow who was openly known to be Jewish was in 1787. Unlike their English contemporaries, Scottish students were not required to take a religious oath. In 1841 Isaac Lyon Goldsmid was made baronet, the first Jew to receive a hereditary title. The first Jewish Lord Mayor of the City of London, Sir David Salomons, was elected in 1855, followed by the 1858 emancipation of the Jews. On 26 July 1858, Lionel de Rothschild was finally allowed to sit in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom when the law restricting the oath of office to Christians was changed. (Benjamin Disraeli, a baptised, teenage convert to Christianity of Jewish parentage, was already an MP at this time and rose to become Prime Minister in 1874.) In 1884 Nathan Mayer Rothschild, 1st Baron Rothschild became the first Jewish member of the British House of Lords; again Disraeli was already a member.
British Jews number around 300,000 with the United Kingdom having the fifth largest Jewish community worldwide. However, this figure did not include Jews who identified 'by ethnicity only' in England and Wales or Scottish Jews who identified as Jewish by upbringing but held no current religion. A report in August 2007 by University of Manchester historian Dr Yaakov Wise stated that 75 per cent of all births in the Jewish community were to ultra-orthodox, Haredi parents, and that the increase of ultra-orthodox Jewry has led to a significant rise in the proportion of British Jews who are ultra-orthodox.
In the UK census for 2011, there were about 178,000 people who registered their religion as Buddhism. The earliest Buddhist influence on Britain came through its imperial connections with Southeast Asia, and as a result the early connections were with the Theravada traditions of Burma, Thailand, and Sri Lanka. The tradition of study resulted in the foundation of the Pali Text Society, which undertook the task of translating the Pali Canon of Theravāda Buddhist Tradition into English. Buddhism as a path of practise was pioneered by the Theosophists, Madame Blavatsky and Colonel Olcott, and in 1880 they became the first Westerners to receive the Three refuges and Five precepts, the formal conversion ceremony by which one traditionally accepted and becomes a Buddhist.
In 1924 London's Buddhist Society was founded, and in 1926 the Theravadin London Buddhist Vihara. The rate of growth was slow but steady through the century, and the 1950s saw the development of interest in Zen Buddhism. In 1967 Kagyu Samyé Ling Monastery and Tibetan Centre, now the largest Tibetan Buddhist centre in Western Europe, was founded in Scotland. The first home-grown Buddhist movement was also founded in 1967, the Friends of the Western Buddhist Order (now the Triratna Buddhist Community). Thai Forest Tradition of Ajahn Chah was also established at Chithurst Buddhist Monastery in West Sussex in 1979, giving rise to branch monasteries, including Amaravati Buddhist Monastery and Aruna Ratanagiri.There are also other groups like Order of Interbeing and Soka Gakkai in the United Kingdom.
As of 2011, there are around 20,288 Jains in the United Kingdom.Leicester houses one of the world's few Jain temples outside of India. There is an Institute of Jainology at Greenford, London.
One of the first Jain settlers, Champat Rai Jain, was in England during 1892–1897 to study law. He established the Rishabh Jain Lending Library in 1930. Later, he translated several Jain texts into English.
In the 2001 Census, a total of 42,262 people from England, Scotland, and Wales declared themselves to be pagans or adherents of Wicca. However, other surveys have led to estimates of around 250,000 or even higher.
In the United Kingdom, census figures do not allow an accurate breakdown of traditions within the Pagan heading, as a campaign by the Pagan Federation before the 2001 Census encouraged Wiccans, Heathens, Druids and others all to use the same write-in term 'Pagan' in order to maximise the numbers reported. For the first time, respondents were able to write in an affiliation not covered by the checklist of common religions, and a total of 42,262 people from England, Scotland and Wales declared themselves to be Pagans by this method. These figures were not immediately analysed by the Office for National Statistics, but were released after an application by the Pagan Federation of Scotland.
During the Iron Age, Celtic polytheism was the predominant religion in the area now known as England. Neo-Druidism grew out of the Celtic revival in 18th century Romanticism. A 2012 Druid analysis estimates that there are roughly 11,000 Druids in Britain.
Germanic Heathenism in Britain is primarily present in two forms: Odinism, an international Germanic movement and Anglo-Saxon Heathenry, Esetroth or Fyrnsidu (Old English: "Ancient Custom"), a movement represented by independent kindreds characterised by a focus on local folklore as the source for the reconstruction of the ethnic religion of the English people. Both Odinism and Esetroth draw inspiration from the Anglo-Saxon identity and culture of England, with almost no difference between them, other than in terminology and organisation, with Esetroth movements having experienced a recent prominence and motivation.
The Odinic Rite (OR) was founded in 1973 under the influence of Else Christensen's Odinist Study Group (Odinist Fellowship). In 1988 the Odinic Rite became the first polytheistic religious organisation to be granted "Registered Charity" status in the United Kingdom.
Various independent Anglo-Saxon faith's kindreds exist such as the Wuffacynn of Suffolk and Northern Essex, the England-wide "English Esetroth" community organization, the Fealu Hlæw Þeod based in Hathersage and Peak District and the Þunorrad Þeod covering the Kingdom of Mercia. Folkish Anglo-Saxon kindreds have been primarily organising through "English Esetroth" since 2014 in a series of private gatherings. All the listed groups operate private moots, blots and sumbels.
The Baháʼí Faith in the United Kingdom has a historical connection with the earliest phases of the Baháʼí Faith starting in 1845 and has had a major effect on the development of communities of the religion in far flung nations around the world. It is estimated that between 1951 and 1993, Baháʼís from the United Kingdom settled in 138 countries.
Religion and societyEdit
Religion and politicsEdit
Though the main political parties are secular, the formation of the Labour Party was influenced by Christian socialism and by leaders from a nonconformist background, such as Keir Hardie. At the same time, Labour's development was also markedly influenced by non-religious philosophies such as humanism through Ethical movement, which gave rise to the Fabian Society and incubated prominent Labour people such as its first Prime Minister, Ramsay Macdonald. On the other hand, the Church of England was once nicknamed "the Conservative Party at prayer", though this has changed since the 1980s as the Church has moved to the left of the Conservative Party on social and economic issues.
Some minor parties are explicitly 'religious' in ideology: two 'Christian' parties – the Christian Party and the Christian Peoples Alliance, fielded joint candidates at the 2009 European Parliament elections and increased their share of the vote to come eighth, with 249,493 votes (1.6% of total votes cast), and in London, where the CPA had three councillors, the Christian parties picked up 51,336 votes (2.9% of the vote), up slightly from the 45,038 gained in 2004.
The Church of England is represented in the UK Parliament by 26 bishops (the Lords Spiritual) and the British monarch is a member of the church (required under Article 2 of the Treaty of Union) as well as its Supreme Governor. The Lords Spiritual have seats in the House of Lords and debate government policies affecting the whole of the United Kingdom. The Church of England also has the right to draft legislative measures (related to religious administration) through the General Synod that can then be passed into law by Parliament. The Prime Minister, regardless of personal beliefs, plays a key role in the appointment of Church of England bishops, although in July 2007 Gordon Brown proposed reforms of the Prime Minister's ability to affect Church of England appointments.
Religion and educationEdit
Religious education and Collective Worship are compulsory in many state schools in England and Wales by virtue of clauses 69 and 70 of the School Standards and Framework Act 1998. Clause 71 of the act gives parents the right to withdraw their children from Religious Education and Collective Worship and parents should be informed of their right in accordance with guidelines published by the Department for Education; "a school should ensure parents or carers are informed of this right". The content of the religious education is decided locally by the Standing Advisory Council on Religious Education.
In England and Wales, a significant number of state funded schools are faith schools with the vast majority Christian (mainly either of Church of England or Catholic) though there are also Jewish, Muslim and Sikh faith schools. Faith schools follow the same national curriculum as state schools, though with the added ethos of the host religion. Until 1944 there was no requirement for state schools to provide religious education or worship, although most did so. The Education Act 1944 introduced a requirement for a daily act of collective worship and for religious education but did not define what was allowable under these terms. The act contained provisions to allow parents to withdraw their children from these activities and for teachers to refuse to participate. The Education Reform Act 1988 introduced a further requirement that the majority of collective worship be "wholly or mainly of a broadly Christian character". According to a 2003 report from the Office for Standards in Education, a "third of governing bodies do not fulfil their statutory duties adequately, sometimes because of a failure to pursue thoroughly enough such matters as arranging a daily act of collective worship".
In Scotland, the majority of schools are non-denominational, but separate Catholic schools, with an element of control by the Catholic Church, are provided within the state system. The Education (Scotland) Act 1980 imposes a statutory duty on all local authorities to provide religious education and religious observance in Scottish schools. These are currently defined by the Scottish Government's Curriculum for Excellence (2005).
Religion and prisonEdit
Prisoners are given religious freedom and privileges while in prison. This includes access to a chaplain or religious advisor, authorised religious reading materials, ability to change faith, as well as other privileges. Several faith-based outreach programmes provide faith promoting guidance and counselling.
Every three months, the Ministry of Justice collects data, including religious affiliation, of all UK prisoners and is published as the Offender Management Caseload Statistics. This data is then compiled into reports and published in the House of Commons library.
On 31 March 2015 the prison population of England and Wales was recorded as 49% Christian, 14% Muslim, 2% Buddhist, 2% other religions and 31% no religion. In this statistics, Muslims happen to be the most disproportionately represented religious group facing arrest, trial and imprisonment, with 13.1% of prisoners being Muslims while the community represents 4% of those aged 15 years or older within the general population. The Prison Officers' Association has put that down to thousands of prisoners becoming so-called "convenience Muslims" – converting to the religion to deliberately play the system. [ ...] It added they were also being made even more vulnerable to radicalisation."
Religion and the mediaEdit
The Communications Act 2003 requires certain broadcasters in the United Kingdom to carry a "suitable quantity and range of programmes" dealing with religion and other beliefs, as part of their public service broadcasting. Prominent examples of religious programming include the BBC television programme Songs of Praise, aired on a Sunday evening with an average weekly audience of 2.5 million, and the Thought for the Day slot on BBC Radio 4. Channels also offer documentaries on, or from the perspective of a criticism of organised religion. A significant example is Richard Dawkins' two-part Channel 4 documentary, The Root of all Evil?. Open disbelief of, or even mockery of organised religion, is not regarded as a taboo in the British media, though it has occasionally provoked controversy – for example, the movie Monty Python's Life of Brian, the poem "The Love That Dares to Speak Its Name", and the musical Jerry Springer: The Opera, all of which involved characters based on Jesus, were subject to public outcry and blasphemy allegations, while The Satanic Verses, a novel by British Indian author Salman Rushdie which includes a fantasy sequence about Muhammed, caused global protests including several by British Muslims.
- Saint George is the patron saint of England.
- Saint Andrew is the patron saint of Scotland.
- Saint David is the patron saint of Wales.
- Saint Patrick is the patron saint of Ireland.
Interfaith dialogue, tolerance, religious discrimination and secularismEdit
The Interfaith Network for the United Kingdom encompasses the main faith organisations of the United Kingdom, either directly with denominational important representatives or through joint bodies for these denominations, promotes local interfaith cooperation, promotes understanding between faiths and convenes meetings and conferences where social and religious questions of concern to the different faith communities can be examined together, including meetings of the Network's 'Faith Communities Consultative Forum'.
Ecumenical friendship and cooperation has gradually developed between Christian denominations and where inter-sect prejudice exists this has via education and employment policy been made a pressing public matter in dealing with its two prominent examples – sectarianism in Glasgow and Northern Ireland – where segregation is declining.
Tolerance and Religious DiscriminationEdit
In the early 21st century, the Racial and Religious Hatred Act 2006 made it an offence in England and Wales to incite hatred against a person on the grounds of their religion. The common law offences of blasphemy and blasphemous libel were abolished with the coming into effect of the Criminal Justice and Immigration Act 2008 on 8 July 2008.
2005–2010 polls have shown that public opinion in the United Kingdom generally tends towards a suspicion or outright disapproval of radical or evangelical religiosity, though moderate groups and individuals are rarely subject to less favourable treatment from society or employers.
The Equality Act 2010 prohibits discrimination against people on the basis of religion, in the supply of goods and services and selection for employment, subject to very limited exceptions (such as the right of schools and religious institutions to appoint paid ministers).
There is no strict separation of church and state in the United Kingdom. Accordingly, most public officials may display the most common identifiers of a major religion in the course of their duties – for example, rosary beads. Chaplains are provided in the armed forces (see Royal Army Chaplains' Department, RAF Chaplains Branch) and in prisons.
Although school uniform codes are generally drawn up flexibly enough to accommodate compulsory items of religious dress, some schools have banned wearing the crucifix in a necklace, arguing that to do so is not a requirement of Christianity where they prohibit all other necklaces. Post-adolescence, the wearing of a necklace is permitted in some F.E. colleges who permit religious insignia necklaces on a wider basis, which are without exception permitted at universities.
In 2011, judges ruled that the European Convention on Human Rights required bed-and-breakfast owners to rent rooms to same-sex couples.
In 2011, Clive Bone sued Bideford Town Council for opening meetings with prayer. The High Court ruled in Bone's favor but, soon afterward, the government passed new laws permitting prayer at town meetings.
In 2011, two judges of the Court of Appeal of England and Wales upheld previous statements in the country's jurisprudence that the (non-canon) laws of the United Kingdom 'do not include Christianity'. Therefore, a local authority was acting lawfully in denying a Christian married couple the right to foster care because of stated negative views on homosexuality. In terms of the rights recognised "in the case of fostering arrangements at least, the right of homosexuals to equality should take precedence over the right of Christians to manifest their beliefs and moral values".
National and regional differencesEdit
Levels of affiliation vary between different part of the UK, particularly between Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The percentages declaring themselves Christians in the 2011 Census are 59.4 in England, 57.6 in Wales and 53.8 in Scotland, which decreased by 12.3, 14.3, and 11.3 percentage points respectively from the census of 2001. This is argued to make them the fastest secularising nations in history. Northern Ireland remains one of the most religious nations in western Europe with 82.3% of the population claiming Christian affiliation, with a decline of only 3.5% by the 2011 census, while "other religions" have increased in membership. Religion has been seen as both a product and a cause of political divisions in Northern Ireland.
Main religious leadersEdit
- The Queen is the Supreme Governor of the Church of England, with the Archbishops of Canterbury and York below her.
- The Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland presides over the annual Assembly, but does not lead, the Church of Scotland.
- The Primus of Scotland is the presiding bishop of the Scottish Episcopal Church.
- The Great Imam is Sheikh Mawlana Abdul Qayum, one of the most famous scholars of Europe, who serves the largest Muslim congregation in the Great Britain.
- The Archbishop of Westminster is the leader of the Catholic bishops of England and Wales.
- The de facto head of the Catholic Church in Scotland is the most senior archbishop, currently Leo Cushley, Archbishop of St Andrews and Edinburgh (see Bishops' Conference of Scotland).
- The Primate of All Ireland exercises his ecclesiastical jurisdiction in Northern Ireland as well as the Republic of Ireland.
- The Archbishop of Wales is one of the six diocesan bishops of the Church in Wales, chosen by his colleagues to hold the higher designation in addition to his own diocese.
- The Chief Rabbi is the title of the leader of Orthodox Judaism in the Commonwealth.
- The Moderator of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland presides over, but does not lead, the Church.
- The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is led by the Europe Area Presidency. The current area president is Elder Erich W. Kopischke with Elder Gérald J. Caussé and Elder José A. Teixeira as first and second counsellors respectively.
- The Caliph Masih of the Ahmadiyya Community is Mirza Masroor Ahmad, and Fazl Mosque is his headquarters.
Notable places of worshipEdit
- Westminster Cathedral – Catholic
- St Mary's Cathedral, Edinburgh – Catholic
- Canterbury Cathedral – Church of England and Mother Church of England
- York Minster – Church of England
- Durham Cathedral – Church of England
- Salisbury Cathedral – Church of England
- Dormition Cathedral, London – Russian Orthodox
- Holy Trinity Cathedral, Down – Church of Ireland
- Kingsway International Christian Centre – Charismatic
- London England Temple – Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
- Metropolitan Tabernacle – Baptist
- St Anne's Cathedral, Belfast – Church of Ireland
- St David's Cathedral – Church in Wales
- St Giles' Cathedral, Edinburgh – Church of Scotland
- St Lazar's Church, Bournville – Serbian Orthodox
- St Mary's Cathedral, Edinburgh – Scottish Episcopal
- St Paul's Cathedral – Church of England
- St Sarkis, Kensington – Armenian Apostolic
- St Sophia's Cathedral, London – Greek Orthodox
- Westminster Abbey – Church of England
- Westminster Central Hall – Methodist
- Shri Venkateswara (Balaji) Temple
- BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir London(Neasden Temple)
- Bradford Lakshmi Narayan Hindu Temple
- Exclusion Crisis (1679–1681)
- Religion by country
- Religion in England
- Religion in Scotland
- Religion in Wales
- Religion in Northern Ireland
- Religion in Jersey
- Religion in London
- Religion in Birmingham
- Religion in the Republic of Ireland
- Sectarianism in Glasgow
- Segregation in Northern Ireland
- Commission on Religion and Belief in British Public Life
- Irreligion in the United Kingdom
- People who strictly identified as "Pagan". Other Pagan paths, such as Wicca or Druidism, have not been included in this number.
- People who strictly identified as "Pagan". Other Pagan paths, such as Wicca or Druidism, have not been included in this number.
- People who strictly identified as "Wiccan". Other Pagan paths, such as Druidism, and general "Pagan" have not been included in this number.
- "2011 Census: KS209EW Religion, local authorities in England and Wales". ons.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
- "Scotland's Census 2011: Table KS209SCa" (PDF). scotlandcensus.gov.uk. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 November 2013. Retrieved 26 September 2013.
- "Census 2011: Religion - Full Detail: QS218NI - Northern Ireland". nisra.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 10 November 2013. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
- "CIA – The World Factbook – United Kingdom". Cia.gov. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
- "Secularism". Humanists UK. Retrieved 29 September 2020.
- "- English Heritage". english-heritage.org.uk. Archived from the original on 8 August 2012. Retrieved 8 December 2012.
- "BBC – Religions – Paganism: Britain's spiritual history". bbc.co.uk. Archived from the original on 29 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
- Cannon, John, ed. (2nd edn., 2009). A Dictionary of British History Archived 19 April 2017 at the Wayback Machine. Oxford University Press. p. 144. ISBN 0-19-955037-9.
- The History of the Church of England Archived 5 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine. The Church of England. Retrieved 23 November 2008.
- "Queen and Church of England". British Monarchy Media Centre. Archived from the original on 8 October 2006. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
- "Queen and the Church". The British Monarchy (Official Website). Archived from the original on 5 June 2011.
- "How we are organised". Church of Scotland. Archived from the original on 10 June 2011.
- John Jolliffe, ed., English Catholic Heroes, London: Gracewing Publishing, 2008 ISBN 0-85244-604-7
- G. Parsons, Religion in Victorian Britain: Traditions (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1988), ISBN 0-7190-2511-7, p. 156.
- G. Parsons, Religion in Victorian Britain: Traditions (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1988), ISBN 0-7190-2511-7, p. 71.
- Weller, Paul (2005). Time for a Change: Reconfiguring Religion, State, and Society Archived 19 April 2017 at the Wayback Machine. London: Continuum. pp. 79–80. ISBN 0-567-08487-6.
- The Jews, A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 1: Physique, Archaeology, Domesday, Ecclesiastical Organization, The Jews, Religious Houses, Education of Working Classes to 1870, Private Education from Sixteenth Century (1969), pp. 149–51 Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine Date accessed: 16 January 2007
- Yilmaz, Ihsan (2005). Muslim Laws, Politics and Society in Modern Nation States: Dynamic Legal Pluralisms in England, Turkey, and Pakistan Archived 19 April 2017 at the Wayback Machine. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing. pp. 55–6. ISBN 0-7546-4389-1.
- in the 2011 UK census, 178,453 people in England and Wales identified as Buddhist, of whom 59,040 identified as ethnically white, 34,354 Chinese, and 13,919 Asian.
- Fergusson, David (2004). Church, State and Civil Society Archived 19 April 2017 at the Wayback Machine. Cambridge University Press. p. 94. ISBN 0-521-52959-X.
- Brown, Callum G. (2006). Religion and Society in Twentieth-Century Britain Archived 19 April 2017 at the Wayback Machine. Harlow: Pearson Education. p. 291. ISBN 0-582-47289-X.
- Norris, Pippa; Inglehart, Ronald (2004). Sacred and Secular: Religion and Politics Worldwide. Cambridge University Press. p. 84. ISBN 0-521-83984-X.
- Martin Wellings, "Renewal, Reunion, and Revival: Three British Methodist Approaches to "Serving the Present Age" in the 1950s". Methodist History (2014) 53#1 pp. 21-39 quote pp 22-23 online Archived 3 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine
- Steve Bruce, Religion and modernization: Sociologists and historians debate the secularisation thesis (1992).
- Robert Currie, Methodism Divided: A Study in the Sociology of Ecumenicalism (1968).
- Guidance and Methodology Archived 9 January 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Religion, retrieved 31 January 2014.
- "Understanding the 21st Century Catholic Community" (PDF). CAFOD, Ipsos MORI. November 2009. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 September 2016. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
- "BSA Table 1983–2010". BSA. 2010. Archived from the original on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
- "Religious Affiliation" (PDF). 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 September 2017 – via British Social Attitudes.
- Eurobarometer 90.4: Attitudes of Europeans towards Biodiversity, Awareness and Perceptions of EU customs, and Perceptions of Antisemitism. European Commission. Retrieved 2 August 2019 – via GESIS.
- "Discrimination in the European Union". Special Eurobarometer. 493. European Commission. 2019. Retrieved 27 July 2020.
- "2001 Census England and Wales Religion Data". ONS. 2001. Archived from the original on 14 July 2017. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
- "2001 Census Scotland Religion Data" (PDF). Office of the Chief Statistician. 2005. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 April 2012. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
- "2001 Census England" (PDF). ONS. 2001. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 February 2012. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
- "2001 Census Scotland" (PDF). ONS. 2001. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 February 2012. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
- "ICM poll conducted December 2006" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 7 May 2012. (102 KB) Retrieved on 7 May 2012
- "NSS response to 2001 census". NSS. 2005. Archived from the original on 1 August 2013. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
- "70% of young Brits are 'not religious'". BBC News. 21 March 2018. Retrieved 11 October 2020.
- "Census 2011: Religion: KS211NI (administrative geographies)". nisra.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 25 February 2013. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
- "Religion (2001 Census)". data.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 14 July 2017. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
- "Summary: Religious Group Demographics". scotland.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 22 January 2013. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
- "Census 2001: Religion (administrative geographies)". nisra.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 25 February 2013. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
- "Table KS07c: Religion (full list with 10 or more persons)". nisra.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 25 February 2013. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
- "UK Census". ONS. 2012. Archived from the original on 4 May 2012. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
- "Labour Force Survey". ONS. 2012. Archived from the original on 27 April 2012. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
- "British Social Attitudes". NatCen. 2012. Archived from the original on 27 April 2012. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
- "European Social Survey". Norwegian Social Science Data Services. 2012. Archived from the original on 16 January 2014. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
- Tom Geoghegan, "Census: How religious is the UK?" Archived 5 February 2018 at the Wayback Machine, BBC News Magazine, 21 February 2011, retrieved 31 January 2011.
- Religion in England and Wales 2011 Archived 22 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Office for National Statistics, retrieved 31 July 2014.
- "Government Report on Religion". UK Government. 2012. Archived from the original on 3 March 2012. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
- "ESS Data Downloads". ESS. 2010. Archived from the original on 11 May 2012. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
- Midgley, Mary (1984). Wickedness: A Philosophical Essay (Kindle, 2003 ed.). Taylor & Francis e-Library.
- Bullivant, Stephen (2018). "Europe's Young Adults and Religion: Findings from the European Social Survey (2014-16) to inform the 2018 Synod of Bishops" (PDF). St Mary's University's Benedict XVI Centre for Religion and Society; Institut Catholique de Paris. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 March 2018.
- "European Social Survey, Online Analysis". nesstar.ess.nsd.uib.no. Archived from the original on 15 May 2018. Retrieved 14 May 2018.
- "British Social Attitudes: Religion - Identity, behaviour and belief over two decades" (PDF). The National Centre for Social Research. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
- "2001 Census Wales" (PDF). ONS. 2001. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 December 2011. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
- "ANALYSIS OF RELIGION IN THE 2001 CENSUS". Scottish Government. 2005. Archived from the original on 26 May 2012. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
- "YouGov poll conducted February 2012" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2012. (361 KB) Retrieved on 12 March 2012.
- "Ipsos MORI 2003". Ipsos MORI. 2003. Archived from the original on 9 December 2011. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
- Miller, Duane; Johnstone, Patrick (2015). "Believers in Christ from a Muslim Background: A Global Census". IJRR. 11 (10). Archived from the original on 26 November 2015. Retrieved 14 February 2016.
- "APS user guide". Office for National Statistics. Archived from the original on 9 September 2009. Retrieved 16 September 2009.
- "Tables produced using the Annual Population Survey and the Labour Force Survey: ethnicity and religion broken down by country - Office for National Statistics". www.ons.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 26 October 2018. Retrieved 26 October 2018.
- "Measuring Religious Affiliation in Great Britain: The 2011 Census in Historical and Methodological Context" (PDF). BRIN - British Religion in Numbers. June 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 April 2015. Retrieved 26 October 2018.
- "WhyChurch Attendance Trends". WhyChurch. 2012. Archived from the original on 29 April 2012. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
- "Tearfund Survey 2007" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 June 2007. Retrieved 5 May 2007.
- "'One in 10' attends church weekly". BBC News. 3 April 2007. Archived from the original on 6 July 2007. Retrieved 1 August 2007.
- "Attendance at Anglican services on Christmas eve/Christmas day". University of Manchester – Cathie Marsh centre for census and survey research. 2002. Archived from the original on 27 December 2004.
- "O come, all ye faithful: Church is a big draw at Christmas". Archived from the original on 19 February 2008. Retrieved 13 January 2008.
- Jonathan Wynne-Jones (23 December 2007). "Britain has become a 'Catholic country'". The Sunday Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 27 December 2007. Retrieved 23 December 2007.
- "findaproperty report on fate of churches". findaproperty.com. 2002. Archived from the original on 25 June 2007. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
- Harriet Sherwood (13 January 2016). "Church of England weekly attendance falls below 1m for first time". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 12 January 2016. Retrieved 13 January 2016.
- New Study finds mosque goers todouble church attendance by 2040 Archived 17 December 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Christian Today retrieved 4 March 2013
- Muslim Britain, More people attend mosques than Church of England Archived 27 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Islamic Population article retrieved 4 March 2013
- "ESS 2010 Data". Archived from the original on 11 May 2012. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
- "YouGov/Cambridge 2011" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 September 2013. Retrieved 7 May 2012. (657 KB) Retrieved on 7 May 2012
- "Special Eurobarometer, biotechnology, page 204" (PDF). Fieldwork: Jan-Feb 2010. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 December 2010. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
- 40% of adults pray, says survey Archived 26 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine BBC News, 11 November 2007
- "390,000 Jedis There Are But did hoax campaign boost response in teens and 20s?", Office for National Statistics, 13 February 2003. Retrieved 15 February 2011.
- "Jedi e-mail revealed as hoax". BBC News. 11 April 2001. Archived from the original on 21 June 2016. Retrieved 3 August 2016.
- "Census 2001 Summary theme figures and rankings - 390,000 Jedi There Are". ons.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 21 February 2016. Retrieved 18 October 2016.
- Acts of Union 1707 Archived 27 May 2012 at WebCite parliament.uk. Retrieved 31 December 2010
- Uniting the kingdom? Archived 8 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine nationalarchives.gov.uk. Retrieved 31 December 2010
- Making the Act of Union 1707 Archived 11 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine scottish.parliament.uk. Retrieved 31 December 2010
- "Religion in Scotland". Scotland.com. Archived from the original on 4 January 2011. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
- "Organisation". Church of Scotland. Archived from the original on 17 April 2009. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
- "EPCEW Congregations". Evangelical Presbyterian Church in England and Wales Website. Evangelical Presbyterian Church in England and Wales. Archived from the original on 4 December 2000. Retrieved 25 June 2016.
- "Churches". Non-subscribing Presbyterian Church of Ireland. Archived from the original on 23 July 2008. Retrieved 5 September 2008.
- "History". Non-subscribing Presbyterian Church of Ireland. Archived from the original on 23 July 2008. Retrieved 5 September 2008.
- "2019 Statistics". The United Reformed Church. Archived from the original on 1 April 2019. Retrieved 1 April 2019.
- Piggot, A. (June 2017). Statistics for Mission Archived 25 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine. The Methodist Conference. Accessed 20 October 2018.
- "World Council of Churches – Methodist Church of Great Britain". 2006. Archived from the original on 28 September 2012. Retrieved 23 September 2012.
- "An Anglican-Methodist Covenant". Joint Implementation Commission of the Church of England and the Methodist Church of Great Britain. Archived from the original on 29 June 2007.
- "BBC – Religions – Christianity: Salvation Army". BBC. Archived from the original on 12 August 2010. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
- The Baptist Family Archived 22 January 2011 at the Wayback Machine baptist.org.uk. Retrieved 4 May 2009.
- W. H. Brackney, Historical Dictionary of the Baptists (Scarecrow Press, 2009), ISBN 0810862824, pp. 306 and 508.
- "BBC – Religions – Christianity: Pentecostalism". BBC. Archived from the original on 29 April 2013. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
- William W. Kay, Apostolic Networks in Great Britain, Milton Keynes: Paternoster, 2007.
- "Tabular Statement as at 31 xii 2010" (PDF). Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) in Britain. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 January 2016. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
- Pettegree, Andrew. "The English Reformation". bbc.co.uk. Archived from the original on 1 September 2014. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
- "A Brief Introduction to the Scottish Episcopal Church". .scotland.anglican.org. Archived from the original on 24 September 2010. Retrieved 7 June 2010.
- Weller, Paul, Time for a Change: Reconfiguring Religion, State, and Society Archived 19 April 2017 at the Wayback Machine (London: Continuum, 2005), ISBN 0-567-08487-6, pp. 79–80.
- "British Social Attitudes: Church of England decline has accelerated in past decade". natcen.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 11 July 2015. Retrieved 13 July 2015.
- "Church of England 'one generation away from extinction' after dramatic loss of followers". The Independent. 1 June 2015. Archived from the original on 25 October 2017. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
- The Church in England and Wales Archived 17 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine The Catholic Church of England and Wales. Retrieved 27 November 2008.
- Analysis of Religion in the 2001 Census: Summary Report Archived 4 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine Scottish Executive – Retrieved 6 December 2008
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 31 August 2019. Retrieved 21 July 2019.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Welcome". Russian Orthodox Diocese of Sourozh. Archived from the original on 23 June 2008. Retrieved 5 September 2008.
- "Diocese of Great Britain and Ireland". The Diocese of Great Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original on 10 January 2010. Retrieved 8 January 2010.
- "Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of the British Isles and Ireland". Archived from the original on 29 May 2018. Retrieved 9 March 2018.
- "BBC – Religions – Christianity: Exclusive Brethren". BBC. Archived from the original on 12 August 2010. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
- "Newfrontiers: History". newfrontierstogether.org. Archived from the original on 24 June 2011. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
- "Country Profile: United Kingdom (England, Scotland, Northern Ireland, and Wales)". LDS Newsroom. LDS Church. Archived from the original on 13 July 2019. Retrieved 16 July 2019.
- "History of the church in the UK". lds.org.uk. LDS Church. Archived from the original on 6 March 2012. Retrieved 17 June 2011.
- "Do you know where the oldest Mormon chapel in the world is?". BBC News. 30 March 2005. Archived from the original on 6 January 2015. Retrieved 17 June 2011.
- "2016 Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses" (PDF). Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 4 February 2016.
- "BBC – History of Islam in the UK – population figures". bbc.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2 February 2009. Retrieved 8 February 2009.
- "Muslims rise while Christians fall in Britain". Thaindian News. Archived from the original on 5 May 2009. Retrieved 8 February 2009.
- "Islamophobia 'acceptable' in UK". aljazeera.net. Archived from the original on 22 January 2011. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
- ANALYSIS OF RELIGION IN THE 2001 CENSUS: Summary Report Archived 4 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine, Scottish Executive
- "NISRA - Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (c) 2015". Archived from the original on 22 November 2009.
- Muslim population 'rising 10 times faster than rest of society' Archived 25 May 2010 at the Wayback Machine 30 January 2009, Richard Kerbaj, The Sunday Times
- "Muslims in Britain" (PDF). mywf.org.uk. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 October 2011. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
- "Born Abroad – Countries of birth". BBC Online. 7 September 2005. Retrieved 16 February 2008.
- Fisher, Michael Herbert (2006). Counterflows to Colonialism. Orient Blackswan. pp. 111–9, 129–30, 140, 154–6, 160–8, 181. ISBN 81-7824-154-4.
- Ansari, Humayun (2004). The Infidel Within: The History of Muslims in Britain, 1800 to the Present. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. p. 37. ISBN 1-85065-685-1.
- "Curry house founder is honoured". BBC News. 29 September 2005. Archived from the original on 1 August 2017. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
- https://www.economist.com/news/britain/21578099-british-strand-islam-emerging-more-people-become-converts-changing-my-religion Archived 16 June 2017 at the Wayback Machine Muslim converts: Changing my religion
- Kerbaj, Richard (30 January 2009). "Muslim population 'rising 10 times faster than rest of society'". The Times. London. Archived from the original on 25 May 2010. Retrieved 29 December 2009.
- "David Cameron must face the challenge of Islamisation". Telegraph.co.uk. 28 December 2010. Archived from the original on 6 December 2018. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- Gavin Berman & Aliyah Dar (July 2013), Prison Population Statistics 1991–2012, Social and General Statistics, Ministry of Justice, ONS, UK Government
- UK Government. "Religion in England and Wales 2011". Office of National Statistics (11 December 2012). Retrieved 7 September 2014.
- Minority religions mainly in London. National Statistics. Accessed 3 May 2015.
- ONS (2 July 2010). "Release Edition Reference Tables". webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk. Retrieved 11 October 2020.
- Full story: What does the Census tell us about religion in 2011? Office of National Statistics, UK Government (May 2013)
- Robert Berkeley, Connecting British Hindus - An enquiry into the identity and public policy engagement of British Hindus Runnymede Trust, Hindu Forum of Britain (2006)
- Anthony Heath and Yaojun Li (2015), Review of the relationship between religion and poverty, Nuffield College, Oxford and University of Manchester
- Gavin Berman & Aliyah Dar (July 2013), Prison Population Statistics 1991-2012, Social and General Statistics, Ministry of Justice, ONS, UK Government
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 16 April 2019. Retrieved 5 February 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- London's Jewish Museum reopens after major facelift Archived 14 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine, USA Today'.' Retrieved 20 August 2010.
- "Majority of Jews will be Ultra-Orthodox by 2050". University of Manchester. 23 July 2007. Archived from the original on 9 January 2016. Retrieved 13 January 2016.
- The Jain Centre, Leicester Archived 21 September 2010 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 29 October 2008.
- Kurt Titze, Klaus Bruhn, Jainism: a pictorial guide to the religion of non-violence, p. 264
- "on www.jainsamaj.org ( Jainism, Ahimsa News, Religion, Non-Violence, Culture, Vegetarianism, Meditation, India. )". Jainsamaj.org. Archived from the original on 18 September 2013. Retrieved 14 September 2013.
- Evans, Dr. David (2007). The History of British Magic After Crowley. Oxford: Hidden Publishing. pp. 70–81. ISBN 978-0-9555237-0-0.
- Jenny Percival. Pagan prisoners allowed twig wands in cells Archived 28 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine. Scotland on Sunday. 11 May 2008. Retrieved 14 February 2009. Citation: "There are estimated to be one million Pagans in Britain – around 300 of whom are in prison. There are about 30,000 in Scotland".
- 2011 ONS results
- "Pagans and the Scottish Census of 2001". ScottisPF.org. Archived from the original on 13 January 2010. Retrieved 7 April 2012.
- UK 2011 Census publishes figures for Druids Archived 13 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine, druidry.org, retrieved 12 January 2012.
- "U.K. Baháʼí Heritage Site – The Baháʼí Faith in the United Kingdom – A Brief History". Archived from the original on 26 February 2008.
- Eric J Evans
- CPA Party People Archived 2 September 2010 at the Wayback Machine cpaparty.org.uk. Retrieved 12 July 2009.
- Christians aim to build on vote BBC News, 8 June 2009.
- "The Monarchy Today > Queen and State > Queen and Church > Queen and Church of England". Cached at the Internet Archive. Archived from the original on 7 March 2008. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
- "General Synod". Church of England. Archived from the original on 12 November 2004. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
- Report Archived 28 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine, from the Church Times
- "School Standards and Framework Act 1998". legislation.gov.uk. 1998. Archived from the original on 22 July 2012. Retrieved 15 June 2012.
- "Dept. Education" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 May 2012. Retrieved 15 June 2012. (885 KB) Retrieved on 15 June 2012
- Education Reform Act 1988 – Chapter I -The Curriculum – pt 6 Archived 5 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved on 15 October 2007
- "Standards and Quality 2002/03 The Annual Report of Her Majesty's Chief Inspector of Schools" (PDF). UK Government – Office for Standards in Education. 2003. Archived from the original (.pdf) on 3 March 2012. Retrieved 17 January 2012.
Governing bodies are effective in fulfilling their responsibilities in two-thirds of schools. This is reflected in their contribution to shaping the direction of the school and their understanding of its strengths and weaknesses. A third of governing bodies do not fulfil their statutory duties adequately, sometimes because of a failure to pursue thoroughly enough such matters as arranging a daily act of collective worship.
- "Religious Education and Observance" Archived 9 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine, The Scottish Government. Retrieved 19 June 2012.
- british-prisons.co.uk Religious books permitted during cellular confinement Archived 2 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- Ministry of Justice Faith and Pastoral Care for Prisoners Archived 16 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- "Prison Outreach – Love Life UK". lovelifeuk.org. Archived from the original on 17 October 2012. Retrieved 8 September 2012.
- Director Rev. Emmanuel Sola King. "Prison Outreach Network". prisonministry.net. Archived from the original on 16 June 2012. Retrieved 8 September 2012.
- "About Us". Kenneth Copeland Ministries. Archived from the original on 1 November 2012. Retrieved 8 September 2012.
- "Offender management caseload statistics". Ministry of Justice. 30 April 2015. Archived from the original on 30 November 2015. Retrieved 13 January 2016.
- "UK National Statistics - Offender management statistics quarterly: October to December 2014 and annual: Prison population: 31 March 2015, XLSX spreadsheet". Archived from the original on 10 March 2016. Retrieved 13 January 2016.
- Simpson, John; Gibbons, Katie; Ford, Richard (1 April 2014). "'Convenience Muslims' raise risk of jail unrest". The Times. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
- "Communications Act 2003". Acts of the United Kingdom Parliament. 2003 (21). 17 July 2003. pp. 264(6). Archived from the original on 7 December 2009. Retrieved 1 August 2010.
- BBC Songs of Praise Archived 11 February 2006 at the Wayback Machine accessed 1 January 2008
- Bhaskar, Sanjeev (29 November 2009). "What did 'Life of Brian' ever do for us?". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 19 May 2015. Retrieved 17 May 2015.
- Staff Writer (10 January 2008). "The gay poem that broke blasphemy laws". pinknews.co.uk. Pink News. Archived from the original on 3 June 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
- Protests as Jerry Springer opens Archived 7 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine BBC News, February 2006
- Malik, Kenan. From Fatwa to Jihad: The Rushdie Affair and Its Aftermath. Melville House (2010): p. 4
- "George, Andrew, David and Patrick – the Four Patron Saints of the British Isles". Archived from the original on 9 October 2016. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
- Interfaith Network for the UK List of Members. Retrieved 2013-07-28
- "Mixed picture emerges on British attitudes to religion in public life". Ekklesia. Archived from the original on 4 April 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2010.
- Teen Banned From Wearing Crucifix Archived 25 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine Sky News, 6 December 2005
- "Churches fear Equality Bill will conflict with faith". BBC News Online. 24 January 2010.
- "Best columns: Europe. ("Kicking God out of public services," Cristina Odone, The Telegraph)". The Week. 16 December 2011.
- "Council prayers: £1,000 prize for councillor who sued". The Christian Institute. 28 March 2012. Archived from the original on 2 July 2017. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
- Ross, Tim (28 February 2011). "Foster parent ban: 'no place' in the law for Christianity, High Court rules". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 3 March 2011. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- "NISRA". NISRA. NISRA. Archived from the original on 23 April 2018. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
- "Scotland's Census". Scotland's census. Scottish government. Archived from the original on 24 December 2015. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
- "Office of National Statistics". ons. Archived from the original on 10 January 2013. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
- "Office of National Statistics". The Welsh Government. Welsh government. Archived from the original on 15 January 2016. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
- David, Robertson. "The Trajectory of God". St. Peter's Dundee. Saint Peter's Free Church of Scotland. Archived from the original on 8 July 2013. Retrieved 26 December 2015.
- Mitchell, Claire (2005). Religion, Identity and Politics in Northern Ireland: Boundaries of Belonging and Belief. pp. 69–117. ISBN 0754641546. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
- Organisation of the Church of England Archived 11 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine, Church of England website.
- "Shaykh Abdul Qayyum". AL-QALAM. Archived from the original on 16 December 2017.
- "Religious Figure 2014". British Bangladeshi Power Inspiration. Archived from the original on 14 March 2016.
- Bebbington, David W. Evangelicalism in Modern Britain: A History from the 1730s to the 1980s (Routledge, 2003)
- Buchanan, Colin. Historical Dictionary of Anglicanism (2nd ed. 2015) excerpt
- Chadwick, Owen, The Victorian Church: Vol 1 1829-1859 (1966); Victorian Church: Part two 1860-1901 (1979); a major scholarly survey
- Davie, Grace. Religion in Britain since 1945: Believing without belonging (Blackwell, 1994)
- Davie, Grace. Religion in Britain: A Persistent Paradox (2014).
- Davies, Rupert E. et al. A History of the Methodist Church in Great Britain (3 vol. Wipf & Stock, 2017). online
- Gilbert, Alan D. Religion and society in industrial England: church, chapel, and social change, 1740–1914 (1976).
- Gilley, Sheridan, and W. J. Sheils. A History of Religion in Britain: Practice and Belief from Pre-Roman Times to the Present (1994) 608pp excerpt and text search
- Hastings, Adrian. A History of English Christianity: 1920-1985 (1986) 720pp; a major scholarly survey
- McLeod, Hugh. Religion and society in England, 1850–1914 (Macmillan, 1996).
- Obelkevich, J. Religion and Rural Society (Oxford University Press, 1976)
- Percy, Martyn. "Sketching a shifting landscape: Reflections on emerging patterns of religion and spirituality among Millennials." Journal for the Study of Spirituality 9.2 (2019): 163–172, focus on UK.
- Shaw, Duncan, edt al. "What is Religious History?" History Today (1985) 35#8 online, commentary by 8 scholars
- Horace Mann (1854). Census of Great Britain, 1851: Religious Worship in England and Wales. Ge. Routledge.
- Eurel: sociological and legal data on religions in Europe
- BBC What the World Thinks of God television programme
- Kettell, Steven (2009). "On the Public Discourse of Religion: An Analysis of Christianity in the United Kingdom" (PDF). Politics and Religion. 2 (3): 420–443. doi:10.1017/s1755048309990204.
- Church of England
- Church of Scotland
- Presbyterian Church in Ireland
- Church of Ireland (Anglican)
- Church in Wales (Anglican)
- Catholic Church in England and Wales
- Catholic Bishops' Conference of Scotland
- Catholic Church in Ireland
- Assemblies of God of Great Britain
- Evangelical Presbyterian Church in England and Wales
- Free Church of Scotland
- Free Church of Scotland (Continuing)
- Ecumenical Patriarchate
- Russian Orthodox Church in Great Britain and Ireland – Diocese of Sourozh, Patriarchate of Moscow
- Antiochian Orthodox Church in the United Kingdom and Ireland
- Romanian Orthodox Church, London
- Office of the Chief Rabbi of the United Hebrew Congregations of Great Britain and the Commonwealth (Orthodox)
- Masorti Judaism
- Movement for Reform Judaism
- Liberal Judaism
- the listing of parishes on this website is disputed: Patriarchal Exarchate for Orthodox Parishes of Russian Tradition in Western Europe#Parishes and Communities of the Vicariate